Back to the title page | E-thesis main page


Achen M, Jeltsch M, Kukk E, Makinen T, Vitali A, Wilks A, Alitalo K and Stacker S. Vascular endothelial growth factor-D (Vegf-D) is a ligand for the tyrosine kinases Vegf receptor 2 (Flk1) and Vegf receptor 3 (Flt4). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:548-553, 1998.

Ahmed A, Xiao F, Li, Dunk C, Whittle JM, Rushton DI and Rollason T. Colocalisation of vascular endothelial growth factor and its Flt-1 receptor in human placenta. Growth Factors 12:235-243, 1995.

Aiello LP, Avery RL, Arrigg PG, Keyt BA, Jampel HD, Shah ST, Pasquale LR, Thieme H, Iwamoto MA and Park JE. Vascular endothelial growth factor in ocular fluid of patients with diabetic retinopathy and other retinal disorders. N Eng J Med 331:1480-7, 1994.

Alon T, Hemo I, Itin A, Pe'er S and Keshet E. Vascular endothelial growth factor acts as a survival factor for newly formed retinal vessels and has implications for retinopathy of prematurity. Nature Med 1:1024-1028, 1995.

Anthony F, Evans P, Wheeler T and Wood P. Variation in detection of VEGF in maternal serum by immunoassay and the possible influence of binding proteins. Annals Clin Biochem 34:276-280, 1997.

Athanassiades A and Lala P. Role of placenta growth factor (PIGF) in human extravillous trophoblast proliferation, migration and invasiveness. Placenta 19:465-473, 1998.

Baker P, Krasnow J, Roberts J and Yeo K-T. Elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with pre-eclampsia. Obstetrics and Gynecology 86:815-821, 1995.

Banai S, Shweiki D, Pinson A, Chandra M, Lazarovich G and Keshet E. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression induced by myocardial ischemia: implications for coronary angiogenesis. Cardiovasc Res 28:1176-1179, 1994.

Banks R, Forbes M, Searles J, Pappin D, Canas B, Rahman D, Kaufmann S, Walters C, Jackson A, Eves P, Linton G, Keen J, Walker J and Selby P. Evidence for the existence of a novel pregnancy associated soluble variant of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, Flt-1. Mol Hum Reprod 4:377-386, 1998.

Barleon B, Hauser S, Schollmann C, Weindel K, Marme D, Yayon A and Weich HA. Differential expression of the two VEGF receptors flt and KDR in placenta and vascular endothelial cells. 54:56-66, 1994.

Benircshke K and Kaufmann P. Basic structure of the villous trees. In: Pathology of the human placenta. Eds: Benirschke P and Kaufman K. Sprigner-Verlag, New York, 1990.

Borg J-P, deLapeyriére O, Noguchi T, Rottapel R, Dubreuil P and Birnbaum D. Biochemical characterization of two isoforms of FLT4, a VEGF receptor-related tyrosine kinase. Oncogene 10:973-984, 1995.

Borgström P, Hillan K, Sriramarao P and Ferrara N. Complete inhibition of angiogenesis and growth of microtumors by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor neutralizing antibody: novel concepts of angiostatic therapy from intravital videomicroscopy. Cancer Res 56:4032-4039, 1996.

Brosens I, Dixon H and Robertson W. Fetal growth retardation and the arteries of the placental bed. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 84:656-664, 1977.

Brosens I, Robertson W and Dixon H. The physiological response of the vessels of the placental bed to normal pregnancy. J Pathol Bacteriol 93:569-579, 1967.

Brosens I, Robertson W and Dixon H. The role of the spiral arteries in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol Annu 1:177-191, 1972.

Brown L, Detmar M, Tognazi K, Abu-Jawdeh G and Iruela-Arispe M. Uterine smooth muscle cells express functional receptors (flt-1 and KDR) for vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor. Lab Invest 76:245-255, 1997.

Brown L, Yeo K-T, Berse B, Yeo T-K, Senger D, Dvorak H and VanDeWater L. Expression of vascular permeability factor (vascular endothelial growth factor) by epidermal keratinocytes during wound healing. Journal of Experimental Medicine 176:1375-1379, 1992.

Cao Y, Chen H, Zhou L, Chiang M-K, Anand-Apte B, Weatherbee J, Wang Y, Fang F, Flanagan J and Lik-Shing T. Heterodimers of placenta growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor. Endothelial activity, tumor cell expression, and high affinity binding to Flk-1/KDR. J Biol Chem 271:3154-3162, 1996a.

Cao Y, Linden P, Shima D, Browne F and Folkman J. In vivo angiogenic activity and hypoxia induction of heterodimers of placenta growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor. J Clin Invest 98:2507-2511, 1996b.

Carmeliet P, Ferreira V, Breier G, Pollefeyt S, Kieckens L, Gertsenstein M, Fahrig M, Vandenhoek J, Kendraprasad H, Eberhardt C, Declercq C, Pawling J, Moons L, Collen D, Risau W and Nagy A. Abnormal blood vessel development and lethality in embryos lacking a single VEGF allele. Nature 380:435-439, 1996.

Charnock-Jones D, Sharkey AM, Boocock CA, Ahmed A, Plevin R, Ferrara N and Smith SK. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor localization and activation in human trophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells. 51:524-30, 1994.

Charnock-Jones D, Sharkey AM, Rajput WJ, Burch D, Schofield JP, Fountain SA, Boocock CA and Smith SK. Identification and localization of alternately spliced mRNAs for vascular endothelial growth factor in human uterus and estrogen regulation in endometrial carcinoma cell lines. Biol Reprod 48:1120-8, 1993.

Claesson-Welsh L. Vascular growth factors and angiogenesis. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, pp.189, 1999.

Clark D, Smith K, He Y, Day K, Licence D, Corps A, Lammoglia R and Charnock-Jones D. A vascular endothelial growth factor antagonist is produced by the human placenta and released into the maternal circulation. Biol Reprod 59:1540-1548, 1998a.

Clark D, Smith S, Licence D, Evans A and Charnock-Jones D. Comparison of expression patterns for placenta growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF-B and VEGF-C in the human placenta throughout gestation. J Endocrinol 159:459-467, 1998b.

Clark D, Smith S, Sharkey A and Charnock-Jones D. Localization of VEGF and expression of its receptors flt and KDR in human placenta throughout pregnancy. Human Reproduction 11:1090-1098, 1996.

Cooper J, Sharkey A, Charnock-Jones D, Palmer C and Smith S. VEGF mRNA levels in placentae from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Brit J Obst Gyn 103:1191-1196, 1996.

Cooper J, Sharkey A, McLaren J, Charnock-Jones D and Smith S. Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor in human placenta and decidua by immunohistochemistry. J Reprod Fertil 105:105-213, 1995.

Craven C, Morgan T and Ward K. Decidual spiral artery remodelling begins before cellular interaction with cytotrophoblasts. Placenta 19:241-252, 1998.

Cullinan-Bove K and Koos RD. Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor expression in the rat uterus: rapid stimulation by estrogen correlates with estrogen-induced increases in uterine capillary permeability and growth. 133:829-37, 1993.

Davis S, Aldrich T, Jones P, Acheson A, Compton D, Jain V, Ryan T, Bruno J, Radziejewski C, Maisonpierre P and Yancopoulos G. Isolation of angiopoietin-1, a ligand for the TIE2 receptor, by secretion-trap expression cloning. Cell 87:1161-1169, 1996.

de Groot C and Taylor R. New insights into the etiology of pre-eclampsia. Ann Med 25:243-249, 1993.

de Vries C, Escobedo J, Ueno H, Ferrara N and Williams L. The fms-like tyrosine kinase, a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor. Science 255:989-991, 1992.

Dekker G and van Geijn H. Endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia. Part I: Primary prevention. Therapeutic perspectives. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 24:99-117, 1996.

Demir R, Kaufmann P, Castellucci M and et a. Fetal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in human placental villi. Acta Anat 136:190-203, 1989.

Desai J, Holt-Shore V, Torry R, Caudle M and Torry D. Signal transduction and biological function of placenta growth factor in primary human trophoblast. Biol Reprod 60:887-892, 1999.

Doldi N, Bassan M, Gulisano M, Broccoli V, Boncinelli E and Ferrari A. Vascular endothelial growth factor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in human ovarian and endometrial cancer. Gynecol Endocrinol 10:375-382, 1996.

Doldi N, Destefani A, Gessi A, Grossi D and Ferrari A. Human albumin enhances expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in cultured human luteinizing granulosa cells: importance in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Hum Reprod 14:1157-1159, 1999.

Dumont D, Gradwohl G, Fong G-H, Puri M, Gertsenstein M, Auerbach A and Breitman M. Dominant-negative and targeted null mutations in the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase, tek, reveal a critical role in vasculogenesis of the embryo. Genes and Development 1897-1909, 1994.

Dumont D, Jussila L, Taipale J, Lymboussakis A, Mustonen T, Pajusola K, Breitman M and Alitalo K. Cardiovascular failure in mouse embryos deficient in VEGF receptor-3. Science 282:946-949, 1998.

Dumont D, Yamaguchi T, Conlon R, Rossant J and Breitman M. Tek, a novel tyrosine kinase gene located on mouse chromosome 4, is expressed in endothelial cells and their presumptive precursors. Oncogene 7:1471-1480, 1992.

Dumont DJ, Fong GH, Puri MC, Gradwohl G, Alitalo K and Breitman ML. Vascularization of the mouse embryo: a study of flk-1, tek, tie, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression during development. Dev Dyn 203:80-92, 1995.

Dvorak H, Brown L, Detmar M and Dvorak A. Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor, microvascular hyperpermeability, and angiogenesis. Am J Pathol 146:1029-1039, 1995.

Enholm B, Jussila L, Karkkainen M and Alitalo K. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C: a growth factor for lymphatic and blood vascular endothelial cells. Trends Card Vasc Med 8:292-297, 1998.

Enholm B, Paavonen K, Ristimäki A, Kumar V, Gunji Y, Klefström J, Kivinen L, Laiho M, Olofsson B, Joukov V, Eriksson U and Alitalo K. Comparison of VEGF, VEGF-B, VEGF-C and Ang-1 mRNA regulation by serum, growth factors, oncoproteins and hypoxia. Oncogene 14:2475-2483, 1997.

Eriksson U and Alitalo K. Structure, expression and receptor-binding properties of novel vascular endothelial growth factors. In: Vascular growth factors and angiogenesis. Ed: Claesson-Welsh L. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 41-83, 1999.

Fajardo L. The complexity of endothelial cells. Am J Clin Pathol 92:241-250, 1989.

Fava R, Olsen N, Spencer-Green G, Yeo K, Yeo T, Berse B, Jackman R, Senger D, Dvorak H and Brown L. Vascular permeability factor/endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF): accumulation and expression in human synovial fluids and rheumatoid synovial tissue. J Exp Med 180:341-346, 1994.

Ferrara N, Carver-Moore K, Chen H, Dowd M, Lu L, O'Shea K, Powell-Braxton L, Hillan K and Moore M. Heterozygous embryonic lethality induced by targeted inactivation of the VEGF gene. Nature 380:439-442, 1996.

Ferrara N and Henzel W. Pituitary follicular cells secrete a novel heparin-binding growth factor specific for vascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 161:851-858, 1989.

Folkman J and Klagsbrun M. Vascular physiology. A family of angiogenic peptides. Nature 329:22-28, 1987.

Fong GH, Rossant J, Gertsenstein M and Breitman ML. Role of the Flt-1 receptor tyrosine kinase in regulating the assembly of vascular endothelium. Nature 376:66-70, 1995.

Friedman S, Schiff E, Emeis J, Deker G and Sibai B-H. Biochemical corroboration of endothelial involvement in severe preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 172:202-203, 1995.

Frusca T, Morassi L, Pecorelli S, Grigolato P and Gastaldi A. Histological features of uteroplacental vessels in normal and hypertensive pregnancies in relation to birthweight. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 96:835-839, 1989.

Gerber H, Condorelli F, Park J and Ferrara N. Differential transcriptional regulation of the two vascular endothelial growth factor receptor genes. Flt-1, but not Flk-1/KDR, is up-regulated by hypoxia. J Biol Chem 272:23659-23667, 1997.

Gordon J, Shifren J, Foulk R, Taylor R and Jaffe R. Angiogenesis in the human female reproductive tract. Obstet Gynecol Survey 50:688-697, 1995.

Greb R, Heikinheimo O, Williams R, Hodgen G and Goodman A. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in primate endometrium is regulated by estrogen-receptor and progesterone-receptor ligands in vivo. Hum Reprod 12:1280-1292, 1997.

Grimmond S, Lagercrantz J, Drinkwater C, Silins G, Townson S, Pollock P, Gotley D, Carson E, Rakar S, Nordenskjold M, Ward L, Hayward N and Weber G. Cloning and characterization of a novel human gene related to vascular endothelial growth factor. Genome Res 6:124-131, 1996.

Guidi A, Abu-Jawdeh G, Brygida B, Jackman R, Tognazzi K, Dvorak H and Brown L. Vascular permeability factor (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression and angiogenesis in cervical neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 87:1237-1245, 1995.

Guidi A, Schnitt S, Fischer L, Tognazzi K, Harris J, Dvorak H and Brown L. Vascular permeability factor (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression and angiogenesis in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Cancer 80:1945-1953, 1997.

Harrison-Woolrych M, Sharkey A, Charnock-Jones D and Smith S. Localization and quantification of vascular endothelial growth factor messenger ribonucleic acid in human myometrium and leiomyomata. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:1853-1858, 1995.

Hatva E, Kaipainen A, Jääskeläinen J, Haltia M and Alitalo K. Endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinases and growth factors in human gliomas and meningiomas. Am J Pathol 146:368-378, 1994.

Hauser S and Weich HA. A heparin-binding form of placenta growth factor (PlGF-2) is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in placenta. Growth Factors 9:259-68, 1993.

Houck KA, Ferrara N, Winer J, Cachianes G, Li B and Leung DW. The vascular endothelial growth factor family: identification of a fourth molecular species and characterization of alternative splicing of RNA. Mol Endocrinol 5:1806-14, 1991.

Houwert-de-Jong M, Eskes T, Termijtelen A and Bruinse H. Habitual abortion: a review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol 30:39-52, 1989.

Isner J, Pieczek A, Schainfeld R, Blair R, Haley L, Asahara T, Rosenfeld K, Razvi S, Walsh K and Symes J. Clinical evidence of angiogenesis after arterial gene transfer of phVEGF165 in patient with ischemic limb. Lancet 348:370-374, 1996.

Jackson MR, Carney EW, Lye SJ and Ritchie JW. Localization of two angiogenic growth factors (PDECGF and VEGF) in human placentae throughout gestation. 15:341-53, 1994.

Jakeman L, Winer J, BennetmGL., Alter C and Ferrara N. Binding sites for vascular endothelial growth factor are localized on endothelial cells in adult rat tissues. J Clin Invest 89:244-253, 1992.

Jeltsch M, Kaipainen A, Joukov M, Meng X, Lakso M, Rauvala H, Swartz M, Fukumura D, Jain R and Alitalo K. Hyperplasia of lymphatic vessels in VEGF-C transgenic mice. Science 276:1423-1425, 1997.

Joukov V, Kumar V, Sosa T, Arighi E, Weich H, Saksela O and Alitalo K. A recombinant mutant vascular endothelial growth factor C that has lost vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 binding, activation and vascular permeability activities. J Biol Chem 273:6599-6602, 1998.

Joukov V, Pajusola K, Kaipainen A, Shilov D, Lahtinen I, Kukk E, Saksela O, Kalkkinen N and Alitalo K. A novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-C, is the ligand for the Flt-4 receptor tyrosine kinase (VEGFR-3). EMBO Journal 15:290-298, 1996.

Joukov V, Sorsa T, Kumar V, Jeltsch M, Claesson-Welsh L, Cao Y, Saksela O, Kalkkinen N and Alitalo K. Proteolytic processing regulates receptor specifity and activity of VEGF-C. EMBO Journal 16:3898-3911, 1997.

Kaipainen A, Korhonen J, Mustonen T, van Hinsbergh V, Fang G-H, Dumont D, Breitman M and Alitalo K. Expression of the fms-like tyrosine kinase FLT4 gene becomes restricted to endothelium of lymphatic vessels during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:3566-3570, 1995.

Kaipainen A, Vlaykova T, Hatva E, Böhling T, Jekunen A, Pyrhönen S and Alitalo K. Enhanced expression of the Tie receptor tyrosine kinase messenger RNA in the vascular endothelium of metastatic melanomas. Cancer Res 54:6571-6577, 1994.

Kaufmann P and Burton G. Anatomy and genesis of the placenta. In: The Physiology of Reproduction. Ed: Knobil E and Neill J. New York Raven Press, New York, pp. 441-484, 1994.

Keck PJ, Hauser SD, Krivi G, Sanzo K, Warren T, Feder J, Connolly DT. Vascular permeability factor, an endothelial cell mitogen related to PDGF. Science 246:1309-1312, 1989.

Kendall R and Thomas K. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor activity by an endogenously encoded soluble receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:10705-10709, 1993.

Kendall R, Wang G and Thomas K. Identification of a natural soluble form of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, FLT-1, and its heterodimerization with KDR. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 226:324-328, 1996.

Khaliq A, Dunk C, Jiang J, Shams M, Li X, Acevedo C, Weich H, Whittle M and Ahmed A. Hypoxia down-regulates placenta growth factor, whereas fetal growth restriction up-regulates placenta gowth factor expression: molecular evidence for "placental hyperoxia" in intrauterine growth restriction. Lab Invest 79:151-170, 1999.

Khaliq A, Foreman D, Ahmed A, Weich H, Gregor Z, Mcleod D and Boulton M. Increased expression of placenta growth factor in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Lab Invest 78:109-116, 1998.

Khong T, Liddell H and Robertson W. Defective haemochorial placentation as a cause of miscarriage: a preliminary study. Brit J Obstet Gynaec 94:649-655, 1987.

Kim KJ, Li B, Houck K, Winer J and Ferrara N. The vascular endothelial growth factor proteins: identification of biologically relevant regions by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. 7:53-64, 1992.

Klein B, Moss S and Klein R. Effect of pregnancy on progression of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 13:34-40, 1990.

Knudsen U, Hansen V, Juul S and Secher N. Prognosis of a new pregnancy following previous spontaneous abortions. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 39:31-36, 1991.

Koch A, Harlow L, Haines G, Amento E, Unemori E, Wong W, Pope R and Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor. A cytokine modulating endothelial function in rheumatoid athritis. J Immunol 152:4149-4156, 1994.

Korhonen J, Partanen J, Armstrong E, Vaahtokari A, Elenius K, Jalkanen M and Alitalo K. Enhanced expression of the Tie receptor tyrosine kinase in endothelial cells during neovascularization. Blood 80:2543-2555, 1992.

Korhonen J, Polvi A, Partanen J and Alitalo K. The mouse receptor tyrosine kinase gene: expression during embryonic angiogenesis. Oncogene 9:395-403, 1994.

Krebs C, Macara L, Leiser R, Bowman A, Greer I and Kingdom J. Intrauterine growth restriction with absent end-diastolic flow velocity in the umbilical artery is associated with maldevelopment of the placental terminal villous tree. Am J Obstet Gynecol 175:1534-1542, 1996.

Ku D, Zaleski J, Liu S and Brock T. Vascular endothelial growth factor induces EDRF-dependent relaxation in coronary arteries. Am J Physiol 265:H586-H592, 1993.

Kupferminc M, Daniel Y, Englender E, Baram A, Many A, Jaffa A, Gull I and Lessing J. Vascular endothelial growth factor is increased in patients with pre-eclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 38:302-306, 1997.

Lagercrantz J, Larsson C, Grimmond S, Fredriksson M, Weber G and Piehl F. Expression of the VEGF-related factor gene in pre- and postnatal mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 220:147-152, 1996.

Laitinen M, Ristimäki A, Honkasalo M, Narko K, Paavonen K and Ritvos O. Differential hormonal regulation of vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF, VEGF-B, and VEGF-C messenger ribonucleic acid levels in cultured human granulosa-luteal cells. Endocrinol 138:4748-4756, 1997.

Landon M and Gabbe S. Diabetes mellitus. In: High risk pregnancy. Management options. Eds: Weiner C, Gonik B, James D and Steer P. W.B. Saunders Company Ltd, London England, pp. 277-251, 1994.

Larinkari J, Laatikainen T, Ranta P, Moronen P, Pesonen K and Laatikainen T. Metabolic control and serum hormone levels in relation to retinopathy in diabetic pregnancy. Diabetologia 22:327-332, 1982.

Lau T, Affandi B and Fogers P. The effects of levonorgestrel implants on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the endometrium. Mol Hum Reprod 5:57-63, 1999.

Lee J, Gray A, Yuan J, Luoh S-M, Avraham H and Wood W. Vascular endothelial growth factor related protein: a ligand and specific activator of the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt4. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:1988-1992, 1996.

Levin E, Rosen G, Cassidenti L, Yee B, Meldrum D, Wisot A and Pedram A. Role of vascular endothelial cell growth factor in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. J Clin Invest 102:1978-1985, 1998.

Li X, Gregory J and Ahmed A. Immunolocalisation of vascular endothelial growth factor in human endometrium. Growth Factors 11:277-282, 1994.

Lim K, Odukoya O, Li T and Cooke I. Cytokines and immuno-endocrine factors in recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod Update 2:469-481, 1996.

Lyall F, Greer I and Fleming R. Suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor immunoreactivity in normal pregnancy and in pre-eclampsia. Brit J Obstet Gynaec 104:223-228, 1997.

Maglione D, Guerriero V, Viglietto G, Delli BP and Persico MG. Isolation of a human placenta cDNA coding for a protein related to the vascular permeability factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:9267-71, 1991.

Maglione D, Guerriero V, Viglietto G, Ferraro M, Aprelikova O, Alitalo K, Del Vecchio S, Lei K, Chou J and Persico M. Two alternative mRNAs coding for the angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF) are transcribed from a single gene of chromosome 14. Oncogene 8:925-931, 1993.

Maisonpierre P, Suri C, Jones P, Bartunkova S, Wiegand S, Radziejewski C, Compton D, McClain J, Aldrich T, Papadopoulos N, Daly T, Davis S, Sato T and Yancopoulos G. Angiopoietin-2, a natural antagonist for Tie-2 that disrupts in vivo angiogenesis. Science 277:55-60, 1997.

Matthews W, Jordan C, Gavin M, Jenkins N, Copeland N and Lemischka I. A receptor tyrosine kinase cDNA isolated from a population of enriched primitive hematopoietic cells and exhibiting close genetic linkage to c-kit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:9026-9030, 1991.

McLaren J, Prentice A, Charnock-Jones D, Millican S, Müller K, Sharkey A and Smith S. Vascular endothelial growth factor is produced by peritoneal fluid macrophages in endometriosis and is regulated by ovarian steroids. J Clin Invest 98:482-489, 1996.

Meeson A, Argilla M, Ko K, Witte L and Lang R. VEGF deprivation-induced apoptosis is a component of programmed capillary regression. Development 126:1407-15, 1999.

Michel M, Khong T, Clark D and Beard R. A morphological and Immunological study of human placental bed biopsies in miscarriage. Brit J Obstet Gynaec 97:984-988, 1990.

Millauer B, Wizigmann-Voos S, Schnurch H, Martinez R, Moller N, Risau W and Ullrich A. High affinity VEGF binding and developmental expression suggest flk-1 as a major regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Cell 72:835-846, 1993.

Minchenko A, Bauer T, Salceda S and Caro J. Hypoxic stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in vivo and in vitro. Lab Invest 71:374-379, 1994.

Morris N, Eaton B and Dekker G. Nitric oxide, the endothelium, pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 103:4-15, 1996.

Mushambi M, Halligan A and Williamson K. Recent developments in the perfused human fetal-placental circulation. Brit J Anaesth 76:133-148, 1996.

Natarajan R, Bai W, Lanting L, Gonzales N and Nadler J. Effects of high glucose on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Pathol 273:H2224-H2231, 1997.

Neulen J, Raczek S, Pogorzelski M, Grunwald K, Yeo T, Dvorak H, Weich H and Breckwoldt M. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor from human luteinized granulosa cells is human chorionic gonadotrophin dependent. Mol Hum Reprod 4:203-206, 1998.

Nomura S, Okamoto T, Matsuo K, Iwase K, Nakanishi T, Suzuki H and Mizutani S. Serum and tissue vascular endothelial growth factor levels in hydatidiform mole. Life Sci 63:1793-1805, 1998.

Olofsson B, Korpelainen E, Pepper M, Mandriota S, Aase K, Kumar V, Gunji Y, Jeltsch M, Shibuya M, Alitalo K and Eriksson U. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) binds to VEGF receptor-1 and regulates plasminogen activator in endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:11709-11714, 1998.

Olofsson B, Pajusola K, Kaipainen A, von Euler G, Joukov V, Saksela O, Orpana A, Petterson R, Alitalo K and Eriksson U. Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:2576-2581, 1996a.

Olofsson B, Pajusola K, Voneuler G, Chilov D, Alitalo K and Eriksson U. Genomic organization of the mouse and human genes for vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) and characterization of a second splice isoform. J Biol Chem 271:19310-19317, 1996b.

Orlandini M, Marconcini L, Ferruzzi R and Oliviero S. Identification of a c-fos-induced gene that is related to the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:11675-11680, 1996.

Park JE, Chen HH, Winer J, Houck KA and Ferrara N. Placenta growth factor. Potentiation of vascular endothelial growth factor bioactivity, in vitro and in vivo, and high affinity binding to Flt-1 but not to Flk-1/KDR. J Biol Chem 269:25646-54, 1994.

Partanen J and Dumont D. Functions of Tie1 and Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinases in vascular development. In: Vascular growth factors and angiogenesis. Ed: Claesson-Welsh L. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, 1999.

Pellicer A, Albert C, Mercader A, Bonilla-Musoles F, Remohi J and Simon C. The pathogenesis of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: in vivo studies investigating the role of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Fertil Steril 71:482-489, 1999.

Perry KJ and Martin JJ. Abnormal hemostasis and coagulopathy in preeclampsia and eclampsia. Clin Obstet Gynecol 35:338-350, 1992.

Persico M, Vincenti V and DiPalma T. Structure, expression and receptor-binding properties of placenta growth factor (PlGF). In: Vascular growth factors and angiogenesis. Ed: Claesson-Welsh L. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, 1999.

Phillips H, Hains J, Leung D and Ferrara N. Vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in rat corpus luteum. Endocrinology 127:965-967, 1990.

Pijnenborg R, Bland J, Robertson W and Brosens I. Uteroplacental arterial changes related to interstitial trophoblast migration in early human pregnancy. Placenta 4:397-414, 1983.

Poltorak Z, Cohen T, Sivan R, Kandelis Y, Spira G, Vlodavsky I, Keshet E and Neufeld G. VEGF145, a secreted vascular endothelial growth factor isoform that binds to extracellular matrix. J Biol Chem 272:7151-7158, 1997.

Pouta A, Vuolteenaho O and Laatikainen T. The association of plasma endothelin with clinical parameters in preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 17:135-145, 1998.

Puri M, Rossant J, Alitalo K, Bernstein A and Partanen J. The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie is required for the integrity and survival of vascular endothelial cells. EMBO J 14:5884-5891, 1995.

Rivard A, Silver M, Chen D, Kerney M, Magner M, Annex B, Peters K and Isner J. Rescue of diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis by intramuscular gene therapy with adeno-VEGF. Am J Pathol 154:355-363, 1999.

Roberts J, Taylor R and Goldfien A. Clinical and biochemical evidence of endothelial cell dysfunction in the pregnancy syndrome preeclampsia. Am J Hypertens 4:700-708, 1991.

Roberts J, Taylor R, Musci T, Rodgers G, Hubel C and McLaughlin M. Pre-eclampsia: An endothelial cell disorder. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161:1200-1204, 1989.

Robertson D, Selleck K, Suikkari A-M, Hurley V, Moohan J and Healy D. Urinary vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in women undergoing gonadotrophin treatment. Mol Hum Reprod 1:2478-2482, 1995.

Rodriguez C, Fei D, Keyt B and Baly D. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that measures endothelial growth factor165 in human plasma. J Immunol Methods 219:45-55, 1998.

Ross M and Reith E. Female reproductive system. In: Histology: a text and atlas. Eds: Harper & Row.Publishers, JB Lippincott Company, New York, USA, 1985.

Röckl W, Hecht D, Sztajer H, Waltenberger J, Yayon A and Weich H. Differential binding characteristics and cellular inhibition by soluble VEGF receptors 1 and 2. Exp Cell Res 241:161-170, 1998.

Sait S, Dougher-Vermazen M, Shows T and Terman B. The kinase insert domain receptor gene (KDR) has been relocated to chromosome 4q11-q12. Cytogenet Cell Genet 70:145-146, 1995.

Sato TN, Qin Y, Kozak CA and Audus KL. Tie-1 and tie-2 define another class of putative receptor tyrosine kinase genes expressed in early embryonic vascular system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:9355-8, 1993.

Sato TN, Tozawa Y, Deutsch U, Wolburg BK, Fujiwara Y, Gendron MM, Gridley T, Wolburg H, Risau W and Qin Y. Distinct roles of the receptor tyrosine kinases Tie-1 and Tie-2 in blood vessel formation. Nature 376:70-4, 1995.

Sawano A, Takahashi T, Yamaguchi S, Aonuma M and Shibuya M. Flt-1 but not KDR/Flk-1 tyrosine kinase is a receptor for placenta growth factor, which is related to vascular enothelial growth factor. Cell Growth Differ 7:213-221, 1996.

Senger D, Van de Water L, Brown L, Nagy J, Yeo K, Yeo T, Berse B, Jaackman R, Dvorak K and Dvorak H. Vascular permeability factor (VPF, VEGF) in tumor biology. Cancer Metastasis Review 12:303-324, 1993.

Shalaby F, Rossant J, Yamaguchi TP, Gertsenstein M, Wu XF, Breitman ML and Schuh AC. Failure of blood-island formation and vasculogenesis in Flk-1-deficient mice. Nature 376:62-6, 1995.

Sharkey A, Cooper J, Balmforth J, McLaren J, Clark D, Charnock-Jones D, Morris N and Smith S. Maternal plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in normotensive pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Eur J Clin Invest 26:1182-1185, 1996.

Sharkey AM, Charnock JD, Boocock CA, Brown KD and Smith SK. Expression of mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor in human placenta. J Reprod Fertil 99:609-15, 1993.

Shibuya M, Ito N and Claesson-Welsh L. Structure and function of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and -2. In: Vascular Growth Factors and Angiogenesis. Ed: Claesson-Welsh L. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 1999.

Shibuya M, Yamaguchi S, Yamane A, Ikeda T, Tojo A, Matsusime H and Sato M. Nucleotide sequence and expression of a novel human receptor-type tyrosine kinase gene (flt) closely related to the fms family. Oncogene 5:519-524, 1990.

Shifren JL, Mesiano S, Taylor R, Ferrara N and Jafe R. Corticotropin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human fetal adrenal cortical cells. J Clin Endocr Metab 83:1342-1347, 1998.

Shifren JL, Tseng J, Zaloudek C, Ryan I, Meng Y, Ferrara N, Jaffe R and Taylor R. Ovarian steroid regulation of vascular endotheial growth factor in the human endometrium: Implications for angiogenesis during the menstrual cycle and in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. J Clin Endocr Metab 81:3112-3118, 1996.

Shifren JL, Doldi N, Ferrara N, Mesiano S and Jaffe RB. In the human fetus, vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed in epithelial cells and myocytes, but not vascular endothelium: implications for mode of action. J Clin Endocr Metab 79:316-22, 1994.

Shiraishi S, Nakagava K, Kinukawa N, Nakano H and Sueshi K. Immunohistochemical localization of vascular endothelial growth factor in the human placenta. Placenta 17:111-121, 1996.

Shore V, Wang T-H, Wang C-L, Torry R, Caudle M and Torry D. Vascular endothelial growth factor, placenta growth factor and their receptors in isolated human trophoblast. Placenta 18:657-665, 1997.

Shulman K, Rosen S, Tognazzi K, Manseau E and Brown L. Expression of vascular permeability factor (VPF/VEGF) is altered in many glomerular diseases. J Am Soc Nephrol 7:661-616, 1996.

Sone H, Okuda Y, Kawakami Y, Kondo S, Hanatani M, Matsuo K, Suzuki H and Yamashita K. Progesterone induces vascular endothelial growth factor on retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture. Life Sci 59:21-25, 1996.

Sordello S, Bertrand N and Plouet J. Vascular endothelial growth factor is up-regulated in vitro and in vivo by androgens. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 251:287-290, 1998.

Stirrat G. Recurrent miscarriage I: definition and epidemiology. Lancet 336:673-675, 1990.

Taichman N, Cruchley A, Fletcher L, Hagi-Pavli E, Paleolog E, Abrams W, Booth V, Edwards R and Malamud D. Vascular endothelial growth factor in normal human salivary glands and saliva: a possible role in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Lab Invest 78:869-875, 1998.

Takahashi T and Shibuya M. The 230 kDa mature form of KDR/Flk-1 (VEGF receptor-2) activates the PLCg pathway and partially induces mitotic signals in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Oncogene 14:431-436, 1997.

Talamentes A and Ogren L. The placenta as an endocrine organ: polypeptides. In: The Physiology of Reproduction. Ed: Knobil E and Neill J. Raven Press Ltd, New York, 1988.

Taylor R, Crombleholme W, Friedman S, Jones L, Casal D and Roberts J. High plasma fibronectin levels correlate with biochemical and clinical features of preeclampsia but cannot be attributed to hypertension alone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:895-901, 1991.

Terman B, Dougher-Vermazen M, Carrion M, Dimitrov V, Armellino D, Gospodarovicz D and Bohlen P. Identification of the KDR tyrosine kinase as a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 187:1579-1586, 1992.

Torry D, Harris G, Holt V, Cuadle M, Keenan J and Torry R. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cycling human endometrium. Fertil Steril 66:72-80, 1996.

Tulppala M, Palosuo T, Ramsay T, Miettinen A, Salonen R and Ylikorkala O. A prospective study of 63 couples with a history of recurrent abortion: contributing factors and outcome of subsequent pregnancies. Hum Reprod 8:764-770, 1993.

Ullrich A and Schlessinger J. Signal transduction by receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. Cell 61:203-212, 1990.

Unemori E, Erikson M, Rocco S, Sutherland K, Parsell D, Mak J and Grove B. Relaxin stimulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in normal human endometrial cells in vitro and is associated with menometrorrhagia in women. Hum Reprod 14:800-806, 1999.

Waltenberger J, Claesson-Welsh L, Siegbahn A, Shibuya M and Heldin C. Different signal transduction properties of KDR and Flt1, two receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem 269:26988-26995, 1994.

Viglietto G, Romano A, Maglione D, Rambaldi M, Paoletti I, Lago C, Califano D, Monaco C, Mineo A, Santelli G, Manzo G, Botti G, Chiapetta G and Persico M. Neovascularization in human germ cell tumors correlates with a marked increase in the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor but not the placenta growth factor. Oncogene 13:577-587, 1996.

Vuckovic M, Ponting J, Terman B, Niketic V, Seif M and Kumar S. Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, KDR, in human placenta. J Anat 188:361-366, 1996.

Yabkowitz R, Meyer S, Black T, Elliot G, Merewther L and Yamane H. Inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor stimulate the release of soluble tie receptor from human endothelial cells via metalloproteinase activation. Blood 93:1969-1979, 1999.

Yamada Y, Nezu J, Shimane M and Hirata Y. Molecular cloning of a novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-D. Genomics 42:483-488, 1997.

Yamaguchi T, Dumont D, Conlon R, Breitman M and Rossant J. flk-1, an flt-related receptor tyrosine kinase is an early marker for endothelial cell precursors. Development 118:489-498, 1993.

Yang R, Thomas G, Bunting S, Ko A, Ferrara N, Keyt B, Ross J and Jin H. Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on hemodynamics and cardiac performance. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 27:838-844, 1996.

Ylikorkala O, Pekonen F and Viinikka L. Renal prostacyclin and thromboxane in normotensive and preeclamptic women and their infants. J Clin Endocr Metab 63:1307-1312, 1986.

Zhou Y, Fischer S, Janatpour M, Genbacev O, Dejana E, Wheelock M and Damsky C. Human cytotrophoblasts adopt a vascular phenotype as they differentiate. A strategy for successful endovascular invasion? J Clin Invest 99:2139-2151, 1997.

Back to the title page | E-thesis main page