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CONTENTS

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

ABBREVIATIONS

LIST OF ORIGINAL PUBLICATIONS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Flight catering operation

2.2 Food handling on aircraft

2.3 Flight catering control

2.3.1 In-house control

2.3.2 Official contro l

2.3.3 Hygiene audits made by airline companies

2.4 Microbiological control of hygiene in the flight kitchen

2.4.1 Surveillance of raw materials and ready meals

2.4.2 Food contact surfaces and utensils

2.4.3 Food handling staff

2.5 Microbiological quality of meals served on aircraft

2.6 Outbreaks associated with meals served on aircraft

2.6.1 Outbreaks

2.6.2 Special considerations of outbreaks involving air crew

2.6.3 Contributing factors

3. AIMS OF THE STUDY

4. MATERIALS AND METHODS

4.1 Sampling

4.1.1 Food samples (I-IV)

4.1.2 Faecal samples (IV)

4.1.3 Hand and nasal samples (V)

4.2 Methods

4.2.1 Microbiological methods (I-V)

4.2.2 Measurement of pH and a w (IV)

4.2.3 In situ DNA isolation and PFGE (V)

4.2.4 Enterotoxin analysis (V)

4.2.5 Epidemiological investigation (IV)

4.2.6 Inspection of the catering establishment (IV)

4.2.7 Statistical methods (I, II, IV)

5. RESULTS

5.1 Microbiological quality of hot meals served by airlines (I)

5.2 Microbiological quality of cold meals served by airlines (II)

5.3 Salmonella in meals served by airlines (I-III)

5.4 Salmonella outbreak among airline passengers (IV)

5.5 Staphylococcus aureus among flight catering employees (V)

6. DISCUSSION

6.1 Microbiological quality of hot meals served by airlines (I, III)

6.2 Microbiological quality of cold meals served by airlines (II, III)

6.3 Salmonella outbreak among airline passengers

6.4 Staphylococcus aureus among flight catering employees (V)

7. CONCLUSIONS

8. REFERENCES

 

 


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