University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
Studies on Aerosol Particle Emission, Sampling and Authenticity
Doctoral dissertation, May 2006.
Emissions of coal combustion fly ash through real scale ElectroStatic Precipitators (ESP) were studied in different coal combustion and operation conditions. Sub-micron fly-ash aerosol emission from a power plant boiler and the ESP were determined and consequently the aerosol penetration, as based on electrical mobility measurements, thus giving thereby an indication for an estimate on the size and the maximum extent that the small particles can escape. The experimentals indicate a maximum penetration of 4% to 20 % of the small particles, as counted on number basis instead of the normally used mass basis, while simultaneously the ESP is operating at a nearly 100% collection efficiency on mass basis. Although the size range as such seems to appear independent of the coal, of the boiler or even of the device used for the emission control, the maximum penetration level on the number basis depends on the ESP operating parameters. The measured emissions were stable during stable boiler operation for a fired coal, and the emissions seemed each to be different indicating that the sub-micron size distribution of the fly-ash could be used as a specific characteristics for recognition, for instance for authenticity, provided with an indication of known stable operation.
Consequently, the results on the emissions suggest an optimum particle size range for environmental monitoring in respect to the probability of finding traces from the samples. The current work embodies also an authentication system for aerosol samples for post-inspection from any macroscopic sample piece. The system can comprise newly introduced new devices, for mutually independent use, or, for use in a combination with each other, as arranged in order to promote the sampling operation length and/or the tag selection diversity. The tag for the samples can be based on naturally occurring measures and/or added measures of authenticity in a suitable combination. The method involves not only military related applications but those in civil industries as well. Alternatively to the samples, the system can be applied to ink for note printing or other monetary valued papers, but also in a filter manufacturing for marking fibrous filters.
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Last updated 26.04.2006