University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
Tailoring polyolefin properties by metallocene catalysis
Doctoral dissertation, November 2006.
This doctoral thesis deals with the syntheses of olefin homo- and copolymers using different kind of metallocene catalyst. Ethene, propene, 1-hexene, 1-hexadecene, vinylcyclohexane and phenylnorbornene were homo- or copolymerized with the catalysts. The unbridged benzyl substituted zirconium dichloride catalysts (1-4), ansa- bridged acenaphtyl substituted zirconium dichloride catalysts, ( 5, 6), rac- and meso-ethylene-bis(1-indenyl)zirconium dichlorides, (rac- and meso-8), rac-ethylene-bis(1-indenyl)hafnium dichloride, ( 12), bis(9-fluorenyl)hafnium dichloride (14 ) enantiomerically pure (R)- phenylethyl[(9-fluorenyl-1-indenyl)]ZrCl2, (11), 14 and asymmetric dimethylsilyl[(3-benzylindenyl-(2-methylbenzen[e]indenyl)] zirconium dichloride, (13), were prepared in our laboratory. Dimethylsilyl-bis(1-indenyl)zirconium dichloride, (9), isopropylidene(9-fluorenyl-cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride, (10), and were obtained commercially. The solid-state structures of the catalysts rac- and meso-1 were determined by X-ray crystallography. Computational methods were used for the structure optimization of the catalyst rac- and meso-1 in order to compare the theoretical calculations with the experimental results. Polymerization experiments were conducted in a highly purified autoclave system using low pressures (< 5 bar) of gaseous monomers. The experiments were designed to attain the optimal catalytic activity and a uniform copolymer composition. The prepared homo- and copolymers were characterized by the gel permeation chromatography, GPC, differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, FTIR . Molar mass (Mw, Mn), molar mass distribution (Mw/Mn), tacticity, comonomer content, melting temperature, glass transition temperature, and end group structures and content were determined. A special attention was paid on the correlation of the polymer properties with the catalyst structures and polymerization conditions. An intramolecular phenyl coordination was found in phenyl substituted benzyl zirconocenes 1-3 explaining the decreased activity of the catalysts. Novel copolymers poly(propene-co-phenylnorbornene) and poly(propene co-vinylcyclohexane), were synthesized and high molar mass poly(ethene-co-1-hexene) and poly(ethene-co-1-hexadecene) copolymers with elastic properties were prepared. Activation of a hafnocene catalyst was studied with UV-Vis spectrometry and activation process for the synthesis of ultra high molar mass poly(1-hexene) was found out.
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© University of Helsinki 2006
Last updated 16.11.2006