University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
Outcomes of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm
Doctoral dissertation, December 2006.
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) is a life-threatening event, and without operative treatment the patient will die. The overall mortality can be as high as 80-90%; thus repair of RAAA should be attempted whenever feasible. The quality of life (QoL) has become an increasingly important outcome measure in vascular surgery. Aim of the study was to evaluate outcomes of RAAA and to find out predictors of mortality.
In Helsinki and Uusimaa district 626 patients were identified to have RAAA in 1996-2004. Altogether 352 of them were admitted to Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH). Based on Finnvasc Registry, 836 RAAA patients underwent repair of RAAA in 1991-1999. The 30-day operative mortality, hospital and population-based mortality were assessed, and the effect of regional centralisation and improving in-hospital quality on the outcome of RAAA. QoL was evaluated by a RAND-36 questionnaire of survivors of RAAA. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), which measure length and QoL, were calculated using the EQ-5D index and estimation of life expectancy. The predictors of outcome after RAAA were assessed at admission and 48 hours after repair of RAAA.
The 30-day operative mortality rate was 38% in HUCH and 44% nationwide, whereas the hospital mortality was 45% in HUCH. Population-based mortality was 69% in 1996-2004 and 56% in 2003-2004. After organisational changes were undertaken, the mortality decreased significantly at all levels. Among the survivors, the QoL was almost equal when compared with norms of age- and sex-matched controls; only physical functioning was slightly impaired. Successful repair of RAAA gave a mean of 4.1 (0-30.9) QALYs for all RAAA patients, although non-survivors were included. The preoperative Glasgow Aneurysm Score was an independent predictor of 30-day operative mortality after RAAA, and it also predicted the outcome at 48- hours for initial survivors of repair of RAAA. A high Glasgow Aneurysm Score and high age were associated with low numbers of QALYs to be achieved. Organ dysfunction measured by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at 48 hours after repair of RAAA was the strongest predictor of death.
In conclusion surgery of RAAA is a life-saving and cost-effective procedure. The centralisation of vascular emergencies improved the outcome of RAAA patients. The survivors had a good QoL after RAAA. Predictive models can be used on individual level only to provide supplementary information for clinical decision-making due to their moderate discriminatory value. These results support an active operation policy, as there is no reliable measure to predict the outcome after RAAA.
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Last updated 16.11.2006