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The Relationship of EU Law and Bilateral Investment Treaties of EU Member States

Pekka Niemelä

This dissertation analyses the relationship of EU Law and International Investment Law from a number of different perspectives. These perspectives relate to two distinct debates that concern the future of investment treaties in Europe. The first debate relates to the formal relationship of EU law and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) of EU member states. The Commission has argued that...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 25.10.2017

Bioinformatic solutions for chromosomal copy number analysis in cancer

Ilari Scheinin

Chromosomal copy number aberrations are one of the main mechanisms that give rise to the proliferative capabilities of cancer cells. These aberrations can be quantified with technologies that generate measurements genome-wide and with high resolution. Hence, they produce vast amounts of data, which requires tailored bioinformatic solutions for analysis and management. Two such high-resol...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 27.10.2017

TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITION IN EXPERIMENTAL KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

Jukka Rintala

Chronic allograft injury is a multifactorial process mediated by both immunological and non-immunological factors, leading to organ dysfunction and humoral and cellular rejection. Currently, no specific treatment is available for chronic allograft injury. Pathological growth factor expression is observed before the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and several growth factors...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 27.10.2017

Imitation of biologically relevant oxidation reactions by titanium dioxide photocatalysis: Advances in understanding the mimicking of drug metabolism and the oxidation of phosphopeptides

Miina Ruokolainen

Redox reactions play an important role in human physiology and pathophysiology. For example, oxidative stress and free radical-mediated oxidation of proteins and lipids are implicated in several diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Oxidation reactions belong also to the most important phase I metabolism pathways of drugs, which can give rise to pharmacologically active o...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 27.10.2017

Categorical representations of phonemic vowels investigated with fMRI

Kirsi Harinen

The present thesis investigates the sensitivity of the human auditory cortex (AC) to the contrast between prototype and nonprototype vowels as well as between phonemic and nonphonemic vowels. Activations to vowels were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which was also used to analyze the effect of categorical processing on modulations in AC and adjacent inferior ...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 27.10.2017

Identification and Characterization of Yersinia from Food and Environmental Sources

Anna Murros

Yersinia genus includes currently 18 species: Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia frederiksenii, Yersinia intermedia, Yersinia kristensenii, Yersinia bercovieri, Yersinia mollaretii, Yersinia rohdei, Yersinia ruckeri, Yersinia aldovae, Yersinia aleksiciae, Yersinia massiliensis, Yersinia similis, Yersinia entomophaga, Yersinia nurmii, Yersinia ...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 27.10.2017

Bayesian cluster analysis with applications to pathogen population genomics

Alberto Pessia

Identifying similarity patterns in heterogeneous observations is a very common problem in many branches of science. When the similarities and dissimilarities are encoded by a group structure, the task of dividing the observed sample into an unknown number of homogeneous groups is known as cluster analysis. Among the many types of statistical data analyses, it is one of the most widely ap...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 27.10.2017

Plant biomass-acting enzymes produced by the ascomycete fungi Penicillium subrubescens and Aspergillus niger and their potential in biotechnological applications

Sadegh Mansouri

Plant biomass contains complex polysaccharides that can be divided into structural and storage polysaccharides. Plant biomass is a major carbon source utilized by chemoheterotrophic microorganisms, such as filamentous fungi to grow and produce energy. Plant biomass-degrading fungi secrete a wide range of extracellular enzymes to convert complex plant biomass into metabolizable compounds....

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Väitöstilaisuus: 27.10.2017

Retention in Introductory Programming

Arto Hellas

The introductory programming course is one of the very first courses that computer science students encounter. The course is challenging not only because of the content, but also due to the challenges related to finding a place in a new community. Many have little knowledge of what to expect from university studies, some struggle to adjust their study behavior to match the expected pace,...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 27.10.2017

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - studies on pathogenesis and diagnosis

Elina Isokuortti

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) often coexists with obesity and metabolic syndrome and is characterised by insulin resistance (IR). NAFLD may also be due to common gene variants in PNPLA3 at rs738409 and TM6SF2 at rs58542926. It is unclear whether these forms of NAFLD are related to IR. Liver fat content may be assessed using liver histology, imaging tools or biomarkers. This t...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.10.2017

Rajakarjalaisen sukunimistön kehittyminen osana Suomen karjalankielisen ortodoksivähemmistön suomalaistumista 1818-1925

Outi Patronen

Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitetään, miten Raja-Karjalan karjalankielinen ortodoksiväestö, jolla ei ennestään ollut sukunimiä, sai sukunimet pääasiassa ajanjaksona, joka alkoi 1890-luvulla ja loppui 1920-luvulla. Raja-Karjalalla tarkoitetaan kuutta luovutetussa Karjalassa Laatokan kaakkoispuolella sijainnutta pitäjää, jotka ovat Suojärvi, Korpiselkä, Soanlahti, Suistamo, Impilahti ja Salmi. ...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 30.10.2017

On ion-induced new-particle formation: from well-defined laboratory experiments to atmospheric observations

Robert Wagner

Aerosol particles can be directly emitted to the atmosphere in many ways, such as sea spray, volcanoes, wildfires or industrial combustion processes. However, aerosol particles also form in the atmosphere, when precursor gases nucleate and new-particle formation occurs. This phenomenon is frequently observed in the atmosphere, and studies suggest that approximately half of the global bud...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 31.10.2017

Magnetic Phenomena of the Interstellar Medium in Theory and Observation

Miikka Väisälä

Magnetic fields and turbulent flows pervade the interstellar medium on all scales. The magnetic turbulence that emerges on the large scales cascades towards the small scales where it influences molecular cloud structure, and star formation within the densest and coldest clumps of the clouds. Active star formation results in supernovae, and the supernova-driven turbulence takes part in th...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 1.11.2017

The Psychology of the Incarnation in Thirteenth- and Early Fourteenth-Century Theology

Tuomas Vaura

The overall theme of my study concerns the thirteenth- and early fourteenth-century academic discussions about the incarnation from the point of view medieval philosophical psychology. This study will especially explore the following questions: what themes were included in the discussions about knowledge, will, and passions in Christ’s human nature, what the main psychological ideas empl...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 3.11.2017

Seabed landscapes of the Baltic Sea: - Geological characterization of the seabed environment with spatial analysis techniques

Anu Kaskela

Marine ecosystems provide a wide range of ecosystem services to human society, including supporting, regulating, cultural, and provisioning services. The concept of Blue Growth even considers marine areas as potential drivers of the economy. However, despite the long tradition of ocean exploration, the realization of Blue Growth and effective marine spatial planning often suffer from inc...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 3.11.2017

Insights into particle formation and analysis

Jenni Pessi

This thesis consists of two parts, particle formation and analysis. In the first part, particle formation in microfluidic devices and in devices employing supercritical fluids is investigated, and in the second part, essential issues in analytical methods for determining drug release and solid-state properties are addressed. Microfluidic technology was employed to produce microcapsules f...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 3.11.2017

Intergenerational transmission of the family environment: Mediating and moderating factors, and associations with cardiovascular health

Kateryn Savelieva

The transmission of family characteristics across generations is a well-established phenomenon. Both advantages (e.g., a higher socioeconomic position), and disadvantages (e.g., child maltreatment) are likely to “run in families”. However, the pathways underlying the transmission of the family environment are poorly understood, as their health consequences. The aim of this study is to ex...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 3.11.2017

Inelastic, non-diffractive and diffractive proton-proton cross-section measurements at the LHC

Jan Welti

The energy dependence of the rates and cross-sections of proton-proton interactions is of high importance both for collider physics and astroparticle physics. These quantities cannot be calculated from perturbative quantum chromodynamics, which has led to the development of several different models and parametrisations, and further measurements are needed to improve them and to test thei...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 3.11.2017

Neuropathogenic flaviviruses: Isolation and characterization of Zika and tick-borne encephalitis viruses from human brains

Suvi Kuivanen

Flavivirus is a genus that consists of small RNA viruses transmitted by arthropod vectors, mosquitos and ticks. Flaviviruses cause human diseases of global concern, such as dengue fever, Yellow fever, West Nile disease and Japanese encephalitis, with hundreds of millions of infections every year. Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, recently caused a major epidemic with severe...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 3.11.2017

Population-based studies on complicated skin and skin structure infection

Iiro Jääskeläinen

Background. Skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) are among the most frequent indications for antimicrobial treatment both in the hospital and outpatient settings. SSSI is generally considered as complicated (cSSSI) if it involves deep subcutaneous tissues, needs surgery in addition to antimicrobial therapy or affects a patient with severe co-morbidity, like diabetes. CSSSIs are amon...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 3.11.2017

Flux and concentration measurements of carbon dioxide and ozone in a forested environment

Petri Keronen

This thesis compiles the setup and characteristics of the measurement systems for CO2, H2O vapour and O3 eddy-covariance (EC) flux and vertical concentration profile, and their calibration arrangements at the SMEAR II station of the University of Helsinki. A commercial chemiluminescence O3 analyser operating on a liquid reagent solution was modified to improve its suitability and reliabi...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 3.11.2017

Consequences of Balanced Translocations and Loss-of-function Mutations

Tiia Maria Luukkonen

Genetic alterations can have a dramatic impact on essential gene function through “natural” gene knockouts. This thesis explores two such alterations: balanced translocations and loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in two Finnish cohorts. In parts I-III we studied the consequences of balanced translocations in three Finnish families. Part IV focuses on the effect of skin barrier gene LoF mu...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 3.11.2017

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AGGREGAATTORIT ÄÄNITTEIDEN DIGITAALISESSA JAKELUSSA Tekijänoikeuslainsäädännön ja verotuksen näkökulmasta

Laine, Annina / 27.04.2017

AGGREGAATTORIT ÄÄNITTEIDEN DIGITAALISESSA JAKELUSSA Tekijänoikeuslainsäädännön ja verotuksen näkökulmasta Laine, Annina Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract Internet ja digitaalitekniikan kehitys on mullistanut musiikkialaa merkittävästi ja huomattava osa äänitteistä siirtyy nykyään kuuntelijalle digitaalisessa muodossa. Kuluttajille äänitemarkkinoiden digitalisoituminen merkitsee, että mus...

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Kartellivahingon määrän todistaminen vahingonkorvausoikeudenkäynnissä

Korhonen, Sofie / 27.04.2017

Kartellivahingon määrän todistaminen vahingonkorvausoikeudenkäynnissä Korhonen, Sofie Tiedekunta/Osasto Fakultet/Sektion – Faculty Oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta Laitos/Institution– Department Tekijä/Författare – Author Sofie Korhonen Työn nimi / Arbetets titel – Title Kartellivahingon määrän todistaminen vahingonkorvausoikeudenkäynnissä Oppiaine /Läroämne – Subject Oikeustalo...

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The Patent Economics of Synthetic Biology

Bützow, Alexander / 27.04.2017

The Patent Economics of Synthetic Biology Bützow, Alexander Kyseinen työ tutkii uutta bioteknologian muotoa, synteettistä biologiaa, ja sen suhdetta eurooppalaiseen immateriaalioikeuteen, erityisesti patenttioikeuteen. Tutkielman keskeiset kysymykset koskevat sen selvittämisestä, onko 1) synteettisen biologian keksinnöt systeemisesti soveltumattomia nykyiseen patenttioikeuteen, ja 2...

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Vastuun rajoittaminen asianajotoimeksiantosopimukseen perustuvan vastuunhallinnan keinona

Sotamaa, Rasmus / 27.04.2017

Vastuun rajoittaminen asianajotoimeksiantosopimukseen perustuvan vastuunhallinnan keinona Sotamaa, Rasmus Asianajajan mahdollisuuksiin rajata vastuutaan on perinteisesti suhtauduttu varovaisen torjuvasti niin Suomessa kuin muissakin Pohjoismaissa. Torjuvan suhtautumisen perusteet on usein liitetty asianajotoiminnan erityiseen luonteeseen. Vastuunrajoitukset on nähty erityisesti asianaja...

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