Helsingin yliopisto


Helsingin yliopiston verkkojulkaisut

University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006

Detection of renal dysfunction during and after anaesthesia and surgery - evaluation of the influence of inorganic fluoride, ketorolac and clonidine

Merja Laisalmi

Doctoral dissertation, December 2006.
University of Helsinki, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine.

Drugs and surgical techniques may have harmful renal effects during the perioperative period. Traditional biomarkers are often insensitive to minor renal changes, but novel biomarkers may more accurately detect disturbances in glomerular and tubular function and integrity. The purpose of this study was first, to evaluate the renal effects of ketorolac and clonidine during inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane and isoflurane, and secondly, to evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on the production of inorganic fluoride (F-) following enflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia as well as to determine the effect of F- on renal function and cellular integrity in surgical patients.

A total of 143 patients undergoing either conventional (n = 75) or endoscopic (n = 68) inpatient surgery were enrolled in four studies. The ketorolac and clonidine studies were prospective, randomized, placebo controlled and double-blinded, while the cigarette smoking studies were prospective cohort studies with two parallel groups.

As a sign of proximal tubular deterioration, a similar transient increase in urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase/creatinine (U-NAG/crea) was noted in both the ketorolac group and in the controls (baseline vs. at two hours of anesthesia, p = 0.015) with a 3.3 minimum alveolar concentration hour sevoflurane anesthesia. Uncorrelated U-NAG increased above the maximum concentration measured from healthy volunteers (6.1 units/l) in 5/15 patients with ketorolac and in none of the controls (p = 0.042). As a sign of proximal tubular deterioration, U-glutathione transferase-alpha/crea (U-GST-alpha/crea) increased in both groups at two hours after anesthesia but a more significant increase was noted in the patients with ketorolac. U-GST-alpha/crea increased above the maximum ratio measured from healthy volunteers in 7/15 patients with ketorolac and in 3/15 controls.

Clonidine diminished the activation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system during pneumoperitoneum; urine output was better preserved in the patients treated with clonidine (1/15 patients developed oliguria) than in the controls (8/15 developed oliguria (p=0.005)). Most patients with pneumoperitoneum and isoflurane anesthesia developed a transient proximal tubular deterioration, as U-NAG increased above 6.1 units/L in 11/15 patients with clonidine and in 7/15 controls. In the patients receiving clonidine treatment, the median of U-NAG/crea was higher than in the controls at 60 minutes of pneumoperitoneum (p = 0.01), suggesting that clonidine seems to worsen proximal tubular deterioration.

Smoking induced the metabolism of enflurane, but the renal function remained intact in both the smokers and the non-smokers with enflurane anesthesia. On the contrary, smoking did not induce sevoflurane metabolism, but glomerular function decreased in 4/25 non-smokers and in 7/25 smokers with sevoflurane anesthesia. All five patients with S-F- ≥ 40 micromol/L, but only 6/45 with S-F- less than 40 micromol/L (p = 0.001), developed a S-tumor associated trypsin inhibitor concentration above 3 nmol/L as a sign of glomerular dysfunction. As a sign of proximal tubulus deterioration, U-beta 2-microglobulin increased in 2/5 patients with S-F- over 40 micromol/L compared to 2/45 patients with the highest S-F- less than 40 micromol/L (p = 0.005).

To conclude, sevoflurane anesthesia may cause a transient proximal tubular deterioration which may be worsened by a co-administration of ketorolac. Clonidine premedication prevents the activation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and preserves normal urine output, but may be harmful for proximal tubules during pneumoperitoneum. Smoking induces the metabolism of enflurane but not that of sevoflurane. Serum F- of 40 micromol/L or higher may induce glomerular dysfunction and proximal tubulus deterioration in patients with sevoflurane anesthesia. The novel renal biomarkers warrant further studies in order to establish reference values for surgical patients having inhalation anesthesia.

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Last updated 01.12.2006

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