University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
ORP1L, a new Rab7 effector and regulator of late endosome functions
Doctoral dissertation, June 2006.
Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) homologues have been found in eukaryotic organisms ranging from yeast to humans. These evolutionary conserved proteins have in common the presence of an OSBP-related domain (ORD) which contains the fully conserved EQVSHHPP sequence motif. The ORD forms a barrel structure that binds sterols in its interior. Other domains and sequence elements found in OSBP-homologues include pleckstrin homology domains, ankyrin repeats and two phenylalanines in an acidic tract (FFAT) motifs, which target the proteins to distinct subcellular compartments. OSBP homologues have been implicated in a wide range of intracellular processes, including vesicle trafficking, lipid metabolism and cell signaling, but little is known about the functional mechanisms of these proteins.
The human family of OSBP homologues consists of twelve OSBP-related proteins (ORP). This thesis work is focused on one of the family members, ORP1, of which two variants were found to be expressed tissue-specifically in humans. The shorter variant, ORP1S contains an ORD only. The N-terminally extended variant, ORP1L, comprises a pleckstrin homology domain and three ankyrin repeats in addition to the ORD. The two ORP1 variants differ in intracellular localization. ORP1S is cytosolic, while the ankyrin repeat region of ORP1L targets the protein to late endosomes/lysosomes. This part of ORP1L also has profound effects on late endosomal morphology, inducing perinuclear clustering of late endosomes.
A central aim of this study was to identify molecular interactions of ORP1L on late endosomes. The morphological changes of late endosomes induced by overexpressed ORP1L implies involvement of small Rab GTPases, regulators of organelle motility, tethering, docking and/or fusion, in generation of the phenotype. A direct interaction was demonstrated between ORP1L and active Rab7. ORP1L prolongs the active state of Rab7 by stabilizing its GTP-bound form.
The clustering of late endosomes/lysosomes was also shown to be linked to the minus end-directed microtubule-based dynein-dynactin motor complex through the ankyrin repeat region of ORP1L. ORP1L, Rab7 and the Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) were found to be part of the same effector complex recruiting the dynein-dynactin complex to late endosomes, thereby promoting minus end-directed movement. The proteins were found to be physically close to each other on late endosomes and RILP was found to stabilize the ORP1L-Rab7 interaction. It is possible that ORP1L and RILP bind to each other through their C-terminal and N-terminal regions, respectively, when they are bridged by Rab7.
With the results of this study we have been able to place a member of the uncharacterized OSBP-family, ORP1L, in the endocytic pathway, where it regulates motility and possibly fusion of late endosomes through interaction with the small GTPase Rab7.
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© University of Helsinki 2006
Last updated 10.05.2006