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Browsing by study line "Metsäbiotalouden liiketoiminta ja politiikka"

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  • Pietarinen, Niina (2020)
    Bioeconomy is expected to play a key role in achieving resource-efficient, sustainable societies globally. With its vast forest resources, Finland aims at being a global forerunner of forest-based bioeconomy, which is ought to result in increased welfare of Finnish citizens, while being ecologically sustainable. Given these expectations, it is important to understand the relationship between Finnish forestry and sustainability. The aim of this master’s thesis is to provide an analysis on how the concept of sustainability is framed and translated in Finnish forest policies. Two research questions were drawn: 1. How is sustainability framed and understood in the Finnish forest policies? and 2. How the “Spirit of Rio” is transferred into the existing legislation? In this context, “the Spirit of Rio”, originating from the Rio Conference held in 1992, means the ambition to take care of environmental issues with a bottom-up approach with the participation of groups that are most affected by the decisions. Discourse analysis was chosen as approach as it can reveal meanings within texts. The analysis followed Backstränd and Lövbrand (2006) and investigated specific elements of environmental discourses (ecological modernization, green governmentality and critical civic environmentalism) in the analysis of selected national forest policy documents. ATLAS.ti software was used in analyzing and processing the research data. A code book was developed in order to help in structuring the analysis and the material was coded in four different levels, starting from the broadest topics and proceeding to less visible details. The research results indicate, that although the language used in the policies refers widely to sustainability, the consideration of ecological aspects of sustainability is weak and rhetoric whereas economic values have a dominant role, and are defined and translated towards action and practices. The Spirit of Rio was addressed in the analyzed policies in the form of co-operation of stakeholders and a participative writing process. However, the importance noticeably decreased over time. The research findings demonstrate, that in the analyzed policies the “brand” of sustainability is to some extent used as a marketing tool and hence risks to legitimize an industry friendly agenda with bioeconomy acting as an opportunity to commercialize natural resources. This thesis aims to provide relevant reflections to policymakers and the forest sector on whether and to which extent sustainability has been included in the Finnish forest policies. Understanding sustainability framings and dominant discourses in the past and present forest policy documents will help to inform ongoing and future forest policy revisions. Revealing the dominant discourse increases transparency and can start a process towards problem solving.
  • Punkanen, Netta (2022)
    A company is considered to be responsible to the public, and it is thus expected to practise Corporate Responsibility. A company practises Corporate Responsibility when its operations are run in a beyond compliance manner regarding society, the environment, and the economy. These practices also benefit the company's image and finance in the long run. Corporate Environmental Policy (CEP) presents the company's practices or intentions considering beyond-compliance operations regarding the environment. There are no existing regulations, common guidelines, or third-party verification processes that would control what and how companies can or should include in their CEPs. There have been only a small number of studies focusing on CEPs, and none of them has addressed the accuracy of the statements. The current study investigates the accuracy levels of SaaS and Consulting companies' CEPs, whether the company discusses their already existing practices or goals, and how companies communicate their motives for having a CEP. An inductive content analysis was conducted on ten CEPs. The results show that CEPs include mostly inaccurate policy statements that inform about the company's plans and aims, and companies motivate their CEPs mainly by their perceived responsibility for their stakeholders. CEPs struggle with similar problems as any other form of Corporate Responsibility communications: vagueness, lack of concrete examples, and large amounts of irrelevant verbiage. This study calls for more research on CEPs and regulations to minimize greenwashing happening in the field.
  • Biksons, Roberts (2021)
    The aim of this study was to describe the main European Union Emission Trading System`s (EU ETS) aspects that affect carbon abatement investments and the way in which they influence investment decision making of the participating companies. Furthermore, trading phase III was analysed and compared to the previous phases in order to forecast possible carbon abatement investment trends for phase IV. The study consists of the collection of data from 9 EU ETS companies using semi-structured interviews. The questions were structured in four (compliance, protection against carbon leakage, carbon price and allowance allocation methods) sections based on extensive literature review of previous studies. According to the results, most companies considered the EU ETS as an important policy tool that encourages carbon abatement investments; however the system has also created certain difficulties: entering trading phase IV, companies are facing significant administrative burden, regulatory uncertainty and unfair competition caused by direct and indirect carbon costs and therefore increasing the risk of carbon leakage. All the above lower the companies’ ability of investing in carbon abatement. To tackle this problem more protective mechanisms should be introduced, including more flexible free allowance allocation. Taking into account the research limitations, respectively the low response rate (3,5%) and the lack of representation of certain industries, further investigation would be necessary for more definitive results, which would in turn help develop concrete policy proposals.
  • Wegelius, Satu (2022)
    The environmental detriments caused by textiles are multitude and large in scale. Substantial energy use and greenhouse gas emissions occur in the use phase of the garment. Using the lens of Consumption Work, this thesis maps the circular practices of active citizens related to textiles, i.e. clothes and home textiles, as well as the skills and other resources needed for the execution of the practices. The role of these practices in Circular Economy is considered through the 3R framework. Based on semi-structured interviews with 23 active citizens in Finland, a total of 29 circular practices related to clothes and home textiles were detected. The three most common practices among the interviewees were buying second-hand, repairing, and donating. In addition, this thesis contributes to identifying the invisible practices of planning/keeping books of purchases, recognizing materials, and others that are rarely mentioned in connection with Circular Economy. Textile-related circular practices were found to require different skills, such as sewing, and information searching, and other resources including time, knowledge, and equipment. For being able to have and use textiles, people are required to perform Consumption Work consisting of these textile-related practices of which some are mandatory, and some (more) voluntary. Citizens are increasingly expected to do Consumption Work with economic value in the future. This could be enabled e.g. through appearance of versatile second-hand shops and online platforms, and inspirational actions of others. In addition, structural changes at the state, municipal, and textile industry levels but also at the individual and societal levels are required. Further research is needed e.g. on what motivates people to take part in Circular Economy by conducting circular practices on individual and household levels, and how Consumption Work is divided between family members and genders.
  • Nacke, Jonas Roland (2021)
    Eucalyptus growing by smallholders for financial income has rapidly expanded in the district of Mecha, Amhara region, Ethiopia. Nevertheless, a lack of market knowledge on final consumer markets is limiting the income that smallholders receive for their eucalyptus poles. This study aims to uncover the barriers to market knowledge transfer hindering smallholders from receiving higher incomes for their products by analyzing the vertical coordination of actors in the value chain. The qualitative study was based on the Global Value Chain framework, which uses the theory of chain governance to explain the vertical coordination amongst actors. For the study, 18 semi-structured interviews (5 smallholders, 6 traders, 3 service providers, 2 experts, 2 regulators) were conducted with individuals and groups representing a total of 21 individuals. The interviews were transcribed and edited for theory-driven thematic analysis. The coordination between smallholders and traders falls closest to the market governance type meaning that transactions are based on price and product specification. The increased demand for high-quality eucalyptus poles in Bahir Dar reflected by high prices is not communicated through the chain to the producers. This lack of knowledge on the price variation for different pole qualities, together with unclear local pole classification system, leads to the possibility for traders to exploit smallholder tree growers to gain higher rent. Linking woodlot valuation to the market demand in Bahir Dar, increasing smallholders’ knowledge on the price variation for different qualities of poles, and improving the local pole classification system to include pole quality could enable tree growers in Mecha district to achieve higher financial benefits from their participation in the eucalyptus pole value chain.
  • Staff, Domna (2021)
    Corporate responsibility has become an increasingly important objective, and its role as a part of company’s strategy has enhanced. The discussions around the topic have heated and failure to take responsibility into account can be very detrimental to the company’s reputation. Company’s accountability has been guided by regulatory means. There have been regulations in place for a longer period both in Europe and the United States, but in the emerging markets the interest around the topic is also constantly growing. The aim of the thesis was to investigate how companies’ stock prices react when they are either added to or removed from the responsibility index in the emerging markets in 2013-2020. The index under study was the Dow Jones Sustainability Emerging Markets Index (DJSI Emerging Markets), which selects annually approximately 80 best companies from the emerging markets according to RobecoSAM’s ESG criteria. In addition, the study examined whether the reactions had changed in the subsequent period 2016–2020 compared to the previous period 2013–2015. The research material was collected from the S&P Global website and, in terms of share prices, from the Orbis and Yahoo Finance databases. Data analysis was performed with R and Microsoft Excel software. Quantitative event study was used as a research method, and the data was examined by using the daily stock prices in the 21-day [-10, +10] event window. The study examined the reaction both at the time of publication of the index (publication date, when the annual content of the index is published) and at the actual time of change (date of change, when the changes in the index take effect). Based on the results, the addition to the studied index caused abnormal returns around the date of change on the two-day window [0, +1]. The observed average cumulative abnormal return (CAAR) in the event window was +0.46%. Annualized, the abnormal return would thus be approximately 57,5%. However, based on the results, abnormal returns weakened later after the event. Additionally, for the removed stocks, a negative return reaction was observed in the date of change event window [0, +1], where the CAAR was -0.37%. No statistically significant results were observed in later time windows – suggesting the presence of semi-strong market efficiency. On the publication date of the index, no statistically significant results were observed. Reactions only on the change date suggest that the addition (deletion) to the index itself does not provide the investors with new information about the stocks added (removed). Instead, the results provide evidence that the abnormal return arises from the increased trading activity of the stock.
  • Hares, Jukka-Pekka (2022)
    The archipelago is a unique urban green space and a popular place to visit in the city of Helsinki. Nevertheless, multiple factors, such as urban expansion, recreational and environmental values create pressure on the development of the Helsinki archipelago. Visitors form an important group of stakeholders considering the development and future of the area. This qualitative interview study examines what do the visitors value in the Helsinki archipelago and what value the islands’ biodiversity has for them. A value framework by Himes and Muraca (2018) was applied as a theoretical framework in this thesis. The values of visitors are divided into categories of instrumental, relational and intrinsic values. The data were collected via 20 semi-structured interviews at three different islands in Helsinki archipelago. The interviews were conducted in August 2021. The results are analyzed with thematic method and are supported with quantified data analysis by applying the co-occurrence analysis with Atlas.ti 9.0 software. For the visitors interviewed, the most frequently emphasized value of the Helsinki archipelago is related to nature. In general, the islands are seen as an accessible recreational day-trip destination, where nature provides an environment to relax and recover. Many visitors enjoy sharing the experience with family or friends – sometimes even with strangers. A contrast to the constructed urban environment is important for the urban residents. Bridges to, or excessive infrastructure on the islands are not desired. The main value of biodiversity in Helsinki archipelago emerges via new experiences that are different from elsewhere in the urban environment. Additionally, biodiversity facilitates an immersive nature experience that supports well-being. Biodiversity in the archipelago has also intrinsic value: The archipelago is a valuable place for the ecosystems and biota to flourish. For the visitors, the archipelago is a pristine natural environment worth maintaining as it is.
  • Kaplas, Venla (2022)
    Suomalaiset metsätilat ovat pirstoutuneet ja niiden keskikoko on pienentynyt. Pirstoutuminen on koettu uhaksi esimerkiksi teollisuuden puunsaannille ja metsäluonnon monimuotoisuudelle. Yhtenä keinona metsätilojen koon kasvattamiseksi pidetään metsien yhteisomistuksen lisäämistä ja tukemista. Suomen metsäkeskuksen, Maanmittauslaitoksen ja Tapion toteuttamassa Sujuvaan metsän-omistukseen 2025-hankkeessa pyritään tukemaan yhteismetsien ja metsäyhtymien toimintaa. Tämä tutkielma on toteutettu osana Sujuvaan metsänomistukseen 2025-hanketta, ja tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää, millaisia esteitä tai kannustimia yhteismetsien laajenemiseen liittyy, millaista tietoa ja palvelua yhteismetsät tarvitsevat laajentumisen tueksi sekä millaisia hallintopalvelutarpeita yhteismetsillä on. Lisäksi selvitetään, millaista tietoa ja palvelua yhteismetsät toivovat saavansa laajentumisen tueksi, ja millaisia toiveita yhteismetsillä on yhteismetsäverkkosivulle. Tutkimustuloksia hyödynnetään yhteismetsien palvelutarjonnan kehittämisessä. Tutkimusaineistona käytettiin Suomen metsäkeskuksen ja Tapion toimihenkilöiden keräämää haastatteluaineistoa, joka koostuu kesällä 2021 152 yhteismetsälle toteutetuista puolistrukturoiduista puhelinhaastatteluista. Tutkija koosti haastatteluvastaukset ja analysoi koottua aineistoa laadullisen teoriaohjaavan sisällönanalyysin menetelmin. Tulosten perusteella yhteismetsien laajenemisen esteenä ovat esimerkiksi tarjotun tiedon ristiriitaisuus, tiedon hajanaisuus ja metsätilojen korkea hintataso. Laajenemiseen kannustavia tekijöitä ovat esimerkiksi asiantuntijoiden tarjoaman tiedon laatu, hyvät materiaalit sekä muutokset metsänomistajakunnassa. Hallintopalveluihin liittyen yhteismetsät tarvitsevat osaavaa asiantuntijapalvelua esimerkiksi rahoitukseen ja kirjanpitoon. Yhteismetsäaiheisen verkkosivun kehittämiseen yhteismetsät suhtautuvat positiivisesti, ja internetsivu nähdään erityisesti hyvänä tietolähteenä sekä keinona välittää tietoa yhteismetsien toiminnasta myös yhteismetsiin kuulumattomille metsänomistajille. Tulosten tarkastelu SWOT-analyysin avulla auttaa hahmottamaan yhteismetsien palvelutarpeiden ulottuvuuksia ja erottamaan laajemmat yhteiskunnalliset tekijät sellaisista seikoista, joihin valtion virastot ja välillinen julkishallinto voivat omalla palvelutarjonnallaan vaikuttaa.
  • Wéman, Ville (2020)
    The aim of the study was to identify drivers which affect the tendency to conduct timber trade online among private forest owners in greater Helsinki metropolitan area. Drivers were measured using a survey form. The survey form was constructed using an applied Technology Acceptance Model. Mail addresses for the survey were collected from a Finnish forest products company’s customer database. The survey data was gathered using a survey form which was delivered by mail. The form could also be filled online The reference population consisted of 6059 private forest owners from which a sample of 865 private forest owners was taken. The forest owners included in the sample were sent the survey form of which 88 were returned filled. This yields an answer percentage of 10 %. The answers were analyzed using linear regression models. From the individual models a composite model was constructed which was used to explain what the drivers behind private forest owners’ decision to do online timber trade were and how big the effects of a driver were. The biggest drivers according to the data were perceived usefulness, result demonstrability and relevance. Also output quality, perceived ease of use and subjective norm had a positive effect on the tendency to do online timber trade. According to the data it is impossible to say whether voluntariness of use has an effect on the private forest owners’ decision to do online timber trade. The results were mainly in line with previous Technology Acceptance Model based research. The effects of subjective norm and output quality were slightly lower than previous Technology Acceptance Model related studies. There has not yet been any previous research into the tendency to conduct online timber trade in Finland to which the results could be directly compared to.