University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
Digestion capasity, nutrient digestibilities and physico-chemical conditions in the intestine influenced by the age of growing turkeys
Doctoral dissertation, October 2006.
Six experiments have been conducted to examine digestibility and feeding value of domestic Finnish fibre-rich cereals (barley and oats as compared to maize and wheat) and protein sources (rapeseed meal and cake, peas, faba beans, lupin seeds) for growing turkeys and to investigate effects of age of the birds (from 3 to 12 weeks of age) on digestion process and estimated nutrient digestibility and energy values. Besides, an objective of the study was to test applications of digestibility research methodology for turkeys.
Total tract digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) was assayed in experimental cages using excreta collection, and a slaughter method was applied to sample small intestinal digesta for determination of apparent ileal crude protein digestibility (AICPD), jejuno-duodenal digesta viscosity and caecal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration.
Digesta viscosity decreased and caecal VFA production increased with age of growing turkeys. Digesta retention times in the small intestine were generally longer in the older birds than in the younger ones. Crude fat digestibility and AME increased with age of growing turkeys, especially with viscous diets. AICPD seemed to decrease with age in most cases. Supplementation with β-gucanase-xylanase decreased viscosity, improved crude fat digestibility and metabolizable energy value and increased VFA production especially in barley-fed turkeys and especially in the young birds.
Poor protein digestibility and low energy value of rapeseed meal and rapeseed cake decreased their feeding value for turkeys. In addition, a typical goitrogenic effect of rapeseed feeding was detected. Use of legume seeds as feed for growing turkeys is limited mostly by the low energy value in lupin seeds and the low ileal protein and amino acid digestibility in faba beans. Digestibility of fibre-rich protein sources was not improved with age of the turkeys.
Euthanizing the turkeys for AICPD determination by carbon dioxide and bleeding led to lower digestibility values than mechanical stunning and cervical dislocation, suggesting inferiority of carbon dioxide stunning in experimental use. Comparison of AICPD and AME results obtained using different markers showed that considerable differences may occur, especially on total tract level, when acid-insoluble ash gave considerably lower AME values than titanium dioxide and chromic oxide.
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© University of Helsinki 2006
Last updated 08.09.2006