University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
Acute renal failure in critically ill patients
With special reference to prediction of outcome
Doctoral dissertation, December 2006.
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapidly decreasing glomerular filtration rate, which results in disturbances in electrolyte- and acid-base homeostasis, derangement of extracellular fluid volume, and retention of nitrogenous waste products, and is often associated with decreased urine output. ARF affects about 5-25% of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and is linked to high mortality and morbidity rates.
In this thesis outcome of critically ill patients with ARF and factors related to outcome were evaluated. A total of 1662 patients from two ICUs and one acute dialysis unit in Helsinki University Hospital were included.
In study I the prevalence of ARF was calculated and classified according to two ARF-specific scoring methods, the RIFLE classification and the classification created by Bellomo et al. (2001). Study II evaluated monocyte human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression and plasma levels of one proinflammatory (interleukin (IL) 6) and two anti-inflammatory (IL-8 and IL-10) cytokines in predicting survival of critically ill ARF patients. Study III investigated serum cystatin C as a marker of renal function in ARF and its power in predicting survival of critically ill ARF patients. Study IV evaluated the effect of intermittent hemodiafiltration (HDF) on myoglobin elimination from plasma in severe rhabdomyolysis. Study V assessed long-term survival and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in ARF patients.
Neither of the ARF-specific scoring methods presented good discriminative power regarding hospital mortality. The maximum RIFLE score for the first three days in the ICU was an independent predictor of hospital mortality. As a marker of renal dysfunction, serum cystatin C failed to show benefit compared with plasma creatinine in detecting ARF or predicting patient survival. Neither cystatin C nor plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, nor monocyte HLA-DR expression were clinically useful in predicting mortality in ARF patients. HDF may be used to clear myoglobin from plasma in rhabdomyolysis, especially if the alkalization of diuresis does not succeed. The long-term survival of patients with ARF was found to be poor. The HRQoL of those who survive is lower than that of the age- and gender-matched general population.
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© University of Helsinki 2006
Last updated 03.11.2006