CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

PREFACE

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

2.1. Metal bearing waste waters

2.2. Conventional cleaning technology

3. ION EXCHANGERS AND THEIR USE IN WASTE WATER TREATMENT

3.1. Ion exchange materials and their aplications in waste water treatment

3.1.1. Ion exchange resins
3.1.2. Inorganic ion exchangers
3.1.3. Activated carbons
3.1.4. Industrial ion exchange processes

3.2. Ion exchange equilibrium

3.2.1. Selectivity
3.2.2. Distribution coefficient and practical capacity
3.2.3 Other chemical and physical phenomena involved with ion exchange

4. Experimental

4.1. Exchangers

4.2. Waste waters and test solutions

4.3. Test procedures

4.3.1. Batch mode tests
4.3.2. Column mode tests
4.3.3. The Colmenu program

4.4. Tracer studies

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

5.1. Evaluation of sorbents

5.1.1. Evaluation of sorbents for Ni and Zn in actual waste solution
5.1.2. Evaluation of organic exchangers for Cr sorbtion
5.1.3. Evaluation of zeolites and activated carbons for Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd sorption
5.1.4. Selecting the most promising exchangers

5.2. Ion exchange equilibria of transition metals on chelating resins and zeolites

5.2.1. Effect of pH value and competing complexation
5.2.2. Effect of counter ion concentration
5.2.3. Effect of zeolite structure and composition

6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

7. REFERENCES