University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
Applications of coralline hydroxyapatite with bioabsorbable containment and reinforcement as bone graft substitute
An experimental study
Doctoral dissertation, April 2006.
The aim of the present experimental study was to find out if the applications of coralline hydroxyapatite (HA) can be improved by using bioabsorbable containment or binding substance with particulate HA in mandibular contour augmentation and by using bioabsorbable fibre-reinforced HA blocks in filling bone defects and in anterior lumbar interbody fusion.
The use of a separate curved polyglycolide (PGA) containment alone or together with a fast resorbing polyglycolide/polylactide (PGA/PLA) binding substance were compared to the conventional non-contained method in ridge augmentation in sheep. The contained methods decreased HA migration, but the augmentations did not differ significantly. The use of the containment caused a risk for wound dehiscence and infection. Histologically there was a rapid connective tissue ingrowth into the HA graft and it was more abundant with the PGA containment compared to the non-contained augmentation and even additionally rich when the HA particles were bound with PGA/PLA copolymer. However, the bone ingrowth was best in the non-contained augmentation exceeding 10-12 % of the total graft area at 24 weeks. Negligible or no bone ingrowth was seen in the cases where the polymer composite was added to the HA particles and, related to that, foreign-body type cells were seen at the interface between the HA and host bone.
The PGA and poly-dl/l-lactide (PDLLA) fibre-reinforced coralline HA blocks were studied in the metaphyseal and in the diaphyseal defects in rabbits. A rapid bone ingrowth was seen inside the both types of implants. Both PGA and PDLLA fibres induced an inflammatory fibrous reaction around themselves but it did not hinder the bone ingrowth. The bone ingrowth pattern was directed according to the loading conditions so that the load-carrying cortical ends of the implants as well as the implants sited in the diaphyseal defects were the most ossified.
The fibre-reinforced coralline HA implants were further studied as stand-alone grafts in the lumbar anterior interbody implantation in pigs. The strength of the HA implants proved not to be adequate, the implants fractured in six weeks and the disc space was gradually lost similarly to that of the discectomized spaces. Histologically, small quantities of bone ingrowth was seen in some of the PGA and PDLLA reinforced coralline implants while no bone formation was identified in any of the PDLLA reinforced synthetic porous HA implants. While fragmented, the inner structure of the implants was lost, the bone ingrowth was minimal, and the disc was replaced by the fibrous connective tissue. When evaluated radiologically the grade of ossification was assessed as better than histologically, and, when related to the histologic findings, CT was more dependable than the plain films to show ossification of the implanted disc space. Local kyphosis was a frequent finding along with anterior bone bridging and ligament ossification as a consequence of instability of the implanted segment.
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© University of Helsinki 2006
Last updated 20.04.2006