University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006
Titanium Complexes for the Polymerisation of Ethene and ε-Caprolactone
Doctoral dissertation, December 2006.
The literature part of the thesis mainly reviews the results of the use of titanium catalysts for ethene and caprolactone polymerisation. The behaviour of titanium catalysts bearing phenoxy-imino ligands has been the focus of more detailed investigations in ethene polymerisation. Reasons for the production of multimodal polyethene for a range of catalysts are also given. The experimental part of the thesis is divided into two sections based on the monomers used in the polymerisations: Part A (ethene) and part B (caprolactone).
Part A: Titanium(IV) complexes bearing phenoxy-imino ligands are known to possess high ethene polymerisation activities after MAO activation. Depending on the ligand, the activities of the catalysts in polymerisation can vary between 1 and 44000 kgPE/(mol*cat*h*bar). Depending on the polymerisation temperature and the electronic and steric properties of the catalyst ligands, low to high molar mass values and uni- and multimodal polydispersity values can been observed. In order to discover the reasons for these differences, 22 titanium(IV) complexes containing differently substituted phenoxy-imino derivatives as di- and tetradentate ligands were synthesised with high yields and used as homogeneous catalysts in ethene polymerisations. Computational methods were used to predict the geometry of the synthesised complexes and their configuration after activation. Based on the results obtained, the geometry of the catalyst together with the ligand substituents seem to play a major role in defining the catalytic activity. Novel titanium(IV) complexes bearing malonate ligands were also synthesised. Malonates are considered to be suitable ligand pre-cursors since they can be produced by the simple reaction of any primary or secondary alcohol with malonylchloride, and thus they are easily modifiable. After treatment with MAO these complexes had polymerisation activities between 10 and 50 kgPE/(mol*cat*h*bar) and surprisingly low polydispersity values when compared with similar types of catalysts bearing the OO chelate ligand.
Part B: One of the synthesis routes in the preparation of the above mentioned phenoxy-imino titanium dichloride complexes involved the use of Ti(NMe2)4 with a range of salicylaldimine type compounds. On reaction, these two compounds formed an intermediate product selectively and quantitatively which was active in the ring-opening polymerisation of caprolactone. Several mono-anionic alcoholates were also combined with Ti(NMe2)4 in different molar ratios and used as catalysts. Full conversion of the monomer was achieved within 15 minutes with catalysts having a co-ordination number of 4 while after 22 hours full conversion was achieved with catalysts having a co-ordination number of 6.
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Last updated 05.12.2006