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Browsing by study line "Social pharmacy"

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  • Niemi, Matias (2021)
    Yhteiskunnan digitalisaatio on lisännyt verkkopalveluiden käyttöä monilla aloilla, ja suurin osa suomalaisista käyttää internetiä esimerkiksi palveluiden tai tuotteiden hankintaan. Erilaisten digitaalisten terveyspalveluiden käyttö on kasvanut viime vuosina, ja koronapandemia on nopeuttanut muutosta. Suomessa useat apteekit ovat perustaneet viime vuosina verkkopalveluita, mutta niiden käyttö on ollut edelleen vähäistä. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia koronapandemian vaikutuksia Yliopiston Apteekin (YA) verkkopalvelun käyttöön. Tutkimuksessa tutkittiin rekisteriaineistojen perusteella kokonais- ja reseptiasiakasmäärän sekä reseptimäärän ja asiakasprofiilin muutosta ennen koronapandemiaa ja sen aikana vuosina 2018-2020. Lisäksi tutkittiin YA:n Lääkeneuvonta- ja asiakaspalveluyksikön (Tiepa) vastaanottamien puhelin- ja chat-yhteydenottojen määrää ja sisältöä sekä kyselyaineiston perusteella apteekin verkkopalvelun käyttäjien näkemyksiä koronapandemian vaikutuksista heidän apteekin verkkopalvelun käyttöön. Monimenetelmätutkimuksessa tutkittiin apteekin verkkopalvelussa tapahtunutta muutosta apteekin asiakas- ja myyntitietojen sekä asiakaskyselyn avulla. Tutkimuksessa hyödynnettiin YA:n myynti-, asiakas-, Tiepa- ja pikanoutorekisteriaineistoja sekä YA:n toteuttaman ’’Verkkoapteekki 2020’’ -kyselytutkimuksen aineistoa. Aineistot analysoitiin kvantitatiivisesti Microsoft Excel (16.0) ja IBM SPSS (26) ja R (4.0.3) tilasto-ohjelmistoilla. Myyntiä tai asiakasmääriä mittaavia aineistoja analysoitiin indeksin pisteluvuilla. Kokonais- ja reseptiasiakasmäärälle sekä reseptiasiakkaille keskimäärin toimitettujen reseptien lukumäärälle laskettiin myös tilastollinen merkitsevyys lineaarisella regressioanalyysillä 95 % luottamusvälein. Kyselytutkimuksen lopputulosmuuttujista tehtiin kuvaileva tilastoanalyysi frekvenssijakaumien ja prosenttiosuuksien avulla. YA:n verkkopalvelun käyttö lisääntyi merkittävästi tarkastelujaksolla 2018 – 2020. Kokonais- ja reseptiasiakasmäärän muutokset koronapandemian aikana olivat tilastollisesti merkitseviä. Pandemian vaikutus verkkopalvelussa vastasi pandemiaa edeltävän lineaarisen kehityksen perusteella kokonaisasiakasmäärässä 6 kuukauden ja reseptiasiakasmäärässä yli 3 vuoden kehitystä. Apteekin verkkopalvelun käyttö ja tiettyjen koronasairauden hoitoon median mukaan soveltuvien valmisteiden myynnit lisääntyivät merkittävästi kevään 2020 aikana. Tiepan chat-palvelua käytettiin paljon terveyteen ja hyvinvointiin liittyvien kysymysten selvittämiseen. Koronapandemia lisäsi erityisesti iäkkäämpien asiakkaiden (yli 55- ja erityisesti yli 65-vuotiaiden) apteekin verkkopalvelun käyttöä. Infektioriskin vähentäminen oli tärkeä syy apteekin verkkopalvelun käyttöön. Vuoden 2020 aikana apteekin verkkopalvelussa tapahtui digiloikka. Koronapandemia lisäsi merkittävästi ja tilastollisesti merkitsevästi apteekin verkkopalvelun käyttöä ja toi sen uusiksi käyttäjiksi myös iäkkäämpiä asiakkaita. Erityisesti reseptilääkkeiden hankinta apteekin verkkopalvelusta lisääntyi. Tiepa oli tärkeä tietolähde ennen koronapandemiaa ja sen aikana. Pandemia-aikana luotettavan lääkeinformaation tarve korostuu. Jatkotutkimuksissa on tärkeä tutkia apteekin verkkopalvelun käytön ja asiakasryhmien muutoksia sekä asiakkaiden kokemuksia verkkopalvelusta osana YA:n monikanavaista apteekkipalvelua.
  • Hietanen, Jannemarkus (2022)
    The price competition of biological medicines induced by biosimilars has started slower than expected in Europe. One of the main reasons has been the differences in physicians’ attitudes toward biosimilars. Switching biological medicines to clinically comparable alternatives is an important way to enhance the cost-effectiveness of using biological medicines. The focus of the conversation has shifted from the general similarity of biosimilars and the originators to whether frequent switching involves additional risks. The purpose of this master’s thesis was to investigate factors influencing physicians’ prescribing of biological medicines. In addition, their perceptions of the automatic substitution of biological medicines in Finland were explored. The study was based on structured personal interviews of rheumatologists and gastroenterologists including specialising physicians who work at HUS Helsinki University Hospital in the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (n=48). They had a chance to comment on their responses at any time freely. The interview consisted of four sections: demographics, general attitudes toward biosimilars, factors affecting prescribing biological medicines, and perceptions of the automatic substitution of biological medicines. Study participants had a chance to comment on their structured responses during the interview. The interviews were recorded for further analysis of the comments. The results are based on a descriptive quantitative analysis and an inductive analysis of the comments. The interviewed physicians’ (n=27, response rate 56,3%) attitudes toward biosimilars were highly positive. Most of the physicians (21/27, 78%) also strive to motivate patients to switch biological medicines to clinically comparable but lower-cost options despite the challenges associated with switching, for example the differences in the administration devices. Of the previously determined factors, the ones affecting prescribing biological medicines the most were the willingness to support the price competition between the biological medicines, reimbursement status, and the hospital’s drug formulary when initiating the biological treatment in the hospital. The attitudes toward the automatic substitution of the biological medicines were positive among 13/27 (48 %) physicians. Our study results are in line with the results of earlier studies, but the open responses especially to the automatic substitution of biological medicines might indicate more positive perceptions on the subject among physicians in Finland.
  • Mikkola, Heidi (2021)
    Pharmacotherapy plays a key role in the treatment of many conditions. Long-term medication therapy is an essential part of treatment in many common chronic conditions in Finland, such as diabetes, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases. However, medication therapy can be burdensome to patients and thus, influence their functional capacity and well-being. Therefore, patients’ lived experience of medication and its effect on their lives has a growing interest as a research area. The primary aim of this study was to test among Finnish patients with chronic conditions the consistency of a theoretical model ‘Patient’s Lived Experience with Medicine’ (PLEM) developed by a qualitative meta-synthesis by Mohammed et al. (2016). The secondary aim was to investigate the medication-related burden experienced by Finnish patients living with different chronic conditions. Based on the results of the content analysis of the focus group discussions, this study aimed to create a new, concise measure of medication-related burden to be utilized in a population-based online survey on medication use in Finland called Medicine Barometer (Lääkebarometri) by the Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea. The study was conducted as a qualitative focus group interview in summer 2020. Participated patients with chronic conditions (n=14) were recruited through four patient organizations. Focus group discussions (n=5) were held in groups of 2-3 people over Zoom. Deductive content analysis guided by PLEM model was used for data analysis. The measure of medication-related burden was formed on the grounds of the original PLEM model, content analysis of the interviews, research literature and expertise of the research group. The results of the focus group discussions (n=5) supported the functionality of the PLEM model. Study participants (n=14) described similar experiences of medication-related burden and beliefs and practices guiding the medication taking to those presented in the PLEM model. Burden caused by medication routines and healthcare system were most emphasized of the factors contributing to medication-related burden. As a new factor contributing to the burden, medication-related eco-anxiety emerged. The new measure for assessing medication-related burden consists of 13 items to be piloted by the Finnish Medicines Agency Fimea in the summer 2021. The experiences of the Finnish patients with chronic conditions are consistent with the PLEM model. Majority of the participants did not experience such burden from their medication that would significantly interfere with their daily lives. However, experiencing higher level of medication-related burden appeared to be related to independently modifying medication regimen or even neglecting the use of medicines. PLEM model and related patient interviews served as a solid foundation for developing items for the new measure to be piloted for assessing medication-related burden. The population-based survey will provide useful data for the further development of the measure and for researching the factors contributing to the burden.
  • Lias, Noora (2021)
    Medication reviews can be used to assess the appropriateness of a patient’s medication and to identify and resolve clinically significant drug-related problems. Medication reviews have been highlighted in several health and medicines policy documents as ways to improve medication safety in older adults. Collaborative practices and their development are key strategies in promoting the coordinated care of patients. Medication reviews have been previously defined from a multi-professional perspective but no definition based on multi-professional consensus has been established. The aim of this study was to harmonize the definition of medication review from a multi-professional perspective to suit various healthcare contexts in Finland. The goal was to create a shared understanding for physicians, nurses, pharmacists, information management professionals for their collaboration in reviewing medications. Furthermore, the aim was to define the tasks and responsibilities of different professional groups in collaborative medication reviews in order to support its implementation. The study was conducted as a 3-round survey using the Delphi method. The Delphi method is a qualitative consensus method based on the views of experts aiming at reaching consensus on the studied subject. The Delphi rounds were conducted as electronic surveys in September-December 2020. Expert panelists assessed the proposed definition of a collaborative medication review and the tasks and responsibilities of health care professionals involved in conducting it. The expert panel consisted of 41 participants: 12 physicians, 13 pharmacists, 10 nurses, and 6 information management professionals. The results of the study were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Consensus was reached on the definition of medication review from a multi-professional perspective, while no consensus was reached on most of the responsibilities and tasks of different healthcare professionals involved. Most challenging was to define patient groups benefiting from medication reviews and the situations in which medication reviews should be performed. Therefore, further research is needed to define the division of responsibilities between care team members, for example by defining separately the responsibilities and tasks in different healthcare contexts. This is the most comprehensive attempt taken in Finland to define medication review as a concept from a multi-professional perspective. The results of the study imply to the development and harmonizing of medication review practices and standardizing patient data documentation. The expected outcomes relate to enhanced patient and medication safety, improved coordination in medication management with integrated medication reviews.
  • Lindholm, Tanja (2021)
    Medication reviews have been highlighted as one of the most important strategies for improving medication safety and medication management especially in older adults. Current electronic health records document and communicate e-prescriptions but their medication use related patient information content should be extended to cover e.g. medication review documentation. The documentation should be in structured format to be useful in clinical practice and evidence-informed decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify medication review related patient information and other patient data that should be in a structured form in electronic health record systems (EHRs) at a national and organizational level. The aim was also to determine which medication review related patient information should be documented in electronic health record systems. The study was conducted as 3-round survey using the Delphi-method. The Delphi method is a qualitative consensus method based on the views of experts aiming at reaching consensus of the experts on the studied subject. The Delphi rounds were conducted as electronic surveys in September-December 2020. Expert panelists assessed which medication-related patient data and other data generated by healthcare providers should be documented in a structured form in EHRs and in which national digital data system services (Kanta and My Kanta Pages) the medication review related patient information should be accessible and by whom. The expert panel consisted of 41 participants: 12 physicians, 13 pharmacists, 10 nurses, and 6 information management professionals. The results of the study were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Consensus was reached on a total of 108 medication review related patient information topics that should be documented in a structured form in EHRs and that should be available for medication reviews through EHRs. Of the topics, 39 related to medication reviews in general, 25 to adverse drug reaction symptoms, 11 to the burden of adverse drug effects, 12 to laboratory tests and other test results, 12 to medication adherence and 9 to the use of intoxicants. Structuring the data was considered as important or important to some extent in most of the presented medication review related information topics. Especially, the documentation of renal function was rated by the expert panelists as a crucial piece of information to be structured. Medication adherence information and information related to the use of intoxicants were rated as less important to be documented in a structured form than other topics. Consensus was also reached on the accessibility of medication review documentation in the Kanta and My Kanta services. The expert panel of this study had a common and strong view that data related to medication reviews should be structured in EHRs. The expert panel reached a strong consensus that almost all of the data presented in the study should be structured. Based on this Delphi study, the expert panel identified the benefits of structuring and standardized recording. Because not all data can be structured at once, further prioritization of the data identified in this study is still needed. The practical implementation of the structured information could be accomplished in the form of a checklist. The study addresses a very current problem related to the shortcomings of medication information management and overall medication management.
  • Luoma, Elisa (2020)
    Family caregiving refers to the organization of home care for an older adult, disabled or sick person with the assistance of a relative or other close person. The number of elderly carers (> 65 years) of all family garegivers is significant. There are challenges concerning family caregiving for the older adults, due to increased age is in connection with decreased physical performance and increased number of medications and polypharmacy. Despite these factors, there has been little research on the medication safety in the family caregiving among older adults. The aim of this Master's thesis was to identify factors influencing the ability of a caregiver to cope with the medication management of the older adults. These factors were divided into subgategories: factors associated a family caregiver, associated a care recipient and system-oriented factors. The research was conducted as a method triangulation, in which the data were collected through two interviews with home visits (n = 21) and related questionnaires. The questionnaire data were quantitatively analyzed by calculating the frequencies and relative frequencies. The transcribed interviews were analyzed by abductive content analysis, combining both deductive and inductive approach. James Reason's theory of human error was used as the theoretical framework. Caregiving families participating in this research were very different compared with each other. Some family caregivers and care recipients were in good physical condition while others were severely disabled. However, the situation of the families was not individually considered when considering appropriate support services for the families. The workload of family caregivers due to the pain and the absence of days off contributed to the difficulty of medication management. The foremost system-oriented challenges in the management of the medications were: 1) difficult for the families to reach the physician and 2) for those families where assisted home care helped the caregiver, the families were not satisfied with its functioning. Due to the poor availability of physicians and the lack of a family physician, there was no one in control of the medication as a whole and there was inadequate monitoring of the medication. In the assisted home care, challenges were caused by the fact that home care visits were conducted over a wide period of time, which created challenges for giving the medications. Carers do not receive sufficient support from the society for the management of the medications. The medication safety of the older adults in the family caregiving is particularly affected by the difficulty of reaching a physician, the inadequacy of support from the assisted home care, the failure to recognize the individuality of caregiving families, and the caregivers’ burden due to pain and lack of days off. Support for caregivers must be at the forefront of society in the future, so that caregivers can cope with heavy nursing care and complicated medications, even without excessive self-activity.
  • Saavalainen, Anu (2022)
    Medication related risks have been identified as one of the main threats to patient safety, both internationally and nationally. In Finland, implementation of pharmacotherapy in health services system is guided by the Safe pharmacotherapy -guideline. The guideline instructs work units to implement a pharmacotherapy plan, which is a statu-tory quality management document to describe the unit’s pharmacotherapy process and related responsibilities and obligations. However, there is currently limited research data available on pharmacotherapy plans and their impact on medication safety. The aim of this study was to explore the use of pharmacotherapy plans as a tool for promoting medication safety in the Finnish health services system with an emphasis on systems-based risk management. The research was con-ducted as an electronic survey in November-December 2021. The target group of the survey was health care professionals licensed as nurses and pharmacists who are working in wards or clinics or otherwise participate in drawing up or updating of pharmacotherapy plans. The study analyzed 901 responses. Most respondents (90 %) worked as licensed nurses and 10 % as pharmacists. The majority of the respondents’ units (91,5 %, n=824) had a pharmacotherapy plan. Medication safety practices were comprehensively described in pharmacotherapy plans and no significant differences observed between work environments. The multi-professional development processes of pharmacotherapy plans were not complete, only 11,6 % of the units the writing was done in multi-professional collaboration. Medication safety practices were best implemented in university hospitals (m. 3,87, sd. 0,57), with the difference being statistically significant for primary healthcare wards (m. 3,51, sd. 0,63, p<0,001) and social care housing services units (m. 3,63, sd, 0,68, p=0,018). The comprehensiveness of the content in pharmacotherapy plans and the implementation of medication safety practices were correlated (r=0,60, p<0,001). Pharmacotherapy plan is an important tool for systems-based medication safety promotion in the Finnish health services system. There is need for improvement in the multi-professional collaboration when developing the plans and in training the healthcare staff of practices described in the unit’s pharmacotherapy plans. In the future, special emphasis should be placed on the medication safety and development of primary healthcare wards and social care units.
  • Monni, Reetta (2022)
    Safety of pharmacotherapies is an essential part of patient safety that promotes and supports rational use of medicines. Safety of pharmacotherapies can be divided into two areas; Drug safety and medication safety. Drug safety refers to the safety of a medicine as a product, such as the pharmacological properties and the quality of the manufacturing process. Medication safety ensures the safety of a drug therapy process preventing patients from harm during the course of using medicines. Significant inconsistencies have been identified in the terminology related to drug and medication safety. Challenges to terminology are posed by varying synonyms, ambiguity or overlap of concepts, and misclassification of events in the scientific literature. The primary objective of this study was to scope recent peer-reviewed literature related to the drug safety and medication safety terminology from the period pf 2010-2022. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the concepts as presented in the literature, including overlaps and differences between the terms. The study was conducted as a scoping review by using Scopus and Ovid Medline databases. The literature search covered studies from January 2010 to January 2022. The search was conducted by using the following phrases; "("medication safety" OR "drug safety" OR pharmacovigilance) W/5 (definition* OR terminology*)" in Scopus and "("medication safety" OR "drug safety" OR pharmacovigilance) ADJ/6 (definition* OR terminology*)" in Ovid Medline. The references of the included articles were reviewed for any additional material. The relevant material was selected by two researchers. A total of 71 articles were identified from the databases, of which two articles met the predefined inclusion criteria. In addition, one article was included in the study from outside the actual search. Two of the included articles were based on drug safety terminology whereas one article was based on medication safety terminology. The results revealed that there is still a considerable heterogeneity of the terms in the literature. The literature shows several terms and definitions for the same phenomenon and no noticeable consistency in the terms. It would be important to define what a uniform and systematically used terminology would require and to establish a commonly accepted guidelines for its use.
  • Blåfield, Karla (2020)
    Current national medicines policy in Finland highlights the importance of rational use of medicines leading to effective, good quality, equal and safe medication therapy, in which the key is on well-implemented medication self-management. The aim of this study was to find out how well people with chronic diseases are in control with their own medication therapy. The special focus was on assessing whether people with chronic conditions: 1) are familiar with the therapeutic aim of their medication; 2) have medication lists of their medicines and are those lists up-to-date; and 3) utilize Omakanta-database. The aim was also: 4) to identify which factors are associated with the utilization of medication lists. A nationwide cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among medicine users in Autumn 2017. The link for the survey was available via the Finnish Medicine Agency’s and Pharmaceutical Information Centre’s website. In addition, members of the national medicines information network forwarded the link through their own channels. Survey respondents with chronic diseases were included in this study (n=844). The majority of the people with chronic diseases (92 %) were aware about the therapeutic aims of their medication. Of the respondents, 39 % had a medication list. Availability of medication list was associated with the age of ≥ 65-years (OR 0.223; CI 0.103-0.485) and the use of multiple medicines (OR 0.218; IC 0.127-0.376). Of the medication lists used by people with chronic disease, 44 % were in the electronic form and the majority (92 %) of all the medication lists used by people with chronic disease were reported to be up-to-date. Omakanta-database was used by 93 % of the respondents. People with chronic disease are well aware of the therapeutic aims of their medication. However, the rarely have up-dated medication lists. Omakanta-database seems to be well known and utilized among people with chronic diseases. Older people using multiple medicines should be encouraged to use and supported with the up-date of their medication lists.
  • Raekivi, Pauliina (2021)
    The Finnish medicine reimbursement system is complex and several different conditions required by the Health Insurance Act (1224/2004) and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela) must be met in order to receive medicine reimbursement. The understanding of medicine reimbursement criteria from the perspective of medicine users has not been studied in Finland before, and little research has been done on the subject internationally. Medicine user-oriented research on the medicine reimbursement system, both in Finland and internationally, has largely focused on the financial opportunities of medicine users to purchase medicines and their opinions on the fairness of medicine reimbursements. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the understanding of medicine reimbursement criteria and the background factors affecting it, the implementation of price, generic substitution and medicine reimbursement counselling in pharmacies, seeking advice on medicine reimbursement, and the financial difficulties of buying prescription medicines. The material used in this study was from the population survey (n=1650), which examined the activation of price competition for pharmaceutical products and customers' expectations of pharmacy operations. The understanding of medicine reimbursement criteria, the price counselling provided in a pharmacy, the effect of financial challenges on the non-buying of medicines and the use of sources of advice related to the medicine reimbursement were described as frequency distributions. The effect of background factors on the understanding of medicine reimbursement criteria was compared using the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. About a third (31%) of respondents told that they do not understand the basis on which medicine reimbursement is usually received for prescription medicines, and 13% had unclear why they had not been reimbursed for their prescription medicine in the past year. Especially younger age, low income, low medication use, depression and other mental health problems, lack of long-term illness, and insufficient medicine reimbursement counselling in a pharmacy were found to be associated with poorer understanding of medicine reimbursement. 72% of the participants in the study felt that they usually receive sufficient information about the prices of medicines and 61% about the reimbursement of medicines when buying prescription medicines from a pharmacy. Less than half (47%) of respondents felt that they have usually received sufficient information about how the amount of reimbursement for medicines is determined. Slightly over 70% of respondents said that they are usually told about the cheapest medicine available when buying a prescription medicine and/or are suggested to switch to a cheaper one. About 60% were usually told about the difference between the two interchangeable medicines. 88% of respondents would seek information about medicine reimbursement primarily from a pharmacy or pharmacy´s online services. About 3% of all respondents in the study had not bought a medicine prescribed by a doctor for financial reasons in the last six months. Based on the study, about a third of medicine users have remained unclear regarding medicine reimbursements, and not everyone feels that they have received sufficient counselling and information about medicine prices and medicine reimbursements when buying prescription medicines from a pharmacy. Counselling from a pharmacy was found to be related to understanding of medicine reimbursement criteria. Advise on the pricing, medicine reimbursement and generic substitution should continue to be actively provided to medicine users, so that the counselling meets the requirements of the law and the knowledge of the reimbursement system of medicine users can be improved. Based on the results of this study, counselling should be targeted in particular at younger, low-income and from mental health problems suffering medicine users, as well as those who are less familiar with reimbursement issues, for example due to low morbidity or medicine use.
  • Westerholm, Aleksi (2021)
    Poor adherence to and non-compliant use of medications are common in long-term patients, and it is estimated that only half of medication use worldwide is appropriate. Poor adherence to medication undermines public health, reduces the cost-benefit of resources invested in medication care, and burdens health care. Various interventions have sought to improve adherence to drug treatment, but they have not brought about the desired change in medication adherence. The aim of this master's thesis was to develop a method and pilot it to investigate the reasons for the non-compliant use of medications in the context of the medication reconciliation process. The aim of this new method was to find out the reason for non-compliant use of a medicine in a patient-centered way, and the possibility for the pharmacist to motivate the patient to use the medicine according to the instructions. In addition, it was examined whether the method can measure prevalence of non-compliant use of medicines differs according to the ATC classification of medicines and whether the total number of medicines contributes to the non-compliant use of medicines. The pilot study was carried out as part of a standard pharmacist's medication reconciliation process at Vantaa primary health care. The data required for the study were collected on the electronic HUSeCRF platform. Patients were collected to the extent that we were able to verify the functionality of the method and to plan the reporting of the results of the actual study with larger research data. The data were collected during the year of 2021. The theoretical framework of the study was the Medication-Related Burden model and the iceberg model of non-compliant use of medicines. The research material was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis in IBM SPSS 27. The analysis of the data was done in terms of the functionality and development of the new method. A total of 8 patients participated in the pilot study (women 63% n = 5). Patients had an average of 16 medications per patient (range 8-22), and the last time their medications were reconciliated was on average 1 year ago. Non-compliant use of medicines was observed in 88% of patients (n = 7). In total, there were non-compliant use of medicines in the data for 21 drugs. The most common medicines which were used non-compliant were for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The total number of medicines and the number of non-compliant use correlated with each other (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.472), but the result was not statistically significant (p = 0.238). The most common reason for non-compliant use was a drug-induced side effect. After a motivational discussion which was involved in the medication reconciliation process with pharmacists, in 14 % of non-compliantly used medicines, patients decided to start taking the medication as directed. The pharmacist was able to motivate the patient to use the medicine as directed when the reason for non-compliant use of medicine was unclear instructions. In this study, a method was developed and validated to determine the reasons for non-compliant use of medicines. During medication reconciliation process, the pharmacist was able to find out the reasons for non-compliant use of medicines. Pharmacists may motivate the patient to use the drug as directed, however, most patients did not want to change the use of the medicine as directed. As the total number of medications increase, the probability of non-compliant use of medicines may increase.
  • Tapanila, Tiina (2022)
    Lääkkeiden saatavuushäiriöt ovat yleistyneet Suomessa ja muualla maailmassa aiheuttaen lisätyötä ja -kustannuksia lääkealan toimijoille. Saatavuushäiriöt voivat aiheuttaa katkoksia lääkehoitoon tai saatetaan joutua turvautumaan muihin hoitovaihtoehtoihin, mikä voi johtaa potilasturvallisuuden vaarantumiseen. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli antaa yleiskuva saatavuushäiriöistä ja saatavuushäiriövalmisteiden ominaispiirteistä Suomessa keväällä 2020. Tutkittaviin ominaispiirteisiin kuuluivat mm. lääkkeen terapiaryhmä, myyntiluvan haltija, häiriön kesto, valmisteen hintaluokka, kuuluminen velvoitevarastoitavien valmisteiden tai Maailman terveysjärjestö WHO:n välttämättömien lääkkeiden luetteloon ja myyntiluvan myöntövuoteen perustuva lääkkeen elinkaarivaihe. Saatavuushäiriövalmisteiden (n=879) tiedot kerättiin myyntiluvan haltijoiden Lääkealan turvallisuus- ja kehittämiskeskus Fimealle kahden kuukauden aikana (14.2.–15.4.2020) toimittamista tai voimassa olevista saatavuushäiriöilmoituksista. Aineistoa täydennettiin hinta- ja korvattavuustiedoilla Kansaneläkelaitoksen lääketietokannasta sekä tiedoilla muista markkinoilla olevista pakkauskoista, vahvuuksista ja vaihtokelpoisista lääkevalmisteista. Aineistosta tehtiin kuvaileva tilastollinen analyysi käyttäen perustunnuslukuja ja -jakaumia. Analyysissä keskityttiin pääasiassa avohoidossa käytettäviin reseptivalmisteisiin (n=654). Ihmislääkkeiden saatavuushäiriöt (n=829) koskivat etenkin sairausvakuutuksesta korvattavia reseptivalmisteita (65 % kaikista saatavuushäiriöistä), ja ne keskittyivät suurten potilasryhmien käyttämiin lääkkeisiin, kuten sydän- ja verisuonisairauksien lääkkeisiin (31 %) ja hermostoon vaikuttaviin lääkeaineisiin (28 %). Avohoidon reseptivalmisteiden häiriöistä yli puolet (53 %) kohdistui rinnakkaisvalmisteisiin. Häiriövalmisteet kuuluivat elinkaarivaiheeltaan vanhempiin ja hintaluokaltaan edullisempiin valmisteisiin. Viidennes valmisteista (19 %) kuului velvoitevarastoitavien tai WHO:n välttämättömien lääkkeiden luetteloon. Rinnakkaisvalmiste löytyi 73 prosentille häiriövalmisteista. Vain kolme prosenttia myyntiluvan haltijoista oli tehnyt ilmoituksen saatavuushäiriöstä Fimealle vaadittua kahta kuukautta ennen myynnin keskeytymistä saatavuushäiriön vuoksi. Tulosten perusteella saatavuushäiriöt Suomessa koskevat samankaltaisia lääkevalmisteita kuin muuallakin maailmassa. Tämän osoitti myös tutkielman kirjallisuusosassa toteutettu kansainvälistä empiiristä saatavuushäiriötutkimusta koskenut systemaattinen kirjallisuushaku. Valtaosaan saatavuushäiriöistä on mahdollista reagoida apteekissa toimittamalla rinnakkaisvalmiste, kun taas osa vaatii yhteydenottoa lääkkeen määränneeseen lääkäriin. Saatavuushäiriötiedon linkittämistä sähköiseen reseptijärjestelmään ja lääkevaihdon laajentamista farmasian ammattilaisille voisi harkita toiminnan kehittämiseksi saatavuushäiriötilanteissa. Covid-19-pandemia on lisännyt kansainvälisiä toimia häiriötilanteiden hoitamiseksi. Tätä varten kehitetään yhteisiä toimintatapoja muun muassa Euroopan unionissa, jossa tavoitteena on luoda kaikki jäsenmaat kattava saatavuushäiriöportaali.
  • Kauppinen, Elisa (2021)
    Polypharmacy in older adults is common and there are many things to be corrected in their medication. Medication reviews can be used to identify and address these problems using interprofessional collaboration. Renal insufficiency is common in older adults and its consideration contributes to medication safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of renal insufficiency in Lohja home care clients over the age of 65, for whom medication review or comprehensive medication review had been done. The purpose was to investigate from medication review reports how many observations pharmacists made about the drugs that should be avoided or dose reduced. In addition, it was investigated whether the medications of the subjects could be changed during the intervention and whether the plasma creatinine values correlated with the GFR values. The material consisted of the medication review reports of 60 home care clients in the intervention study launched in Lohja year 2015. Medication reviews were done in 2016–2017. Half (n = 30/60) of the subjects had at least one drug for which pharmacist proposed a medication change due to a reduced GFR. Proposals for changes (n=60) were presented 1–7 per subject. The majority of the proposed changes, (52 %, n= 31/60), concerned dose reduction, and 22 % (n=13/60) discontinuation. Other proposals totaled 26 % (n= 16/60). 42 % (n=13/31) of the dose reduction proposals were implemented. Almost all of the drug discontinuation 92% (n=12/13) proposals were implemented. In total, 47 % (n = 28/60) of the proposals were implemented. Nervous system drugs formed the largest group (30 %, n = 18) for which a change was proposed. The second highest number of proposals was for drugs for cardiovascular system (27 %, n=16) and the alimentary tract and metabolism (27 %, n=16). Based on GFR, 93 % (n = 56) of subjects had declined renal function (GFR <90 ml/min). Mild kidney damage (GFR=89–60 ml/min) was the most common; 73 % of men (n=11) and 47 % of women (n=21). In 65 % (n=39) of subjects, plasma creatinine was within or below reference range. Plasma creatinine was above reference value in 25 % (n=15) of subjects. The study confirms that plasma creatinine is not suitable measure of renal insufficiency in the elderly.
  • Ravela, Reko (2021)
    Objectives To investigate distribution and causes of drug shortages in five selected countries with data from public shortage notification registers. Design Statistical retrospective analysis of national drug shortage registers Data Public shortage notification register data from the first nine months of 2020 in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Spain, and the United States, partly combined with national drug registers. Results Altogether 5132 shortage reports from Finland (n=1522), Sweden (n=890), Norway (n=800), Spain (n=814), and the United States (n=1106) published during the first nine months of 2020 were found in the study. More than half (54%) of the active ingredient level shortages (classified by ATC code) found occurred in only one country, and only 1% occurred in all five countries. On a country level, 19-41% of the shortages were found only in a given country. The distribution of shortages by ATC category and drug form was significantly different between countries, especially between the US and European countries. Injectables were found to have an especially high shortage risk in the US, much less so in European countries. On the other hand, some drug classes were in shortage almost exclusively in Europe but not in the US. Conclusions Although drug shortages are a growing global problem, drug shortages are rarely global, but typically occur only in some countries, while other countries have an uninterrupted supply of the same drug. Drug shortages should be seen not just as a problem of manufacturing disruptions, but as a question of equitable and effective distribution of drug supply on an international level. Price differences and other commercial issues could be factors behind variation of shortages found between countries.Considering the limited and probing nature of the study, further research of shortage register data is certainly warranted. International comparative register study is a meaningful and valid method for further understanding in this field.
  • Vironen, Aleksi (2021)
    Evidence based medicines alongside with age-appropriate dosage forms are essential in enabling appropriate treatment for any patient group. Pediatric pharmacotherapy, however, is lacking age-appropriate dosage forms and research-based evidence regarding the dosing, efficacy, and safety of medicines. Orally administered drugs require manipulation to enable administration and are often used against the indications approved in the marketing authorization and summary of product characteristics (SmPC). This off-label use puts pediatric patients at risk for medicational errors and adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate recent trends in oral dosage forms used in pediatric randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with emphasis on age appropriateness. The results could be utilized in developing evidence-based dosage forms, suitable for all pediatric patients aged 0-17 years, and manufacturable in a small scale in a hospital pharmacy. This study was conducted as a systematic review following the PRISMA Statement. The literature search was carried out from Pubmed and Scopus databases and it covered a five-year period of 2015-2020. References from the databases were entered to the Covidence systematic review platform. After removing duplicates 3333 articles were left for screening. Two independent researchers selected the articles first screening by title and abstract, and then by full text review. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on the included articles. Altogether 77 articles met the inclusion criteria. Dosage forms included were tablets (n=37), liquids (n=21), capsules (n=18) and multiparticulates (n=6). Majority of the dosage forms were conventional (n=49) compared to more advanced novel modified release and fixed-dose combination formulations (n=33). Based on our results, orally administered dosage forms used in the recent pediatric RCTs are still limited by poor acceptability, palatability, and the need to manipulate dosage forms to enable administration. These issues are similar to the ones related to the off-label use of medicine that compromise patient safety. Majority of the dosage forms included in our study were tablets, indicating a positive shift towards more safe and acceptable dosage form. Formulations were also evolving towards dispersible, extended-release and fixed-dose combinations that offer additional benefits for pediatric patients. The low number of children < 2 years old included in study populations and the poor acceptability profile reported by most studies limit our conclusions on an ideal age-appropriate dosage form. Further research is needed on unifying the guidelines used in pediatric drug development.
  • Kaukovuori, Jouni (2021)
    Johdanto: Terveydenhuollon tietojärjestelmiin potilaista kertyvää tieto on hyvä esimerkki massadatasta. Se muodostuu lukuisista yksittäisistä, irrallisista tapahtumista. Potilastiedon toissijaisella hyödyntämisellä tarkoitetaan tiedon käsittelyä muuta tarkoitusta kuin potilaan terveyden edistämistä ja hoitamista varten. Toisiokäytölle on tyypillistä, että pääasiallisena kiinnostuksen kohteena ei ole yksilötason tiedon hyödyntäminen, vaan isommasta potilasjoukosta saatava summatieto, josta yksilön tunnistetiedot on poistettu. Toisiokäyttö mahdollistaa potilastiedon hyödyntämisen esimerkiksi tieteellisessä tutkimuksessa ja tietojohtamisessa. Tavoite: Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin HUSin tietoaltaasta louhitun aineiston avulla, onko tietoaltaaseen tallennetun aineiston avulla mahdollista tutkia lääkehoidon turvallisuutta ja rationaalisuutta sekä selvittää, millaisessa muodossa tietoaltaan data saadaan käyttöön ja millaisia toimenpiteitä datalle tulee tehdä, jotta sitä voidaan hyödyntää potilastiedon analysoinnissa. Aineisto ja menetelmät: Massadatan hyödyntämistä pilotoitiin rekisteritutkimuksessa, jossa esimerkkinä käytettiin opioideja. Rationaalisen lääkehoidon toteutumisen tutkimiseksi määriteltiin lääkeindikaattorit eli tunnusluvut, jotka oli tarkoitettu opioidien lääkehoidon kokonaiskuvan tarkasteluun. Indikaattoreiden avulla luotiin pohja hakuparametreille ja lausekkeille, joita tietoallashaussa käytettiin. Aineisto louhittiin tietoaltaasta maaliskuussa 2020 ja se muodostui opioideja koskevista lääkemääräysmerkinnöistä, jotka oli kirjattu potilastietojärjestelmään 1.1.2015-31.12.2019. Tulokset: Tietoallashausta saatiin 321 000 potilaan opioidimääräysdataa yhteensä noin 1,73 miljoonaa riviä. Kotiutumisen yhteydessä annetut opioidireseptit rajattiin jatkoanalyysin ulkopuolelle, sillä niitä koskeva tieto ei ollut rakenteisessa muodossa. Sairaalassa annettuja säännöllisiä opioidilääkemääräyksiä koskeva aineisto oli noin 258 000 riviä. Dataa siivottiin, järjesteltiin ja validoitiin data-analyysiä varten. Toimenpiteistä huolimatta data ei soveltunut indikaattorien laskentaan. Johtopäätökset: Tietoallasaineiston käytön mahdollisuudet rationaalisen ja turvallisen lääkehoidon tutkimukseen olivat tämän tutkimuksen perusteella rajalliset. Massadata-aineiston saattaminen tutkimuksellisesti hyödynnettävään muotoon vaatii menetelmän, joka pitää sisällään useita työvaiheita ja niiden kehittäminen vaatii tietoteknistä erityisasiantuntemusta. Vaikka dataa saatiin paljon, yksittäisen potilaan opioidilääkehoidosta ei saatu kokonaiskuvaa, koska merkittävä osa datasta oli rakenteettomassa muodossa. Potilastiedon toissijaisen hyödyntämisen kannalta aineiston rakenteisen osan merkittävimmät käytön esteet liittyivät datan laatuun ja luotettavuuteen. Jotta tietoaltaasta saatava aineisto soveltuisi toisiokäyttöön tai tieteelliseen tutkimukseen, pitää sekä potilastietojärjestelmän merkintä- ja kirjaamistapoja yhtenäistää sekä data tulisi tallentaa tietoaltaaseen yhä rakenteisemmassa muodossa.
  • Reponen, Sannamari (2021)
    Biologisten lääkkeiden tarjonta ja käyttö ovat lisääntyneet voimakkaasti viimeisen vuosikymmenen aikana. Biologiset lääkkeet voivat parantaa reumasairauksien ja useiden muiden pitkäaikaissairauksien hoitotuloksia. Biologiset lääkkeet ovat yleensä perinteisiä pienimolekyylisiä lääkkeitä kalliimpia, ja siksi biologisen alkuperäislääkkeen kanssa kliinisesti samanarvoiseksi kehitettyjen edullisempien biosimilaarien käyttöä pyritään edistämään osana rationaalista lääkehoitoa. Potilaan näkemyksillä ja niiden huomioimisella on hoitoon sitoutumisen ja hoidon tulosten kannalta suuri merkitys. Potilaiden näkemyksistä ja kokemuksista biologisista lääkkeistä ja niiden vaihdosta on melko vähän tutkimuksia. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia reumapotilaiden tietämystä ja näkemyksiä biologisista lääkkeistä ja biosimilaareista sekä kokemuksia niiden ei-lääketieteellisestä lääkevaihdosta. Lisäksi tutkittiin reumapotilaiden uskomuksia omasta lääkityksestään, halukkuutta osallistua lääkitykseen liittyvään päätöksentekoon lääkärin kanssa ja biologisten reumalääkkeiden käyttäjien lääketiedon lähteitä. Tutkimus toteutettiin sähköisenä kyselynä Yliopiston Apteekin kanta-asiakkaille ja kertomalla siitä Reumaliiton ja IBD- ja muut suolistosairaudet ry:n viestinnässä 18.–30.1.2021. Kohderyhmänä olivat aikuiset avoterveydenhuollon reuma-, IBD- ja muut suolistosairaus-, sekä ihopsoriasispotilaat, jotka käyttivät adalimumabin tai etanerseptin alkuperäistä biologista lääkettä (BA) tai biosimilaaria (BS) tai ainoastaan perinteisiä pienimolekyylisiä lääkeitä (PL). Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin vastauksia 260 reumapotilaalta, joista biologisia lääkkeitä oli käyttänyt 75 (BA-käyttäjiä 35, BS-käyttäjiä 40) ja perinteisiä lääkkeitä 185. Ei-lääketieteellisen lääkevaihdon kokeneita oli 17. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena viitekehyksenä käytettiin terveysuskomusmallia. Ensisijaiset lopputulosmuuttujat olivat faktorianalyysillä muodostettuja summamuuttujia. Erot lääkekäyttäjäryhmien (BA, BS, PL) välillä ja taustamuuttujien vaikutukset testattiin tilastollisilla analyyseillä. Vastanneista potilaista 94 % tunnisti biologisen lääkkeen käsitteen, mutta biosimilaari-käsite tunnettiin huonommin (34 %). Suurin osa potilaista (73–78 %) luotti biosimilaarien olevan ominaisuuksiltaan samankaltaisia alkuperäisvalmisteiden kanssa. Lääkärin tekemään biologisten lääkkeiden vaihtoon luotettiin enemmän (89 %) kuin mahdollisesti apteekissa tehtävään vaihtoon (40 %). Tutkimuksessa todetut kokemukset biologisten lääkkeiden vaihdosta biosimilaariin olivat pääosin positiivisia. Tutkimuksen reumapotilailla oli hyvä tietämys biologisista lääkkeistä, mutta he tunsivat huonommin biosimilaarin käsitteen ja mitä biosimilaarit ovat. Heillä oli yleisesti ottaen luottavainen näkemys siitä, että biosimilaari on ominaisuuksiltaan alkuperäisvalmistetta vastaava lääke. Biologisten ei-lääketieteelliseen vaihtoon suhtauduttiin melko myönteisesti, mutta lääkärin toteuttamaan lääkevaihtoon suhtauduttiin luottavaisemmin kuin mahdollisesti apteekeissa tehtävään vaihtoon. Lisää tutkimustietoa tarvitaan muun muassa potilaiden biosimilaareihin kohdistuvan epävarmuuden syistä.
  • Oravainen, Taina (2019)
    Pitkäaikaiset lääkitykset lisääntyvät jatkuvasti kroonisten sairauksien yleistymisen ja väestön ikääntymisen takia. Pitkäaikaisten sairauksien hoidossa lääkehoitojen rationaalisuus korostuu, mutta WHO:n arvioiden mukaan noin puolet lääkkeiden määräämisestä, toimittamisesta, käytöstä ja myynnistä toteutuu epärationaalisesti. Tämä lisää terveydenhuollon ammattilaisten vastuuta lääkehoidon vaikutusten seurannassa ja potilaan hoitoon sitouttamisessa myös reseptien uudistamisessa. Reseptien uudistamiskäytäntöjä on kuitenkin tutkittu vähän niin Suomessa kuin maailmanlaajuisesti. Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tavoitteena oli tarkastella nykyisiä reseptien uudistamiskäytäntöjä perusterveydenhuollon lääkäreiden näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena oli tarkastella, minkälaiset tekijät vaikuttavat lääkäreiden työskentelyyn sekä potilaan lääkehoidon kokonaisuuden hallintaan ja turvallisuuteen reseptien uudistamistilanteissa. Lisäksi kartoitettiin lääkäreiden ratkaisuehdotuksia uudistamiskäytäntöjen kehittämiseksi. Tutkimus toteutettiin laadullisena monimenetelmätutkimuksena Kirkkonummen terveysasemilla. Tutkimuksessa hyödynnettiin triangulaatiota ja tutkimusaineisto koostui reseptien uudistamistilanteiden varjostuksesta sekä kahdesta lääkäreiden ryhmähaastattelusta. Tutkimukseen osallistui yhteensä 12 lääkäriä, joista viisi osallistui varjostusvaiheeseen ja seitsemän haastatteluvaiheeseen. Aineisto kerättiin huhti-heinäkuun 2019 aikana. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena viitekehyksenä oli inhimillisen erehdyksen teoriaan perustuva järjestelmälähtöinen näkökulma. Tutkimusaineisto analysoitiin aineistolähtöisellä sisällönanalyysillä, jossa varjostus- ja haastatteluaineistosta etsittiin tutkimuksen tavoitteiden kannalta merkittäviä ilmaisuja. Reseptien uudistaminen on lääkäreiden näkökulmasta monivaiheinen prosessi. Prosessiin vaikuttivat useat uudistamista helpottavat ja vaikeuttavat järjestelmä-, potilas- ja lääkelähtöiset tekijät. Lääkärit tunnistivat ongelmakohtia uudistamisprosessin jokaisesta vaiheesta. Lääkäreiden mukaan etenkin tietojärjestelmien epäkäytännölliset ominaisuudet ja tekniset ongelmat sekä ajantasaisten lääkitystietojen ja tiedonkulun puutteet olivat uudistamistilanteissa ongelmallisia ja tekivät uudistamisesta työlästä. Myös kiire ja uudistettavien reseptien suuri määrä vaikeuttivat uudistamista. Ongelmien takia lääkärit kokivat, ettei lääkehoitojen seurantaa voitu tehdä uudistamistilanteessa perusteellisesti. Lääkäreiden ehdotuksia uudistamisprosessin kehittämiseen olivat uudistamisen parempi koordinointi, tietojärjestelmien ja tiedonvälityksen kehittäminen sekä moniammatillisen yhteistyön ja potilaan osallistamisen lisääminen.
  • Saksa, Mari (2022)
    There are certain characteristics in children’s medication process, such as weight or body surface area-based drug dosing and off-label use of medications, that expose children to medication errors. Small children especially are prone to physical injuries resulting from medication errors. High-alert medications bear a heightened risk of causing significant, even life-threatening harm to a patient when used in error. The aim of this study was to promote children's medication safety by identifying medication errors and contributing factors to errors associated with the use of high-alert medications in pediatric medication process in a hospital environment. The data of this retrospective register study consisted of voluntary medication error reports (HaiPro) made in the pediatric and adolescent units at Helsinki university hospital (HUS). ISMP's (Institute for Safe Medication Practices) list of high-alert medications in acute care settings was used to limit the data. The data was analyzed by using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The aim of the quantitative analysis was to report the frequencies (n) and proportions (%) of high-alert medications and routes of administration and the aim of the qualitative analysis was to identify the types of medication errors and contributing factors in the data. ISMP’s high-alert medications accounted for approximately one-fifth (19.7%) of all medication error reports made in pediatric and adolescent units in 2018–2020. Twelve medications and intravenous route covered approximately 65.0% of all high-alert medications and routes of administration mentioned in the data. Medication errors were mostly identified in medication administration stage (43.3%) and administration errors were often preceded by prescribing errors. Dosing errors (20.5%) and documenting errors (16.8%) were the most common medication error types in the data. Errors associated with dosing and infusion rate were most often involved in severe medication errors. The most frequently identified contributing factors in the data were associated with the work situation and conditions, documenting and information transfer or medications. More detailed risk analysis considering high-alert medications and the intravenous medication process and targeting preventive barriers to identified risk areas are recommended in pediatric and adolescent units in the future. Barriers should be planned to cover the entire medication process. Among different types of medication errors, multiple dosing errors and errors during the programming of infusion rate require special attention in the future.
  • Eriksson, Veronica (2020)
    Migraine was ranked as the second largest cause of disability in 2016 in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. People with migraine have a greater disability and a lower health-related quality of life than those of the general population. Many migraine patients experience functional and emotional impairment due to their disease. Migraine can limit their daily activities and impact their private, professional and social life. Migraine affects the patient also in between the attacks and can impact their education, career and their family and loved ones. Comorbid diseases and failed treatment lines add to the burden of migraine. Furthermore, migraine also imposes an economic burden. Stigma is described as the hidden burden of disease. Chronic migraine patients have been found to have higher stigma than episodic migraine patients. Even though migraine is one of the most common disabling headache disorders, it is still both under-recognised, under-diagnosed and under-treated. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of the burden and the stigma of migraine in adult Finnish migraine patients. This study aimed to produce comprehensive and current information about migraine and its severity in Finland, highlighting the burden it poses on the migraine patients as well as on society. Migraine is most prevalent among the working aged population, which increases the societal burden of the disease. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional electronic survey amongst adult Finnish migraine patients. The participants were contacted through the Finnish Migraine Patient Advocacy Group. The questionnaire consisted of the already existing and validated Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) Questionnaire and of measures developed by the author. The final data consisted of 608 responses. Of all respondents with 8 or more headache days a month, over 90% were categorised in the severe disability group (MIDAS grade IV), thus having similar disability to those with 15 or more headache days a month (i.e. respondents with probable chronic migraine). The proportion of respondents with severe disability (MIDAS grade IV) was greater in the present study (65.0%) than in a study conducted in Finland in 2000 (47%), indicating that migraine disability in Finland might have become more severe during the past two decades. The mean level of headache pain in the present study was 6.2 (on a scale of 0-10) and pain was the aspect that most respondents viewed as the worst aspect of migraine. This highlights the importance of proper pain management in migraine care. Many of the respondents were also at risk for medication overuse, which highlights the importance of monitoring medication use and informing the patients about possible risks. Stress was reported as the most common migraine trigger, and reducing stress at the workplace was also reported as the most important way of how migraine could better be managed at the workplace. Almost half (44.4%) of all respondents felt stigmatised due to their migraine. Reasons for this stigma and suggested solutions on how to reduce/manage the stigma were quite similar. The ignorance of others was the most reported reason for their migraine stigma, and increasing awareness and correct information about migraine was the most reported way of reducing the stigma. Many of the respondents had faced, due to their migraine, belittlement at work, from family and friend and from healthcare professionals. Facing belittlement from healthcare professionals was reported to have happened often by 11.5% and sometimes by 34.7% of all respondents. Of all respondents, 55.6% worried often and 29.8% worried sometimes about the onset of the next migraine attack. The majority of the respondents had severe disability based on their MIDAS grades. Many other aspect of the burden were reported as well, inculding stigma, reported by almost half of the respondents. Further and future studies need to be conducted to get an even better understanding of the burden and stigma of migraine experienced by adult Finnish migraine patients. This includes further and more intricate quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data from this study, as´well as studies with new perspectives based on the results found in this study.