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Contents

Abstract

List of original publications

1. Introduction

2. Diet, body size, and breast cancer

2.1 Diet and carcinogenesis
2.2 Body size and energy
2.3 Fat
2.4 Dietary fiber
2.5 Vitamin A
2.6 Vitamin E
2.7 Vitamin C
2.8 Selenium
2.9 Alcohol
2.10 Summary of factors related to diet

3. Assessment of dietary exposure

3.1 Overview of food frequency questionnaires
3.2 Reproducibility and validity of food frequency questionnaires
3.3 Biochemical indicators 3.4 Summary of food frequency questionnaires and biochemical indicators

4. Aims of the study

5. Subjects and Methods

5.1 Kuopio Breast Cancer Study
5.2 Subjects 5.3 Methods

6. Results

6.1 Associations between known risk factors and breast cancer (I)
6.2 Body-size indicators and risk of breast cancer (I)
6.3 Quality of food frequency questionnaire (II)
6.4 Food consumption and risk of breast cancer (III)
6.5 Nutrient intake and risk of breast cancer (III)
6.6 Comparison of different methods of assessing alcohol consumption (IV)
6.7 Current and past alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer (IV)
6.8 Toenail selenium concentration and risk of breast cancer (V)

7. Discussion

7.1 Limitations of case-control studies
7.2 Other methodological considerations
7.3 Associations between diet, body size, and breast cancer
7.4 Future directions
7.5 Summary of the main findings

8. Kiitokset / Acknowledgements

9. References


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