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Browsing by Subject "identiteetti"

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  • Palmu, Minna (2019)
    The aim of this thesis is to participate in the ongoing conversation concerning home and school cooperation, in which the upbringing responsibilities are being negotiated and the relations of home and school are structured and reorganized. Home-School partnership offers an ideal cooperation model in which the parents have equal opportunities to make their voices heard. On the other hand, the idea of partnership has been criticized because the core elements of equality, trust, voluntary and participation do not consider the unequal power relations between parents and teachers. Previous research has shown that the rhetoric of Home-School partnership usually differs from the way partnership is practiced in school settings. The rhetoric emphasizes agency, activity and dynamics of the parents but when put in practice parents are usually seen as passive crowd, passive receivers of information, participants of events, volunteers and non-participating supporters. I participate in this ongoing conversation with the help of two research questions, which I approached by using the elements of discursive analysis. My research questions are: 1. What are the Home-School partnership ideals the barometer respondent parents are building in their responses, and what kind of tensions these ideals might include? And 2. What kind of parenthood is possible within these ideals? My research data consists of one open ended question of the Parents 2018 Barometer, which I interpreted as a structuralised e-form interview question. As an answer to my research questions I identified four Home-School partnership ideals. These ideals included tensions, which came apparent when parents were building their Home-School partnership with other parents of the school and when the parents were problematizing their participation in relation of trust, the school practises and the voluntary aspect of Home-School partnership. The findings of this thesis also show based on the partnership that there are a variety of possible parenthood identities to parents in these ideals which can be conflicting and challenging to each other.
  • Ilomanni, Pia (2023)
    Finnish elementary students’ mathematics performance is well above average in international comparison, but research shows that it is declining. Also, students’ motivation is not as strong as could be expected according to their performance. We used the person-centred approach to investigate Finnish third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students’ mathematics motivation profiles. In addition, we explored differences between the motivation profiles regarding students’ mathematics identity, performance, and their parents’ mathematics-related attitudes Participants were 304 Southern Finnish third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students from five separate schools and their parents/guardians (N=241). The surveys were conducted during spring of 2021 in the pilot stage of an international research project focusing on students’ mathematical motivation. Analysis was conducted with Mplus. Motivation profiles were derived by a latent profile analysis (LPA), additional analysis used bch and r3step methods and crosstabulation (spss). Analysis revealed three distinct types of math-related motivation profiles: highly motivated, non motivated and indifferent. Further investigation of the profiles showed that students’ higher mathematics identity is represented strongly in highly motivated group, as are students’ mathematics performance scores. Parents’ self-reported perceived low mathematics competence is highly represented in those students belonging to the non motivated profile. The article: ” Examining motivation profile differences across students' mathematics identity, performance, and parents’ attitudes” is planned to be published in the LUMAT-journal.
  • Kasurinen, Jaana (2001)
    The purpose of this research is to deepen the understanding of the culture of the veil among Somali women in Finland. The research deals with ethnicity, identity, easing the immigrant's readjustment with the help of one's own culture, and the connection between the religion of Islam and the veil. The veil will be studied from both the historical and religious point of view. The research will also familiarize the reader with the dress code for women in the Koran. The empirical part of the research is carried out as a qualitative study with the help of content analysis, with emphasis in phenomenology. The aim of the phenomenological research method is to reach a person's experience world, and to search for common contents from individual experiences. The material for this study has been collected by interviewing ten Somali women. Some of the women wear veils, some do not. It can be said, on the ground of this research, that the decision about taking on the veil is made by the women themselves. The main cause for wearing the veil is to indicate religiousness. As other motives we can see a search for security, enhancing of solidarity, individual interpretation of the instructions of the religion, covering the ethnic dress while outside, protecting men from the beauty of women, and wearing the veil in the mosque or while praying. As a latent motive we can point out the resisting of Western culture. Not wearing the veil can be justified by the women's need for independence, the veil being unpractical, the want of modernity, the alternation of different ways of dressing, the adaptation of the new culture, abandoning one's own culture, and abandoning the external emphasizing of the religion. Also the veil is not part of the Somali culture; it is a habit adapted from elsewhere.
  • Boele, Rosa-Maria (2016)
    Objectives. Today migration and mobility have become easier and more common, which will affect people's relations to place. The purpose of this study was to examine the link between identity and place from the perspective of an individual, who belongs to diverse groups. This means that the meaningful places for identity formation were not necessarily mutually shared with the larger group. The aim was, above all, to bring out an individual's perspective on the importance of place in identity building process and to determine the impact of changed places due to occurred migration for an individual and his identity construction. The research task is to describe, analyze and interpret the significance of place for identity formation process for young adults who once lived in at least two countries. The link between identity and place occurs in the research groups place relationships and social contacts, which have evolved in the context of migration. Methods. The research data consisted of three interviews of young adults who had lived in at least two countries. All of the people from the research group had dual nationalities of both parents' homelands. From all of the interviewees one of the parents was Finnish and the other from another European country. Theme interview was used as the method of collecting data. It was conducted by individual interviews, which utilized theoretical frameworks main themes. These themes were identity, place, migration and social relations. The data was analyzed by means of a qualitative research by using the narrative analysis. Following the content analysis, the data was coded in various categories, which allowed us to examine the formation of identity in relation to place. The analysis referred the theory but didn't connect only to it because it also arose from the data. Results and conclusions. The research result shows clearly that the place and changes of place has an importance for the construction process of identities. Examining the link between identity and the place the uniqueness of the experience and the individual's personal perspectives were emphasized. The upper categories of the analysis; identity, location, migration and social relations, were a useful in presenting the results of the study. However, the upper categories had a lot of duplication and only by violating the structure by joining the categories together the actual research results were brought out. The research results were formed by the interactive whole of place and identity, which reflected the research groups' experiences of how meaningful the place had been in their identity formation. It showed also how a wide range of individual factors contributed to the formation of a sense of belonging as well as the relevance of the place. Due to migration, the changes of places played a big role in shaping the re-search groups identities. The migration affected the identities, relations of place and social relations to change toward the diverse cross boarder and diasporic manifestations. However, the research groups' reports were strongly personal and contained a lot of unique features. References to cross-border and diasporic identities, open understandings of place and widespread connections in addition to cross-border relationships were common to the entire research group. However, it should be borne in mind that the diasporic, hybrid, and the cross-border identities shouldn't be seen only connected to place, but identity should always be remembered identity consisting of a variety of factors. In addition to place the constructs of identity consist of various factors, ranging from situations and different life paths.
  • Pirinen, Susanna (2015)
    Due to savings the traditional services provided by the welfare state have been weakened. These savings have adversely affected particularly the disadvantaged people, and part of the risk of social exclusion has increased. The third sector or non-governmental organisations, in this study Icehearts, will work to prevent exclusion starting from the pre-school stage. The theoretical background in this study is constructed from the concepts of change in welfare state, non governmental organisations, inter professional collaboration and identity. Organisation's educator-coaches coach teams, with the principle that everybody can play. Educators work as part of the inter professional collaboration, which is in boys and their families' life. Educators work at boys' school; organise afternoon activities, exercises in chosen sport, they are part of the multi-professional network in formal discussions and meetings including social, psychiatric, outpatient clinic and student welfare. Educators' work-identity or inter professional collaboration has not been studied before, similar studies has been done among social- and care work professionals. This thesis has studied the work of educators and identity as part of a multi-professional network. How educator-coaches' work-identity is constructed in their talk. How the interprofessional collaboration is described in their talk. Educators work mainly in the school district, both physically and mentally. Interesting is how this context was brought up in educators' speech. The study material was collected by theme interviews in November 2014 by interviewing six Iceheart's educator-trainer. They had worked 4-14 years in the organisation. The data was analysed with qualitative content-analysis. Experiences of working as a member of the interprofessional group differed depending from the context. Typical for educators seemed to be their tendency to adapt and use the language other professionals use. The underlying factors behind professional identity were the personal characteristics, Icehearts as organisation and other educators' support, personal values and the desire to help. Agency as part of the professional identity emerged as an opportunity to work with their own personality and their own way. There are no detailed instructions or only one right way to work as an educator and this was seen as an opportunity. It would be interesting and meaningful to study the effect of the organisation and educators from state point of view, what is the organisation's role in preventing exclusion. The multi professional co-operation could be studied with a change laboratory method in order to improve collaboration to benefit boys and families in large.
  • Kantanen, Tiina (2022)
    Continuous learning, identity and ecology are strong phenomena in our time. They are also quite wide-ranging. Previous research has shown an interaction between learning and identity. However, there is just little research on the link between learning and identity and there has been a need for it. Previous research has found that, for example, individual-relevant learning subjects has influenced his or her willingness to learn. Thus, the meanings contained in identity affect in its own way continuous learning. The aim of this research was to study continuous learning and the meanings of learning subjects in the context of coloring with natural dyes. The aim of this research is to determine, analyze and construe the learning and the meanings contained in identity that take place in the learning process related to natural coloring. Research material consisted of 26 interviews, which were interviewed as part of the BioColour research project led by Riikka Räisänen. Interviews were transcribed by an outside party. The research material was analyzed by content analysis. The research material was coded, classified and themed. The classifications were made based on previous research, but the subcategories come from the research material. The themed was done through themes that come from the research material. Using content analysis, it was possible to create a wide picture of the topic under this research. Those, who dye with natural colorants, learn in many ways. They learn especially through oblique knowledge transfer, where different courses were the largest class in the learning process. The interviewees described also that they learned, among other things, through their experiments. Those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the learning subject. They experienced personal meanings: related to health, self and emotions, as well as ethical meanings: environmental and traditional meanings. Based on the results, it could be said that the those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the subject that they were during their lifetime, but the connection between this experienced meaningful subject and their learning cannot be studied with this research.
  • Larsson, Julia (2014)
    Object.There is a small minority of Jews in Finland whose continuity has been threatened most of all by strong assimilation. Finnish Jewish young adults who almost without exception intermarry are bringing up and educating the next Jewish generation. The purpose of this research is to find out how do the Finnish Jewish young adults understand the conception of Jewishness and most of all, what does their Judaism mean to them. Secondly the purpose is to examine their double identity with the help of a model (Dencik 1993). In other words the aim is to find out what does the Jewish identity mean to those who will continue the inheritance of the Finnish Jews and how they tackle the double identity. Lundgren (2002) has made a research of the traditions and attitudes of the Finnish Jews and Dencik (1993, 2002) both in Sweden and in Denmark. With the help of this research it is the intention to participate in the discussion of the identity-negotiation (Kuusisto 2011, Klingenberg 2014, Rissanen 2014). Method. This research was put into practice as a qualitative multiple case study by sending inquiry to all 137 members of the Jewish Community in Helsinki who were born between 1976-1986. The inquiry was answered by 28 young adults. The meaning of Judaism to the Finnish Jewish young adults was studied with qualitative methods and inductive approach, and at the same time theory based approach. The double identity and thus acculturation attitudes were approached with the help of Dencik's (1993) model of a diasporic Jew. I analyzed the answers with the help of material-connected content analysis and theory-based analysis. Conclusions. With the help of material-connected content analysis it turned out that Judaism meant to respondents most of all Judaism as the interpreteter of experiences and belonging to the Jewish people (Dencik 1993). This section of Judaism included conceptions of Judaism as giving and receiving, Judaism as a way of living and as a feeling of togetherness to other fellow Jews. As for double identity, it showed that the Finnish and Jewish sides of identity were in balance, in other words, the respondents experienced their Jewishness as The Jews of Finland, whose homeland is Finland.
  • Savonen, Sonia (2015)
    Objectives. The meaning of this Master's thesis is to analyze the development, transformation and meanings of teachers' professional identity in narratives produced by teachers covering memorable students. The study pursues to explain how teachers' professional identity is built in narratives, explain the meanings connected to teachers' professional identity, and specify factors between teacher and student encounters. Teachers' different roles are constructed to structure the variety of features in the profession of a teacher. The frame of reference for the study is an encounter -point of view, in which the concepts of identity and otherness are intertwined. Methods. The study is qualitative by its nature and based on the constructivist philosophy of science. The material consists of five narratives produced by teachers covering memorable students. The narratives were collected in spring of 2014 and consist of a total of 15 pieces. The data was processed by analyzing the content through narrative analysis after which it was possible to perceive a narrative model of the culture of teachers. Through themes and classification I reconstructed this model producing four fictional narratives, in which the original themes occurred. I interpreted each narrative on the basis of the theoretical framework, and analyzed the identities, roles as well as the possibility for encounters constructed in the narratives. Next, I examined the common features of the narratives produced by teachers, after which I considered concrete answers to the research questions. Results and discussion. Through the model stories conveyed an image of the shared values and beliefs of teachers. Teachers' values appear to be founded on traditional basis and characterized by the teacher's personal identity. Teachers' professional identity can be interpreted consisting of the roles of an enhancer, educator, teacher and supporter. The narratives conveyed a contradictory world in which teachers are balancing between these roles, and strive to build their own professional identity in the context of the model story. The narratives, which show characteristics of encounters, shared similar descriptions of the teacher's desire to help and understand the challenging situation of a pupil. In encounters the identities of the teacher and student confront, and both are heard and understood.
  • Nykänen, Jamina (2018)
    The cultural identity and social relationships of a Third Culture Kid (TCK) has been researched in the recent decade. However, it is relevant to study more about the extraordinary experience of TCKs from their own point of view, which is the aim of this study. TCKs’ perceptions of their identity, identification and their becoming interculturally competent through their experiences deserve its own study. The aim of this study is to view how TCKs identify themselves when they return back home to Finland and to the Finnish culture after spending many years abroad or being brought up in a multicultural family in Finland. In addition, it is important to view how they percept their multicultural background and their international experiences and how they describe their sense of belonging and otherness as well as their intercultural growth. Phenomenography was used as the research strategy in this case study of four adult TCKs. The adult TCKs were interviewed and asked to write an autobiography discussing their feelings and experiences as a multicultural person with an international life experience. The data was first analysed with qualitative content analysis and then with phenomenographic analysis to create descriptive categories common to phenomenography. The adult TCKs have experienced difficulties with identification as it is complex and multidimensional. Identity and identification are involved with the senses of belonging and otherness. In this study cultural and social identity are tangled together in the narratives of the adult TCKs. The participants haven’t felt being attached to just one identity, a community or a group. Instead they described various senses of belonging and otherness. This study shows how these various feelings reflect how identity and identification are strongly attached to the context. The participants discuss their intercultural competence through their attitudes, cultural knowledge and social skills. The adult TCKs consider that they have learned from their cultural encounters. Through their experiences they have collected knowledge and skills to understand and respect people from different origins. Their own multicultural backgrounds have led them to examine their thoughts and attitudes and thus to develop their intercultural competence.
  • Hulmi, Pirjo (2017)
    Objectives. According to previous research people construct life stories to achieve an identity. We tell stories about ourselves and those stories become part of me. Narrative understanding evolves and the perception of one's life story and past also changes when one grows older. Identity achievement refers to a sense of continuity and of sameness and of direction in one's life and of feeling of being at home in one's body. We can observe identity development in life choices and commitments. Individuals also come to terms with their culture and vice versa through life narrative. The research questions were: how did different art education books that were related to youth arts projects deal with identity and how did they aim to support identity development through artistic work. My goal is to construct an overall picture of this theme because in my opinion it is possible to support identity formation and well-being at school with the aid of visual art education. Methods. This thesis is a systematic and discretionary review. I selected suitable youth arts projects and literature related to them that were published during last thirteen years. The book material was analysed by content analysis. I also considered how the results of the content analysis could be applied pedagogically. Results and conclusions. The literature that was selected to this literature review emphasized different parts of identity. The formation of identity was supported with the aid of art education, artistic work and self-narration. The objective of art education was to support identity formation, narrative understanding, self-narration and dealing with issues related to identity, self-knowledge, knowing one's cultural background, the experience of belonging, inclusion and recognition, the reflection of shared experiences and the meaning of one's experiences and the reflection of one's choices. On the basis of the results I came to the conclusion that self-narration, self-expression and artistic work support the formation of identity and help a young person to define who one is, where one is going and where does one belong.
  • Jyrhämä, Sandra (2018)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to analyse the discussion around the Finnish national food vote. The views expressed with regard to the vote, the different styles of speech, and the emphases and values associated with each view constitute the main interest of the study. In particular the study examines how food shapes identity and what kind of values, attitudes and images are attached to ’being a Finn’. Previous studies show that food conveys culture and thus forms identity. Methods. The data consist mainly of discussions in the media and social media around the national food vote. In principle the data was accessible by anyone searching the internet with the keyword ’national food’. However, the actual research material consists of data compiled by the company Meltwater Finland Oy in a media-monitoring campaign commissioned by the ELO Foundation. These data, consisting of different texts in the traditional and social media, were both analysed as qualitative content analysis discussions as well as differentiated and classified into different styles of speech based on the contents thereof. Results and conclusions. Eight different styles of speech were identified as a result of the analysis. The two main styles represented positive and negative tones of speech. The other styles identified were factual, healt- and identity speech, being right speech, voting speech and other (residual) speech. These styles of speech and the values associated with each of them were examined and analyzed both before and after the national food vote. In social media the discussion was vivid especially after the results of the vote were published. The media-monitoring campaign provided in total of 2301 hits for the keyword ’national food vote’, from which 367 in the traditional media and 1934 in social media. The results show that there are strong emotions connected with Finnish culinary identity. Some essential features and characteristics of what it means to be a Finn are revealed in the different styles of speech, as well as the significance of food, one of our fundamental needs. The study adds our understanding about the Finnish food culture and its significance. The analyzed material brings forth different styles of speech that are employed on internet forums. Within home economics, this study and its results can be utilised in teaching, and corresponding mini-votes can be organised within a class. The tourism and travelling industry could also benefit from the findings as they reveal and classify some of the major parts of Finnish identity, namely culinary identity.
  • Rapala, Emma (2015)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of three Finnish volunteer teachers in developing countries. Specific point of interest was to understand the functions of volunteer learning experiences in developing teacher identities. The objective of the study is to understand the possibilities of personal and professional growth that international volunteer teaching can provide. In this study, identity was seen as socially constructed narratives (Sfard & Prusak 2005). Learning was considered the bridge between actual and designated teacher identities. Teachers' professional growth was seen as interplay between developing the teacher's personal identity, professional identity and collective identity (Heikkinen 2001). This study follows constructivist theories' conception of knowledge as socially and subjectively constructed. A narrative approach defines the study as a whole. The research method applied was a combination of autobiographical narrative interview (Schütze 2005) and a semi-structured interview. The subjects were three Finnish teachers who all had taken part in an international volunteering program for six months. The collected data was analysed using Polkinghorne's (2005) analysis of narratives and narrative analysis. Analysis of narratives was utilised in categorizing the teachers' learning experiences. Narrative analysis then was applied to construct a new narrative: a typical story of the functions of international volunteering in teacher identity development. The teachers' learning experiences through volunteering were substantial and strongly linked to the teacher's personal background. The learning experiences were categorized as follows: 1) adapting in a new country, 2) working in the school community, 3) facing challenging situations in teaching and 4) cultural encounters. All categories except for the first one were linked to teacher identity development in the teachers' narratives. Learning experiences were utilized in two ways: realizing designated identities and creating new ones. International volunteering can support teachers' professional growth, but learning experiences are not linked to professional identities automatically without reflection. For the organizations providing international volunteering opportunities, it is important to identify the reflexive nature of volunteering and be organized in guiding teachers to reflect their experiences.
  • Kangasaho, Elisa (2014)
    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on kuvata suomi-venäjä –kaksikielisten ajatuksia kieli-identiteetistä. Tutkimuksessa on perehdytty kaksikielisyyden kehittymiseen, kaksikielisyyden etuihin ja haittoihin, venäjänkielisten kohtaamiin asenteisiin Suomessa sekä identiteetin rakentumiseen erityisesti kieltenoppimisen suhteen. Aikaisempia tutkimuksia kaksikielisten aikuisten suhteen on hyvin vähän. Tässä työssä perehdytään niihin tekijöihin, jotka vaikuttavat kieli-identiteetin kehittymiseen. Tutkimuskysymyksiä oli kaksi: minkälaisiksi kaksikieliset kokevat oman kieli-identiteetin ja miten tilannesidonnaisuus vaikuttaa kielen valintaan. Menetelmät. Tutkimusta varten on haastateltu yhtätoista kaksikielistä aikuista: neljää miestä ja seitsemää naista. Haastattelut toteutettiin teemahaastatteluna. Aineisto on analysoitu sisällön analyysillä ja se on teoriasidonnainen eli analyysiyksiköt on poimittu aineistoista, mutta niitä on ohjaa teoria. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Monelle vastaajalle kaksikielisyys oli enemmänkin identiteettikysymys kuin kielikysymys. Vastaajista vain neljä koki identifioituvansa yhteen kansallisuuteen. Kuusi vastaajaa koki kuuluvansa molempiin kansallisuuksiin: toimintapuolelta suomalaiseksi ja tunne- sekä ajattelupuolelta venäläiseksi. Ajattelun kieli määräytyi enemmin tilanteiden (puhutun kielen ja aiheen) mukaan, kuin kansallisen identiteetin kautta. Asenteet vaikuttivat kaksikielisyyteen kahdella tavalla: Suomessa monet vastaajista olivat joutuneet salailemaan kaksikielisyyttään negatiivisen asennoitumisen kautta. Venäjänkielisessä maassa kielitaito on yksi olennaisimpia identiteetin määrittäviä tekijöitä. Monet vastaajista kokivat, etteivät saa olla venäläisiä heikon kielitaidon takia, vaikka identiteetiltään kokivatkin näin. Tilannesidonnaisuus oli suurin tekijä kielen valintaan. Kaksikieliset usein ulkoistivat kielenvalinnan keskustelukumppanilleen. Näin ollen he pääsivät puhumaan suomea, joka valtaosalle oli helpompi tai venäjää ja näin myös ylläpitämään ja kehittämään sitä.
  • Ylinen, Pauliina (2008)
    The Finnish instrumental education system is said to be one of the bests in the world. Finnish musicians have become famous and they have gained success all over the world. To produce professional musicians has been the main goal of the whole Finnish instrumental education system for a long time. This has meant that playing an instrument as a hobby has been neglected. The focus of this qualitative study is the culture of instrumental education from the view of amateuring. One of the goals is to describe the Finnish context where music lovers grow up and where they construct their identities. The other aim is to give answers to the question "How can we develop the culture of instrumental education to serve also the needs of amateurs?" The data of this study is narrative. It consists of the stories of five amateurs, who were in their thirties. In the analysis I've used two different types of analysis: the analysis of narratives and the content analysis. In the analysis of narratives the stories were seen as narrative identities. Because the main focus of this study is the culture of instrumental education, I used the qualitative content analysis to find out some themes or phenomena which should be improved from the view of amateuring. This study has shown that there are many ways to become a music lover. An essential factor in the construction of an identity of a music lover seems to be a society which values the amateuring. In this study music schools weren't that kind of societies. The present study reveals that to construct the identities of music lovers should be one of the most important aims of the music education. This means for example that, in practice, instrumental studies could be more activating, there should be more music making in groups, and the evaluation should concentrate on the whole learning process.
  • Koivusalo, Nelli (2022)
    Multilingualism is a phenomenon which is increasingly visible in society. The number of persons who speak so called foreign languages in Finland has been clearly increasing every year and this can also be seen in the school institution. The demand and need for teaching students’ own languages has increased. The Finnish national curriculum (2014) for comprehensive schools emphasizes multilingualism, language awareness and importance of students’ mother tongue. The aim of this research is to clarify what is the situation of teaching mother tongue in the early 2020s. I examine teaching from the mother tongue teachers’ point of view. I am interested in how teachers teach the language and what things are important to the teachers in the teaching. This research is qualitative content analysis. The research material consisted of nine interviews from mother tongue language teachers. The interviews were semi-structural thematic interviews. The interviewees were four Russian teachers, a Japanese teacher, a Thai teacher, a Bulgarian teacher, a Dari teacher, and a Finnish teacher. The research material has been collected both from Finland and abroad. The material analysis method was content analysis. The interviews were transcribed and after that transcribed material was coded. As a result, I found four themes that teachers saw important in teaching mother tongue languages and five themes which seem to be otherwise important to the teachers in their job. The results of this research indicate that mother tongue language classes are usually based on the national curriculum, but it is sometimes hard to adapt same curriculum to all languages. Teaching is strongly influenced by learning material and there are huge differences in the availability between languages. According to this study teachers emphasize literacy skills, writing and master the letters of the language in their teaching. In the classes students are studying mostly independently because studying groups are strongly heterogeneous. Functional teaching methods have important place in classes because they are applicable for all the students regardless their age or language proficiency. Most of the teachers experience that it is challenging to evaluate the learning outcome in mother tongue language. In addition, the results of this research indicate that mother tongue teachers experience that important things in teaching are meaning of culture and identity, benefits of be able to use mother tongue, family’s support in studying mother tongue and valuation to their job. All in all, mother tongue language classes need assistance and resources in the early 2020s.
  • Räsänen, Tiina (2019)
    The aim of this study is to represent, children`s thoughts about languages, bi- and multilingualism and language learning. The topic was examined by means of the following research questions: 1. How children perceive languages and their appearance in the kindergarten, 2. How children are defining bi- and multilingualism in kindergarten and 3. How children define language learning. The aim of the study is to represent languages as a phenomenon from the children’s viewpoint with their own voice. On the other hand, the study aims to show the effects of a multilingual kindergarten environment from the views of the children about the languages in their own environment. This study was executed as a qualitative study in one kindergarten group. The methods used were halfstructured theme interview and action research. The study involved in total fifteen (15) children from whom seven took part along with group interviews to individual interviews. The children which took part in the research were aged 36 years by the time of research. Half of the children had bi- or multilingual backround. The research took place in the kindergartengroup combined in the familiar everyday routines of the gorup. Research material was analyzed using the content analysis -method. Interviews and the action research reveal that the age group of kindergarten children language world has multilingual features over monolingual. In addition, children understand the phenomenon of languages and language learning effortlessly and receive them in a positive way and were eager to learn more. Notable point is that children are experiencing language learning despite their young age. From their point of view languages are learned mostly in social interaction between peers or with an adult. Based on the interviews kindergarten aged children are having special interest in learning English. Research reveals that different languages and multilingualism affects even young children and are a part of child’s everyday life through varied language environments and media content. According to the research results handling bi- and multilingualism, children identify their own and the peer`s language proficiency levels. Results reveal that there is a clear link between multilingual skills of the group and the enthusiasm to learn languages of their choice. Which is a result of exposure to multilingualism in the goup. Even though the children experienced the language environment in the kindergarten to be open, they knowingly restrained themselves from speaking their second language speaking in certain situations. Throughout the research, it is possible to gain valuable knowledge about the state of languages in children lives told with their own voice.
  • Haapiainen, Sophie-Madeleine (2015)
    The subject of this master's thesis is the playing with a friend -project in the Special Music Centre Resonaari. The aim is to study the meanings of cooperative learning and volunteering within the playing with the friend -project. The purpose is to define the strengths of the project and to find aspects that affect the autoconcept of persons involved in the project. As a part of the autoconcept, the study aims also at finding identities that are built while participating to the project. The methodological approach of this study is qualitative. The data was gathered using interviews. Four playing pairs were interviewed, that is eight persons altogether. Four of them represented adult volunteers and four Resonaari's pupils with special educational needs. Two parents evaluated also the project. The data was analyzed using a narrative approach that stressed especially turning points in the narration. These changes concerned mainly mentalities towards the project and the pair, learning and one's own identities. Volunteering was meaningful for the volunteers at the beginning to get involved in the playing with the friend -project. Nevertheless, as playing pairs' friendship kept deepening, volunteering was seen less dominating. There was learning in musical and social skills but it wasn't goal-orientated. Thus, cooperative learning made possible sharing music in a relaxed atmosphere and seeing the parter all the time more as a friend. The pairs had built an own acting culture that underlines the importance of the new structure. Friendship creates an open and relaxed atmosphere where trying and learning by mistakes are accepted. At the same time, it enables strong commitment to the other person and to the common task. Learning is a vast study field that offers many further subjects to be investigated. In the mainstream schooling system enhancing good relationships between peers should be taken in account while developing learning strategies.
  • Kortesmäki, Henna-Maria (2014)
    The object of my thesis is to solve how Finnish primary school music books approach non-western cultures and their music, and how they construct cultural identities. In this research, I see identities as socially and discursively constructed: identity of "others" is always formed in relation to "us". Biased or negative descriptions may affirm stereotypes and prejudice of a certain group. This study is based on the ideology of multicultural education: the aim is to teach students to understand and value different perspectives and offer equal rights to different groups in society. As for music education, it means that different cultures should be approached from their own perspective, taking into account the musical diversity and dynamic nature of cultures. For my thesis I analysed two series of primary school music books: Soi (published by WSOY) and Musiikin mestarit (Otava) for grades 1–2, 3–4 and 5–6. All six books were published in the past two decades and encompass the majority of music books that are generally being used in the Finnish primary schools. I applied discourse analysis as research method for my study. It aims at understanding language as social behavior in a certain cultural and historical context. Within discourse analysis, I chose the critical approach as I was interested in the way the discourses were used to produce, renew and question unequal power relations, depending on how they positioned people. My aim was to observe how the cultures were represented and positioned in relation to "us" in the data. I categorized lyrics, pictures and their captions as per cultural areas, mainly by their geographical location. After that I observed the verbal and visual representations and how identities were constructed by them. I found many repeated and strong representations of certain cultural groups. They created a hegemonic discourse, which failed to take into account the diversity of the culture but instead repeated and boosted existing stereotypes of it. Identities of "others" were constructed in relation to "us" as a part of a long historical continuum. However, there were differences between books. The amount of different cultural contents, captions and photos in relation to drawings grew towards higher grades. Yet only Soi 5–6 had a clear attempt to approach other cultures from a multicultural perspective. On the whole, critical discourse analysis offered an interesting perspective to observe schoolbooks, and would be necessary for all authors, in order to improve multicultural approach in Finnish music education. Nevertheless, multicultural approach should be acknowledged already in teacher education in order to prepare teachers to approach different music cultures in their future work.
  • Heikkilä, Elina (2015)
    Dress and clothing have been studied a lot from the symbolic interaction perspective where dress is seen as a message. According to symbolic interactionism a person tells about him or herself and expresses the self through different identities. In this study, I ask how women express their self and identity through dress and what is other persons' role in women's expression of their dressing identity. In addition, I look for answers to the questions why women are preserving clothes they do not use and what kind of meanings they attach to these clothes. I used a combination of thematic and narrative interviews for collecting of data. I interviewed nine women between 19 and 64 years of age. In the course of the interviews, informants presented clothes they liked, clothes that were special for them and clothes that they had but which they no longer used. I coded the data with Atlas/ti program. I analyzed the data by using a theory dependent approach. Women express their self through various identities that are affected by social context. Women also define their identities by rejecting such ways of dressing that they think are uncharacteristic for themselves. They are careful not to reveal too much. They are also sensitive about overdressing and being labeled into a wrong age group. Women's dress is affected by an imaginary other person's look, an image of how other people see them. This is especially evident in work and formal dress. Women's favorite clothes made them feel comfortable, they felt that these clothes reflected their own style, and women believed that they looked good in wearing those clothes. Women preserved clothes that they did not use because they believed that they still one day would use them or they wanted to keep them as memories. The clothes kept as memories build up women's present day identity by disclosing what she had been before and reminding her of positive moments in the past.
  • Lehtonen, Miikka (2008)
    The objective of the study was to explore the dimensions of group identity in the guilds of World of Warcraft. Previous research shows that social interaction has an important role in playing games for many players. Social identities are an important aspect of self-concept and since group related cues are more salient than personal clues in computer-mediated communication, the social gaming experience was approached through group identity. In the study a new scale will be developed to measure the group identity in games. Secondary goal is to study how different guild attributes affect the group identity and third goal is to explore the connection between group identity and gaming experience and amount of play. Subjects were 1203 guild members and 106 players not in a guild. The data was gathered by an Internet survey which measured group identity with nine scales, gaming experience with three scales and guild attributes with four scales. Also various background data was gathered. The construct of group identity was analyzed with explorative factor analysis. The typical experiences of group identity was analyzed with cluster analysis and effects of guild attributes with multivariate analysis of covariance. As a result of the study a new scale was developed which measured group identity on six dimensions: self-stereotyping, public and private evaluation, importance, interconnection of self and others and awareness of content. Group identity was experienced strongest in elder middle-sized guilds that had formal rules and that emphasized social interaction. The players with strong group identity had more positive gaming experience and played World of Warcraft more per week than the players who were not in a guild or identified to guild weakly. This result encourages game developers to produce environments that enhance group identity as it seems to increase the enjoyment in games. As a whole this study proposes that group identity in guilds is constructed from the same elements as in traditional groups. If this is truly the case, guild membership may have similar positive effects on individual's mental well-being as traditional positively evaluated group memberships have.