University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
The scientific basis and development of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -8 specific chair-side test for monitoring of periodontal health and disease from gingival crevicular fluid
Doctoral dissertation, April 2006.
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -8, collagenase-2, is a key mediator of irreversible tissue destruction in chronic periodontitis and detectable in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). MMP-8 mostly originates from neutrophil leukocytes, the first line of defence cells which exist abundantly in GCF, especially in inflammation. MMP-8 is capable of degrading almost all extra-cellular matrix and basement membrane components and is especially efficient against type I collagen. Thus the expression of MMP-8 in GCF could be valuable in monitoring the activity of periodontitis and possibly offers a diagnostic means to predict progression of periodontitis.
In this study the value of MMP-8 detection from GCF in monitoring of periodontal health and disease was evaluated with special reference to its ability to differentiate periodontal health and different disease states of the periodontium and to recognise the progression of periodontitis, i.e. active sites. For chair-side detection of MMP-8 from the GCF or peri-implant sulcus fluid (PISF) samples, a dip-stick test based on immunochromatography involving two monoclonal antibodies was developed.
The immunoassay for the detection of MMP-8 from GCF was found to be more suitable for monitoring of periodontitis than detection of GCF elastase concentration or activity. Periodontally healthy subjects and individuals suffering of gingivitis or of periodontitis could be differentiated by means of GCF MMP-8 levels and dipstick testing when the positive threshold value of the MMP-8 chair-side test was set at 1000 µg/l. MMP-8 dipstick test results from periodontally healthy and from subjects with gingivitis were mainly negative while periodontitis patients' sites with deep pockets ( 5 mm) and which were bleeding on probing were most often test positive. Periodontitis patients' GCF MMP-8 levels decreased with hygiene phase periodontal treatment (scaling and root planing, SRP) and even reduced during the three month maintenance phase. A decrease in GCF MMP-8 levels could be monitored with the MMP-8 test. Agreement between the test stick and the quantitative assay was very good (κ = 0.81) and the test provided a baseline sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.96. During the 12-month longitudinal maintenance phase, periodontitis patients' progressing sites (sites with an increase in attachment loss ≥ 2 mm during the maintenance phase) had elevated GCF MMP-8 levels compared with stable sites. General mean MMP-8 concentrations in smokers' (S) sites were lower than in non-smokers' (NS) sites but in progressing S and NS sites concentrations were at an equal level. Sites with exceptionally and repeatedly elevated MMP-8 concentrations during the maintenance phase were clustered in smoking patients with poor response to SRP (refractory patients). These sites especially were identified by the MMP-8 test.
Subgingival plaque samples from periodontitis patients' deep periodontal pockets were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to find out if periodontal lesions may serve as a niche for Chlamydia pneumoniae. Findings were compared with the clinical periodontal parameters and GCF MMP-8 levels to determine the correlation with periodontal status. Traces of C. pneumoniae were identified from one periodontitis patient's pooled subgingival plaque sample by means of PCR. After periodontal treatment (SRP) the sample was negative for C. pneumoniae. Clinical parameters or biomarkers (MMP-8) of the patient with the positive C. pneumoniae finding did not differ from other study patients.
In this study it was concluded that MMP-8 concentrations in GCF of sites from periodontally healthy individuals, subjects with gingivitis or with periodontitis are at different levels. The cut-off value of the developed MMP-8 test is at an optimal level to differentiate between these conditions and can possibly be utilised in identification of individuals at the risk of the transition of gingivitis to periodontitis. In periodontitis patients, repeatedly elevated GCF MMP-8 concentrations may indicate sites at risk of progression of periodontitis as well as patients with poor response to conventional periodontal treatment (SRP). This can be monitored by MMP-8 testing. Despite the lower mean GCF MMP-8 concentrations in smokers, a fraction of smokers' sites expressed very high MMP-8 concentrations together with enhanced periodontal activity and could be identified with MMP-8 specific chair-side test.
Deep periodontal lesions may be niches for non-periodontopathogenic micro-organisms with systemic effects like C. pneumoniae and possibly play a role in the transmission from one subject to another.
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© University of Helsinki 2006
Last updated 28.03.2006