University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
The influence of HIV infection to the periodontium; a clinical, microbiological, and enzymological study
Doctoral dissertation, June 2006.
The main targets of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are CD4 receptors of CD4+ lymphocytes and many other cells such as monocytes/macrophages, megakaryocytes, peripheral blood dendritic cells, follicular dendritic cells (DC), epidermal Langerhans cells, and astrocytes. Infection and killing of CD4+ lymphocytes or false reaction of the body to HIV infection and the spontaneous apoptosis of CD4+ lymphocytes decrease CD4+ lymphocyte counts leading to immunosuppression, further disease progression, and appearance of opportunistic infections and malignancies. Oral manifestations are considered to be among the first signs of HIV infection. Enhanced degradation of extracellular matrix and basement membrane components in oral diseases including periodontitis is caused by Zn-dependent enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
The levels and degrees of activation of MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -25, -26, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMP)-1 and -2, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and collagenolytic/gelatinolytic activities, and also Ig A, -G, and -M, total protein, and albumin levels in a two-year follow-up were studied from salivary samples. The expression of MMP-7, -8, -9, -25, and -26 immunoreactivities in gingival tissue specimens were studied. Healthy HIV-negative subjects served as controls.
All studied clinical periodontal parameters and microbiological evaluation of the periodontopathogens showed that periodontal health of the HIV-positive patients was moderately decreased in comparison to the healthy controls. The levels of Candida in the periodontal pockets and salivary MPO increased with the severity of HIV infection. Immunoreactivities and levels of MMPs and TIMPs, and MMP activities (collagenase, gelatinase) were enhanced in the HIV-positive patient salivary samples relative to the healthy controls regardless of the phase of HIV infection. However, these parameters did not reflect periodontal status in a similar way as in the generally healthy periodontitis patients.
Salivary total protein, albumin, IgA, -G, and -M levels were significantly higher in all phases of HIV infection compared to the controls, and salivary total protein, IgG and IgM levels remained higher after two years follow-up, partly correlating with the disease progression and which may reflect the leakage of serum components into the mouth and thus a decreased mucosal barrier.
Salivary analyses of MMPs and TIMPs with immunohistochemical analyses showed that HIV infection could predispose to periodontal destruction when compared with healthy controls or the body's defence reactions associated with HIV infection may have been reflected or mediated by MMPs.
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© University of Helsinki 2006
Last updated 13.04.2006