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Browsing by study line "Ympäristömuutos"

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  • Järvinen, Riikka (2022)
    Urban greenspaces are valuable resources for humans and are an integral part of the urban landscape. They are also popular sites for various social and cultural activities, such as dog walking. Dog ownership rates are increasing globally at a rapid rate, hence increasing the dog populations within urban cities. The increasing number of dogs could potentially have negative consequences to the quality of urban parks. Furthermore, there is a lack of research on the impacts of dogs on urban environments. The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the impacts of dogs on path-side soils in urban greenspaces. Soil samples were collected from both Helsinki and Lahti. The impact of dog urine was studied by comparing path-side soil samples between areas with high dog activity (i.e., parks) and similar areas with low to no dog activity (i.e., cemeteries). Soil samples were collected three times during the growing season in 2021 at three different treatments: close by 1) an evergreen tree, 2) a lamppost, and 3) a lawn area. The samples were analyzed for soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, soil moisture, NO3--N, and NH4+-N. Net N mineralization and net nitrification rates were also calculated. The results indicated that dog urine is a significant contributor to the input of nitrogen in urban parks. Soil NO3-N and NH4+-N concentrations were significantly higher in parks than in cemeteries and exhibited clear seasonal trends. Soil pH was generally lower and electrical conductivity higher in parks than in cemeteries. Poles and trees exhibited the greatest concentrations, suggesting that the impact of dog urine is highly localized around path-side objects. None of the treatments in cemeteries showed little to no changes throughout the growing season. Lastly, the net nitrification rates were significantly higher in parks during spring and summer. In contrast, net mineralization rates were generally higher in cemeteries than parks. These results confirm that urban planners need to take into consideration the impact of dogs to mitigate any potential negative consequences to the quality of urban parks.
  • Berglund, Nora (2022)
    In Finland and in many other European countries, indoor housing of dairy cattle has been increasing at the expense of grazing. According to Finnish legislation, only dairy cows housed in tie-stalls are obligated to graze for 60 days per year between May and September. Pressure to intensify production leads to increase in herd sizes, regional concentration, lack of suitable pastureland near large barns, and automation of milking. Conversely, grazing is regarded as important for animal welfare, maintenance of biodiversity and cultural landscapes. Farmer perceptions towards grazing have not been studied in Finland comprehensively, which need to be understood better in order to provide adequate support for sustainable management of grazing. The research aims at gaining understanding of the external and internal factors driv- ing the farm-level decision making related to grazing regimes. Concept of good farming ideal is used to examine farmers’ decision-making. The data was collected from 26 cattle farms with a gradient of grazing from zero to maximum. Firstly, an online questionnaire was sent out to farmers and secondly, semi-structured inter- views were conducted with 7 dairy producers, to further explore farmer views about grazing, biodiversity, and animal welfare. The results show farmers who practice grazing to perceive it more positively than the farmers who do not graze. Some of the farmers who grazed seemed to consider it almost as an intrinsic value, whereas farmers with no grazing saw it as an inef- ficient production method, which they were afraid would become an obligation. The most im- portant internal factors driving decision-making about grazing based on the questionnaire and interviews, were animal welfare, decreased workload because of grazing, infrastructure of the farm, economic aspects, and benefits of grazing to biodiversity and landscape values. Exter- nal factors found to affect the decision of grazing were incentives, regulations, and consumer expectations. Animal welfare was found to be a basis for production for many and the most important feature valued for good farming, to which grazing was seen to contribute. The re- sults imply subsidies regarding grazing should be higher for grazing to be considered profita- ble and more enjoyable by farmers.
  • Ahonen, Veronica (2019)
    Permafrost peatlands have the capacity to store significant amounts of carbon, and thus they act as important controllers of the climate. Approximately 14% of the world’s soil organic carbon pool is stored in permafrost peatlands, which are sensitive to climatic fluctuations due to their location in the high latitudes of the subarctic zone. Permafrost peatlands also act as a habitat for a large number of moisture-sensitive organisms, such as bryophytes and testate amoebae, which can be used to study how the hydrology of peatlands has changed and will continue to change throughout time, giving us an opportunity to predict the future of peatlands under a changing climate. In this Master’s Thesis I examined the testate amoebae composition and used these species as indicators to study hydrological fluctuations from three subarctic permafrost peatland cores extracted from Taavavuoma and Abisko in northern Sweden. The species compositions were combined with radiocarbon (14C) and lead (210Pb) dates to reconstruct the past water table levels for the late Holocene, spanning four climatic periods. The reconstructions were then compared to past studies on testate amoebae to understand how permafrost peatlands and their species assemblages respond to changes in the hydrology of the active layer of the peat. Out of the study sites only the Taavavuoma cores spanned the Dark Age Cold Period (DACP) and Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Species compositions in both cores indicated fluctuating water tables during the DACP, but during the MCA the results began to contradict with one site showing a wetter, and the other a drier MCA. Two out of three study sites indicated a wetter Little Ice Age and a drier Post-Industrial Warming, supporting past studies indicating similar results, whereas one study site gave opposite results. The results indicated large variability in testate amoebae assemblages throughout time, indicating that the hydrology of peatlands can change very abruptly and vary considerably even on a local scale. Modelling is however complicated by the poorly known ecology of testate amoebae, which is why a multi-proxy approach is essential to reliably predict the future fate of permafrost peatlands.
  • Boxström, Agneta (2021)
    Abstract: Northern boreal peatlands form one of the biggest carbon pools in the biosphere, thus having great potential to cause major changes to the global carbon cycle. The ongoing recent warming may affect the carbon dynamics though factors, such as, vegetation, hydrology and permafrost balance. As the future is still uncertain there are no definitive answers on how the peatlands will react in the future. Fortunately, moisture sensitive organisms such as, bryophytes and testate amoeba is preserved in the peat and can therefore be used to reconstruct past climatic shifts. In this thesis I studied palaeohydrology and peat accumulation over the last two millennia, from three peat cores originating in a permafrost peatland in Rogovaya, Russia. I used testate amoeba as a proxy of past moisture conditions and plotted the taxa composition of each core against 14C and 210Pb dated samples, to reconstruct past moisture shifts. The results were also supplemented by plant macrofossil and carbon accumulation data for more robust results. Of the three cores, Rog11 provided the oldest testate amoeba dataset by reaching the Dark Ages Cold Period. During this period there were indications of dry moisture conditions followed by a wet Medieval Warm Period. The Little Ice Age gave indications of a drying trend, while toward the end of the LIA Rog8 indicated opposite moisture conditions. From the end of the LIA onwards a general trend of drying and increased carbon accumulated is noted. Yet, during the last decade the trend has turned. The wet shift might indicate that the threshold for the peatland has been reached and the amount of melting permafrost has exceeded the evapotranspiration rate. As a conclusion my result indicates that the dynamics of both hydrology and carbon are complicated processes affected by both autogenic and allogenic factors, therefore causing large variability even on a local scale. The absence of widely spread observations of the most recent wet shift also indicates that the response of the peatland to the recent warming might be unequal. To rectify this situation, continued research is crucial, so that we can increase our understanding of climate-peatland interactions.
  • Keränen, Fanny (2021)
    This study aimed to identify conservation landscapes with potential to be mutually beneficial for people and African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in South Africa through spatial conservation planning analyses that integrate ecological and socioeconomic data. The research questions were: (i) what are the most ecologically suitable areas for the reintroduction of elephants, and (ii) which of these areas provide the best opportunities for also sustaining socioeconomic development of local people. The first question was answered with an ecological model that predicts habitat suitability for elephants, developed by a combination of literature review, expert opinion, and GIS-based methods. The second question was answered by combining the ecological model with socioeconomic criteria in Zonation spatial conservation planning software. The results show that the central part of South Africa holds most potential for elephant conservation as it has the largest uniform area of high-quality habitat, while the area also meets the socioeconomic criteria. The priority areas for the conservation of elephants were classified into top priority classes of 1%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 20%. The identified areas hold an unrealized opportunity in the wildlife and ecotourism sectors, and the reintroduction of elephants to those areas could provide the foundation for long-term economic activity of local communities e.g. in the form of elephant-based ecotourism, while contributing to the conservation of elephants. Conserving just the top 5% priority areas would grow South African protected area estate by approximately three million hectares and increase the current elephant range by approximately 75%. Ideally, the results of this study could be used to inform the on-going decision-making process on where to allocate resources for elephant conservation in South Africa.
  • Kavanagh, Kayleigh C (2022)
    Urban densification is resulting in the rapid loss of urban green spaces and their associated values. Moreover, the remaining urban green spaces are under increasing pressure to meet diverse resident needs and preferences. While past studies have investigated the intrinsic, instrumental, and relational values associated with such spaces, little attention has been paid to the sub-sets of relational values referred to a fundamental-relational (i.e., contributions toward enhanced social resilience) and eudemonic-relational values (i.e., actions, experiences, and habits linked to a “good life”). This study used public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS) surveys in a residential neighborhood of Helsinki, Finland to spatially explore and examine the differences between intrinsic, instrumental, fundamental-relational, and eudemonic-relational values in urban green spaces. I analyzed responses from residents and stakeholders (n = 1089) using Chi-square tests for significant associations and density-based clustering. Mapped values indicated that green spaces were primarily valued for their relational value, with an emphasis on eudemonic-relational values. Moreover, there were differences in the spatial distribution of instrumental, intrinsic, and relational values between green space types and values were spatially clustered by land use. Notably, there were few differences in how these values were assigned by different sociodemographic groups. I discuss the implications of these findings for local- and city-scale planning and the use of value typologies in PPGIS surveys. Further research in this field will benefit from the use of further value subcategories, increased geographic scale, and additional study of the influence of sociodemographic factors.
  • Oikarinen, Kaisa (2022)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, millaisia kehyksiä ilmastoahdistus saa kahdeksassa, vuonna 2021 julkaistussa suomalaisessa podcast-jaksossa. Näin pyritään lisäämään ymmärrystä ilmastoahdistuksen ilmiöstä, sekä siitä, millaisia kehystyksiä aihe mediassa saa. Tutkimus on tehty laadullisella kehysanalyysilla, joka perustuu Erwin Goffmanin (1974) kehittämään kehysteoriaan ja sen myöhempiin sovellutuksiin. Lyhyesti sanottuna, tutkimus pohjaa siihen olettamukseen, jossa median tavat kehystää ja esittää jokin aihe tai asia ohjaavat sitä, millä tavalla asiat meille esitetään ja millaisina me asiat näemme. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin suoratoistopalvelu Spotifysta, Yle Areenasta ja Suplasta. Kehyksien muodostamisessa hyödynnettiin Robert Entmanin (1993) median kehysanalyysin periaatetta, jossa kehyksillä on neljä tarkoitusta: Ongelmien määritteleminen, ongelman aiheuttavien tekijöiden tunnistaminen, moraalisten arvioiden tekeminen sekä ratkaisujen ehdottaminen. Tutkimuksen tuloksena syntyi kolme kehystä, jotka nimettiin luonnollisen ilmastoahdistuksen, ilmastoahdistus sukupolvikysymyksenä sekä ilmastoahdistus tarvitsee vertaistukea, käsittelyä ja toimintaa kehyksiksi. Jokainen kehys kuvaa omalla tavallaan sitä, millaisena ilmastoahdistus nähdään viime aikaisissa podcast-keskusteluissa. Luonnollisen ilmastoahdistuksen kehyksessä korostuvat näkemykset siitä, kuinka ilmastoahdistus voidaan nähdä luonnollisena ja normaalina, sekä hyvänä reaktiona motivoivan vaikutuksensa kautta. Kaiken kaikkiaan kehys kuvaa ilmasto- ja ympäristöahdistuksen ilmiön monitahoisuutta ja yksilöllisyyttä, sekä pyrkii vahvistamaan näkemyksiä siitä, mitä ilmastoahdistus on ja mitä se ei ole. Lisäksi ilmastoahdistuksen sisältämä ahdistus sana kyseenalaistetaan. Ilmastoahdistus sukupolvikysymyksenä - kehys avaa puolestaan näkemyksiä nuorten ilmastoahdistuksen syihin ja korostumiseen, sekä ottaa kantaa aikaisempaan ilmastoahdistuskeskusteluun, joka joidenkin keskustelijoiden mielestä näyttäytyi ilmiötä vähättelevänä. Kokonaisuudessaan kehyksessä kuitenkin korostuu näkemys siitä, että ilmastoahdistus ei ole vain nuoria koskettava asia, vaikka se tällä hetkellä korostuu ja ilmenee eniten nuoremmissa sukupolvissa. Kehys ilmastoahdistus tarvitsee vertaistukea, käsittelyä ja toimintaa, tuo esiin keskustelijoiden näkemyksiä ja kokemuksia liittyen ilmastoahdistuksen käsittelyyn ja lievittämiseen, sekä osallistuu keskusteluun koskien ilmastotekojen merkityksellisyyttä. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella voidaan sanoa, että ilmastoahdistus saa vuonna 2021 julkaistuissa, suomalaisissa podcastkeskusteluissa monia eri sävyjä ja ilmastoahdistusta käsitellään niissä laajasti. Ja vaikka keskustelijoiden näkemykset ovat pitkälti linjassa ilmastoahdistusta käsittelevien julkaisujen kanssa, muutamia kiinnostavia ja tutkimattomiakin näkökulmia ja kehystyksiä ilmenee. Osaltaan tutkimuksen tulokset täydentävät kuvaa siitä, miten valtavirtamediaa hitaammat lajityypit – kuten podcastit – mukautuvat muualla esitettyihin määritelmiin ja kehystyksiin, mutta myös täydentävät niitä. Tällöin podcast-keskustelujen voidaan nähdä tarjoavan vaihtoehtoisia kehyksiä, jotka osittain haastavat ja täydentävät julkisuudessa hallitsevia kehyksiä.
  • Kangas, Jonna (2022)
    Climate change is expected to cause salinity change in the Baltic Sea and therefore may affect organisms living in the Baltic such as plankton. The microbial loop is an important part of the plankton food web. It consists of heterotrophic bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates and is connected with the classic plankton food chain through interactions with primary producers and mesozooplankton. Therefore, salinity affects the functioning of the microbial food web not only directly, but also through salinity induced changes on primary producers and mesozooplankton. In this master’s thesis I studied the effects of salinity change on microbial loop components bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates in an outdoor mesocosm experiment containing four salinity treatments with salinities of 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5, three replicas each. The experiment took place offshore at the Tvärminne Zoological Station. Bacteria were sampled from the mesocosms every other day and nanoflagellates and ciliates every 6th day. Bacteria were analysed with the flow cytometer, nanoflagellates with epifluorescent microscopy and ciliates using an inverted microscope. The effects of salinity on microbial loop components were statistically tested using linear mixed effects models. Results of the experiment show that salinity had an indirect effect on microbial loop components through changes in mesozooplankton composition. There were significant differences between high and low salinity treatments in bacteria abundance and composition, the interaction strength between HNFs and bacteria and in the mean cell size of ciliate communities. These were mainly caused by differences in mesozooplankton community structure between salinity treatments, which had cascading effects on the strength of top-down and bottom-up control on the trophic levels of the microbial loop, leading to changes in bacteria abundances and composition. Based on the results of this thesis, more studies are needed to detect the effects that changes in the composition and functioning of the microbial loop might have on the ecosystem. Further research should also focus on the significance of the structure and diversity of the communities within the microbial loop as well as the functional roles of different species in the microbial food web.
  • Keinänen, Milka (2020)
    High Nature Value (HNV) farming systems hold significant natural values but have decreased drastically during the process of agricultural modernization. Biodiversity in Europe is dependent on these extensively farmed areas because they maintain habitats for many endangered species; e.g. 30% of Europe's butterfly species have declining populations and most live in natural and semi-natural habitats. European common agricultural policy (CAP) favour conventional agriculture, leading HNV agriculture in a foul position. HNV areas are often abandoned or replaced with intensive farming practices. Participatory agricultural innovation processes offer solutions to the distress of HNV farmlands. In these processes different actors – such as farmers, entrepreneurs, advisors, NGO and municipality representatives – are brought together to find localized solutions to the challenges of the area. HNV-Link project was active during years 2016-2019 identifying, developing and improving innovations in ten European HNV farming areas. In this thesis I examine the success of innovations in seven Learning Areas (LA) in terms of socio-economic viability, environmental conservation and cultural region. The data in this thesis is both quantitative and qualitative. I use mixed methods- approach where the statistical analysis and qualitative content analysis support each other. I carried out a survey for the LA coordinators where they responded how was the impact of the innovations to social, economic and environmental wellbeing. I complement the survey with data gathered by the project in 2016-2017. I conduct a qualitative content analysis to innovation fiches using Atlas.ti programme and a statistical analysis with IMB SPSS statistics programme with non-parametric tests. I compare the relation of socio-economic and environmental impact of the innovations, explicit aim of HNV conservation, recognition of environmental topics in the fiches and cultural region. Innovations were successful both socio-economically and environmentally. There was a possible synergy between economic and environmental impacts, which indicates economic viability of the LA’s improving HNV conservation. Innovations with explicit HNV conservation objective had more positive environmental impact than the ones without. Innovations with high recognition of environmental themes in fiches had slightly more positive environmental impact, but the difference was so weak that they fail to express the environmental outcomes reported in the survey. Congruent patterns didn’t occur inside cultural regions which might be due to the similarities of the areas or small sample size. The results display the inherent unpredictability of innovation processes, and the importance of holistic understanding and long-term monitoring of them.
  • Winquist, Emelie (2021)
    The heath vegetation in the Jauristunturit study area is highly affected by the reindeer fence that was built in the mid-1950s between Finland and Norway, to prevent summer grazing in the Norwegian side. In the study area, the Finnish and Norwegian pastures are used during different seasons, causing differences in reindeer grazing history, and with time differences in vegetation. Additionally, local topography also impacts the vegetation composition and structure creating variation in local vegetation patterns. My research questions are: How vegetation patterns differ between summer- and winter- grazed areas, and which plant functional groups have the most significant difference? How local topography affects vegetation patterns, and does the effect of topography differ between summer and winter pastures? The data was collected from five 400 m long transects that crossed the fence and had vegetation plots with 10-m intervals. The %-cover and height of each vascular plant, bryophyte, and lichen species were estimated from 0.25 m2 plots. Later, species data was grouped into functional groups and general linear models were used to analyze differences in cover, height, species number, biomass, and leaf-area indices between countries. Topography indices were calculated in GIS for each plot and analyzed with random forest models to find out the most important topography indices explaining vegetation patterns. The vegetation data was collected by four teams, and therefore, the comparability in the collected data between teams was analyzed. Significant vegetation differences were found in the ground layer, with higher cover and biomass of bryophytes on the Finnish side (mean biomass 168.2 vs. 65.2 g m-2). Reindeer lichens were more abundant on the Norwegian side (mean biomass 197.0 vs. 2.9 g m-2) which is visible in aerial and satellite images and in the field. Among vascular plants, evergreen dwarf shrubs had higher biomass and leaf area index on the Finnish side and dwarf birch had higher cover and height on the Norwegian side. Topography indices had a higher level of variance explained on the Norwegian side, and higher at the ground layer compared to vascular plants. Elevation had the greatest impact on vegetation, and after that, topography protection index for 50 m and depth to water stream network for 2 and 10 ha. The differences between data collectors were not considered to have a major impact on the results. The results indicate that there are significant differences in vegetation between summer- and winter-grazed areas, mainly in the ground layer, and most differences are caused by differences in reindeer grazing history, but also local topography has an impact.
  • Escanciano Gomez, Alfredo (2022)
    The Baltic Sea is undergoing changes due to climate change, including an increase in its temperature. This may in turn lead to changes in the traits of the species that inhabit it, including non-endemic, invasive species. Palaemon elegans is a species native to the Atlantic Ocean that has been present in the Baltic Sea since the beginning of this century. Abilities such as high thermal tolerance make it successful in colonising new ecosystems like the brackish waters of this sea. However, less is known about the behavioural traits’ adaptions to these changes. This study aims then to find out how climate change may affect the behaviour of this species. To do so, five behaviours expressed by this species were observed and analysed to see how temperature change, seabed composition and body size influence their expression. The behaviours analysed were aggressiveness, movement frequency, reaction to food stimulus, number of feeding interactions and shelter-seeking. Analyses were conducted using ten-minute videos with ten specimens of P. elegans placed in water tanks and interacting in ecosystems representations with elements typical of the seabed where this species lives, both vegetation and rocks. Student's t-tests in R were then performed to test the significance of possible differences between the behaviours studied and the three parameters that may influence their expression. The results obtained show that the increase in water temperature might indeed lead to an increase in the frequency of the five behaviours studied except in aggressiveness. On the other hand, it was found that the composition of the ecosystem does not have a significant influence overall, while body size has a major influence on feeding related behaviours. Therefore,knowing more about changes in the behavior of species susceptible to climate change can be helpful to understand how biodiversity and its distribution will vary in the not so distant and changing future and what consequences it may generate at the ecosystem level.
  • Eerola, Emmi (2021)
    Kaikkien lauhkealla vyöhykkeellä elävien eliöiden täytyy sopeutua ympäristöolosuhteiden suureen vaihteluun vuodenaikojen mukaan. Vuodenaikaan liittyviin muutoksiin kuuluvat muun muassa lämpötilan ja valoisuuden vaihtelut, jotka ovat selkeitä myös järvissä veden alla. Lämpötilan, ravinteiden ja valon määrät vaikuttavat järven tuottavuuteen ja siten moniin muihin tekijöihin, myös kalojen ravinnon määrään. Eri kalalajit ovat sopeutuneet erilaisiin olosuhteisiin, joissa ne pärjäävät parhaiten, ja jokaisella lajilla on oma optimilämpötilansa. Kalat ovat aktiivisimmillaan niille sopivien olosuhteiden aikaan, mikä useimmilla lajeilla on kesä, jolloin ravintoakin on saatavilla enemmän. Suurin osa kalatutkimuksista tehdään yleensä kesällä avoveden aikaan, koska se on helpompaa ja talvella kalojen ei ajatella olevan tutkimuksen arvoisia. Suuri osa maailman järvistä kuitenkin on jääpeitteen alla osan vuodesta ja talvi on iso osa kalojen elämää, minkä vuoksi niiden tutkiminen vuoden ympäri on tärkeää. Tämän tutkimuksen neljä pääkysymystä olivat: 1. Millä tavalla eri kalalajien, lahkojen, sekä lämpötila- ja ravintokiltojen osuudet saaliista muuttuvat eri vuodenaikoina? 2. Kuinka paljon yksikkösaalis muuttuu vuoden aikana? 3. Miten kalojen koko ja kuntokerroin muuttuvat vuoden aikana? 4. Mitkä eri ympäristö- ja biologiset tekijät selittävät yksikkösaaliin muutoksia? Koekalastusta tehtiin vuosina 2020-2021 vuoden ajan koekalastusverkkosarjalla kolmessa habitaatissa: litoraalissa, profundaalissa ja pelagiaalissa. Joka kuukausi kalastettiin vähintään kolmen päivän ajan. Jokaiselle saadulle kalalle määritettiin laji, pituus, paino ja kuntokerroin ja jokaiselle yksittäiselle pyyntikerralle laskettiin yksikkösaalis. Kalastuksen lisäksi Pääjärvestä otettiin joka kuukausi fysikaaliskemiallisia mittauksia. Koekalastuksen tulosten mukaan selvästi runsain kala Pääjärvessä oli särki, toiseksi runsain kala oli kappalemääränä ahven ja biomassana kuha. Talvea kohti särjen ja ahvenen määrät laskivat, kun taas kuhan, kiisken ja mateen osuudet saaliista nousivat. Selvästi runsain kalalahko vuoden kokonaissaaliissa oli karppikalat, vaikka ahvenkalat olikin runsain lahko loppukesällä ja lopputalvella. Lämpimänveden kaloja oli muita lämpötilakiltoja enemmän koko vuoden saaliissa, vain helmikuussa viileänveden kaloja oli enemmän, kun kiiski oli kuukauden runsain kala. Petokalojen kappalemääräosuus saaliista oli jokaisena kuukautena muita ravintokiltoja pienempi, mutta talvella petokalojen biomassaosuus saaliista oli suurin. Yksikkösaalis oli alhaisimmillaan jääpeitteisinä kuukausina ja suurimmillaan kesällä. Kalojen keskikoko oli talvella kesää suurempi ja kuntokerroin alhaisempi. Kappaleyksikkösaaliin muutoksia eniten selittivät kuntokerroin, lämpötila, typpipitoisuus ja pH, kun taas biomassayksikkösaaliin muutoksia eniten selittivät kuntokerroin, lumensyvyys, lämpötila ja kokonaishiili. Pääjärven kalayhteisön rakenteessa tapahtui muutoksia vuodenaikojen välillä. Selkein muutos oli yksikkösaaliin muutos kesän ja talven välillä. Pääjärven lisäksi ympärivuotista kalatutkimusta pitäisi tehdä morfologisilta ja fysikaaliskemiallisilta piirteiltään erilaisissa järvissä, jotta saataisiin tietoa, miten kalayhteisö reagoi eri vuodenaikoihin eri olosuhteissa.
  • Sarajärvi, Aija (2021)
    Climate change is one of the biggest global threats. Food production is one of the most significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions. It has been estimated that food systems account for 19 – 29 % of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Many studies have shown that products of animal origin cause more environmentally harmful emissions than plant-based products. In order to reach the 1,5 degree target, diets need to become more sustainable and more plant-based. The life cycle of food is being studied more today to identify their climate and environmental impact. The purpose of this study was to determine life cycle assessment of a plant-based protein product. The life cycle assessment started with the initial production and ended with the finished product in the factory. The study did not take into account the transport of products to stores and consumer activities. The study examined six different scenarios, which were e.g. dealing with the conversion of mixed electricity to wind power and the impact of the new alternative packaging on the results. The study was made by openLCA and the databases used Ecoinvent 3 and AGRIBYLASE 3.0. Life cycle assessment was examined using the ReCiPe 2016 Midpoint (H). The impact categories were global warming, land use, water consumption and freshwater eutrophication. According to this study, converting mixed electricity to wind power can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 49 – 50 %. Converting electricity to wind also significantly reduces land use, water consumption and freshwater eutrophication. Greenhouse gas emissions and phosphorous emissions of plant-based protein are lower than animal origin products. Packaging materials accounted for 7 to 13 % of greenhouse gas emissions. Based on this study, it is recommended to change the primary electric source to wind power.
  • Tuomimaa, Julia (2020)
    Climate change has exacerbated extreme weather events. According to climate scenarios, temperatures will rise and heat periods will become more common also in Finland. These heat periods worsen the urban heat island phenomenon which is known to have negative impacts on human well-being. The impacts of the urban heat island phenomenon can be reduced through careful urban planning, adaptation policies and economic investments. Adaptation to climate change can be monitored through indicators but research and development on adaptation indicators has been largely absent. The development of adaptation monitoring indicators is particularly important in order to ensure the long-term success of the city's adaptation efforts and whether adaptation is moving towards the desired goals. This thesis asks the following research question with the help of a literature review, a focus group discussion and a questionnaire: what kind of indicators can be used to monitor and evaluate adaptation to the urban heat island phenomenon in Helsinki? With the help of the literature review and New York Climate Change Panels framework “the seven steps to indicator selection”, 17 preliminary indicators were developed which were divided into six themes accounting the diverse nature of the urban heat island and its impacts. The indicators were specified in a focus group discussion which had six attendees from environment-, the technical-, social- and health sectors. After the group discussion, the indicators were further modified with the help of a questionnaire answered by ten municipal employees, mainly from the environmental, technical and social and health sectors. On average, respondents found each indicator useful, five indicators were found to be really useful on average, and three indicators were found to be useless among a couple of respondents. After the survey, 11 indicators were modified and one indicator was removed. The end result was 16 indicators for monitoring adaptation to the urban heat island phenomenon divided into the following themes: social vulnerability, state of environment, infrastructure, green-blue infrastructure, policy actions and communication. The development of indicators does not as such contribute to the development of urban adaptation to a desired level, but it is nevertheless an important step in the process of developing adaptation monitoring in the city of Helsinki. This work provides tools for the city to develop their adaptation monitoring strategy which should be systematic and comparable. If the city wants to develop its adaptation monitoring, it is essential to document decisions and programs to explore sufficient coverage. Decisions and programs should be compared against identified adaptation commitments, targets and needs. As a conclusion, this thesis is important step towards more diverse and effective adaptation monitoring. This thesis takes adaptation monitoring forward, developing ways to put adaptation monitoring into practice.
  • Nikkola, Henna (2021)
    Ilmastonmuutos lisää sään ääri-ilmiöitä kuten mittavia rankkasateita, jolloin myös hulevedet, eli rakennettujen alueiden pinnoille kertyvät sade- ja sulamisvedet, muuttuvat yhä akuutimmaksi ongelmaksi. Yksi tiivistyvien kaupunkien haasteista on hulevesien hallinta. Hulevesiä hallitaan pääasiassa niin kutsutuin perinteisin menetelmin, eli pääasiassa viemäröiden, mutta sen rinnalle on nousemassa niin kutsuttu luonnonmukainen hulevesien hallinta. Luonnonmukaiset menetelmät hyödyntävät luonnon omia prosesseja, ja ne voivat parantaa hulevesien laatua, pienentää virtaamahuippuja, edistää luonnon monimuotoisuutta ja tarjota virkistyshyötyjä. Hulevesien hallinnan ja luontoarvojen huomioiminen kaupunkisuunnittelussa ei ole yksinkertaista - suunnittelussa on huomioitava monenlaisia tavoitteita, joiden yhteensovittamisessa kohdataan ristiriitoja. Ristiriidat voivat paljastaa tavoitteiden taustalla olevia arvoja, ja siten kertoa, minkälaista kaupunkia todellisuudessa toteutamme. Tutkielma toteutettiin osana HELSUS Co-Creation Labia ja yhteistyökumppanina toimi Helsingin kaupunki. Tutkielman tavoitteena oli luontoarvojen ja hulevesien hallinnan huomioimisen selvittäminen ja kaupunkisuunnittelijoiden agentuurin kartoittaminen Helsingin maankäytön suunnittelussa. Tutkielmassa pyrittiin vastaamaan seuraaviin tutkimuskysymyksiin: 1) Millaisia asioita asemakaavoitusvaiheessa mukana olleet Helsingin kaupungin työntekijät mielsivät kuuluvan luontoarvojen pariin? 2) Miten luontoarvot ja hulevesien hallinta huomioitiin projekteissa? 3) Mitä asioita suunnittelijat kokivat keskeisinä luontoarvojen ja luonnonmukaisen hallinnan huomioimiseksi suunnitteluprosessissa yksilön osalta? 4) Mitkä asiat vaikeuttivat luontoarvojen huomioimista tai suojelua ja luonnonmukaisen hallinnan toteuttamista? Tutkielma tehtiin käyttäen eksploratiivisen ja välineellisen tapaustutkimuksen menetelmiä. Aineistona toimi pääasiassa seitsemän Helsingin kaupunkisuunnittelijan haastattelut, joille tehtiin temaattinen analyysi. Tutkielman kohteena oli Helsingin kaupungin hulevesien hallintaa koskeva suunnittelu/päätöksenteko asemakaavoitusprosessissa. Yksittäiset tapaukset olivat asemakaavaprojekteja Helsingin Kaarelan, Laajasalon ja Lauttasaaren kaupunginosista. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä tutkielmassa hyödynnettiin pääasiassa arvojen, sääntöjen ja tiedon muodostamaa viitekehystä päätöksentekokontekstissa. Aineiston perusteella luontoarvojen ja luonnonmukaisen hulevesien hallinnan huomioimisen kanssa kilpailevia arvoja ja intressejä olivat tekninen toimivuus ja käytännöllisyys, ihmisten turvallisuus, esteettisyys, taloudellinen kestävyys, asuntotuotanto, rakentamisen tehokkuus, tietämättömyys/osaamattomuus, harrastusmahdollisuudet sekä liikenneratkaisut. Yleisesti kaiken kiteyttävänä haasteena oli tilan puute. Vaikka päätavoitteet ja lopulliset päätökset arvoineen tulevat poliittisilta toimijoilta, niin voidaan kuitenkin sanoa, että suunnittelijoilla on mahdollisuuksia toteuttaa omia arvojaan työssään ja säännöissä on jonkin verran niin sanotusti pelivaraa. Suunnittelussa on suunnittelijakohtaisia eroja esimerkiksi siinä, kuinka aktiivisesti ja minkälaisella asenteella kukin huomioi ja edistää luontoarvoja ja hulevesien hallintaa suunnitteluprosessissa. Hulevesien hallinta vaikuttaa Helsingissä olevan murrosvaiheessa kohti vihreämpään infrastruktuuriin nojaavaa suunnittelua. Sitä vauhdittaakseen kaupungin kannattanee lisätä pilottiprojekteja, suunnitella pilottikirjastoa, lisätä työvoimaa ja kuntien välistä yhteistyötä sekä varmistaa, että suunnittelijoilla on tarpeelliset tiedot ja työkalut, joita myös osataan hyödyntää. Tarve jatkotutkimusten tekemiselle löytyy kaupunkisuunnittelussa kilpailevien arvojen ja intressien selvittämisestä ja niiden tunnistamisesta suunnitteluprosessissa ja päätöksenteossa.
  • Tuomela, Nea (2022)
    Climate change causes changes in the Arctic lakes, such as shortening of the ice-covered period and changes in hydrology as well as vegetation of the drainage area around the lakes. With these shifts in the function of the ecosystems, dissolved organic matter drainage from terrestrial sources is expected to increase. Terrestrial, allochthonous DOM is more refractory, higher molecular weight organic matter, which is less available to bacterial consumption. Alterations in the DOM pool of the lake may change the bacterial community composition, which could in turn alter the lake ecosystem. Four ice-covered lakes in Kilpisjärvi region were sampled in spring 2021. Water samples were filtered and analyzed for dissolved and particulate nutrients and carbon. Coloured dissolved organic matter and fluorescent dissolved organic matter properties were defined. Bacterial community composition was determined with multiplex polymerase chain reaction and sequences analyzed with DADA2 pipeline. Principal component analysis (PCOA) was done to visualize differences between lakes, and distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) was used to detect any associations between dissolved organic matter properties and bacterial community composition. The lakes had low nutrient and carbon concentrations and had mainly similar properties of dissolved organic matter. However, P3 surface water had higher nitrate and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations. Optical properties in P3 surface water, Peak T, Peak M, biological index and humification index, indicated autochthonous production and lability of organic matter. This was reflected also in bacterial community composition by higher relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteriales. Lake P3 had also higher relative abundance of Cyanobacteria, which could be the cause for labile organic matter in the site. Sites P2 and P3 had similar bacterial community compositions, which is likely due to the sites forming a lake chain and sharing the same catchment area. The sites were oligotrophic and low nutrient environments as expected in the arctic environment. One of the sites had indications of more labile organic matter, which was reflected in the bacterial community structures. In the future shorter ice-cover period may induce autochthonous production such as Cyanobacteria, which reflects in the bacterial community. Changes in the DOM properties and bacterial communities can alter the whole food chain. with A more comprehensive study on this issue could be useful way of understanding the carbon cycling and impacts of climate change to the subarctic lakes.
  • Pirtonen, Heidi (2014)
    City of Helsinki is aspiring towards carbon neutrality by 2050. Households play an important role in this matter, as their share of carbon dioxide emissions is substantial in the city-level. The energy efficiency of different household appliances is improving, but their usage is rising in tandem. Overall, it is recognized that there needs to be a change in household behaviour. In this thesis I examine what kinds of low carbon actions households are taking and what has motivated them to do so. The thesis is done in co-operation with Aalto University’s HAPPI project, which deals with carbon neutral living in Helsinki. The project studies possibilities to promote climate friendly actions on a residential level. Research was carried out in Mellunkylä, a residential area in eastern Helsinki. The contribution of this thesis is to recognize customs that advance and support low carbon actions on a residential level. The research question took shape as: “What are the low carbon actions that the households in Mellunkylä are taking and why are they taking them?” In order to answer both questions, I decided to use two methods: a survey and interviews. The survey aimed to provide quantitative information about the people living in Mellunkylä as well as a generalization on how they were acting, what they were interested in and what they saw as barriers to further behavior change. In order to better understand what these actions mean for the households and to gain information about their values and other motivations, qualitative interviews were a justified method to further assess the research problem. They aimed to specify the behavior changes that had already occurred and what kinds of motives lie behind these behaviors, as well as to assess the barriers to other behavior changes. Results from both studies indicate that most households were generally making mostly curtailment actions, such as reducing the use of lightning, household appliances and water consumption. There were also efficiency actions, which for the most part consisted of investing on new lightning and household appliances. The households were not fond of acquiring green electricity and were not generally trying to reduce their emissions through heating-related solutions. The households had a general idea of why they should reduce their energy consumption: energy use was commonly understood a societal problem and everyone’s responsibility. The interviewees mentioned altruistic values and biospheric concerns most often, which was fruitful in that these kinds of values are important in saving energy in the long run. Of the external motivators economic factors were mentioned repetitively. They were thought to have an effect on the individual as well as on the economy. It seemed that the households were hoping to be able to use energy without worries and with small expenses. This suggests that the motivations for low carbon actions lie within costs and ease of life rather than environmental concerns. Habits were often mentioned as a barrier to behavior change. Also costs and inability to follow one’s energy consumption were some of the barriers that stood out in the studies. This is in line with the fact that the participants were making more of the curtailment actions rather than efficiency actions, which can be more costly. The case study households showed interest in following their energy consumption, so some kind of feedback as well as personal recommendations for improvement could be in place. This is an important area where the city could take actions, for example, by supporting the households to commit in reducing their energy consumption. It should be noted that in reaching a low carbon lifestyle, there are various routes, of which living-related low carbon actions are only one piece. It is important to find the actions and interventions which can result in long lasting behavioral changes.
  • Saarni, Matti (2019)
    Climate change affects the human habitat and the mechanics that cause this scientific phenomenon are somewhat well known. This study examines how forest policy, agricultural policy and environmental policy can control the mechanisms that cause climate change. The material of the study consists of interviews of 12-13 Finnish experts, each representing one of the previously mentioned sectors. Each of the experts have been asked 13-14 questions about the importance of climate change mitigation, as well as the mechanisms by which agriculture and forests affect the climate and how climate change should be considered in environmental policy. The data was collected between October 8th and November 8th of 2019. This was in five weeks after the IPCC 1,5-degree climate report was published. A series of topics was constructed from the answers, and they are meant to be used as topics to be discussed in the Finnish 2019 parliamentary election. In addition, on how important scientific academics see the control of climate change, they were also asked how critical climate change is. The interview material is stored in the Finnish Social Science Data Archive (www.fsd.uta.fi) The experts’ answers to the importance of controlling climate change were almost unanimous and considered to be highly important. Carbon sink and storage were considered the most effective methods to control climate change. According to the results, the study proposes topics that should be discussed in politics and when a person wants to advance the control of climate change in forest, agriculture and environment politics. Political decisions are often based on value judgement, which again are based on the information of different methods efficacy. The results that are discussed in this study are not the only options, but they give guidelines and reasons for discussions related to effective choices. Forest policies should recognize the effects of forest industry to the development of carbon sink and storage. Forest industries prerequisite for operation and decision making in addition to considering employment and export industry, must also consider the effect for Finland’s net carbon emissions. Activities which lengthen the forest rotation time would have multiple positive benefits and increase forest carbon storage. Agricultural politics should broaden the discussion to reach food politics. Consumption habits have big effect on agricultural production structure and it can be directed by many ways. The structure of agricultural production should also be considered from the emission point of view, because the land use is substantially large and changes in production can affect Finland’s emission in a scale, that would have large effect on our nations net carbon emissions. To strengthen carbon sinks, landowners should have compensation mechanism methods, that increase carbon sinks, and which are combined to the size of the carbon storage. In environmental policy climate change must be paid more attention and governmental boundaries must not intervene significant decision making. The strengthening of the role of Ministry of the Environment and adding co-operation between different ministries supports the decision making regarding environmentally positive issues.
  • Mäkelä, Meri (2021)
    The present retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet will increase the amount of fjords surrounded only by land-terminating glaciers in the future. As in the Arctic, productivity is generally lower at these kinds of fjord systems than in the ones surrounded by marine-terminating glaciers, this will most likely affect the productivity and ecosystem structure of coastal marine areas. Paleorecords of past coastal ecosystems can improve our understanding of the drivers of Arctic coastal ecosystem change and provide possible future scenarios. At present, there are not many high-resolution marine ecosystem reconstructions from the Arctic near-shore areas, and in particular those, which take into account land-derived inputs are lacking. To provide a detailed reconstruction of coastal marine ecosystem change over the Holocene and study its linkages to climate and terrestrial freshwater inputs, organic-walled palynomorphs (including e.g. dinoflagellate cysts and pollen) and some basic geochemistry (including e.g. total organic carbon, C:N ratio, biogenic silica and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen) were examined from two radiometrically dated sediment cores from Young Sound fjord, Northeast Greenland. The results indicate that the near-shore marine ecosystem in Young Sound is clearly influenced by local forcings, such as terrestrial freshwater and organic matter inputs, during the Holocene. The results also illustrate that these terrestrial inputs affect the ecosystem structure and at least some dimension of ecosystem productivity. This study demonstrates that increasing number of fjords with only land-terminating glaciers in the future will affect marine productivity and ecosystem structure in Greenland’s fjord systems, with potential impacts on biodiversity and important fisheries. Studying past ecosystem changes in different fjord systems, and complementing marine records with proxies for terrestrial inputs, would further help constrain the future scenarios along the Greenland shore.
  • Maamela, Katja (2021)
    In teleost fish, various egg traits play a crucial role in the development, growth, and survival of the offspring and thus affect maternal reproductive success. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a species where age at maturity, an important life-history trait influencing reproductive success, is under environmental and genetic control. In this study, I assessed how genetics of the vgll3 genotype and the dietary energy content affect egg traits and female maturation rate. The fish used in this study were lab-bred, three-year- old female Atlantic salmon with different vgll3 genotypes fed on one of two diets differing in energy content. The eggs traits included in the study were egg size, lipid, and protein content. Female maturation rate was not affected by the energy level of the diet or the vgll3 genotype. Egg size expressed as egg dry weight differed between females in the two feed treatments. These differences may be attributed to the increased lipid content of the eggs due to the higher fat content of the maternal diet. Females receiving high energy feed had a significantly higher egg lipid content compared to the low energy feed treatment. Females homozygous for the vgll3 allele associated with early maturity had a significantly lower egg lipid content in comparison to the females homozygous for the vgll3 late maturity allele indicating a potential reproductive fitness cost associated with early maturity. No effect of diet or vgll3 was found in egg protein content. This study provides the first evidence of vgll3 not only affecting Atlantic salmon age at maturity, as found in previous studies, but also egg lipids through maternal provisioning of nutrients.