Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by master's degree program "Ympäristömuutoksen ja globaalin kestävyyden maisteriohjelma (ECGS)"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Mäkinen, Theresa (2022)
    The topic of forest fires has gathered a lot of media attention in recent years as it relates closely to climate change and other sustainability issues. The media has an important role in communicating these issues as it affects, how the public percieves them, how different sustainability problems are defined and what kind of solutions are seen plausible. I became interested in how the media represents the issue of forest fires. My aim in this thesis is to find out, how the Colombian news media has framed the Amazon rainforest fires. As my material I used the news articles from the Colombian news media El Tiempo. I definined my timeframe from July 2019 to september 2019 because at that time the news subject was of high interest. After the initial search I went through the articles and left out any irrelevant ones. I was left with 24 news articles. As an analytic tool I utilized qualitative frame analysis guided by Robert Entman´s definition of frames and used ATLAS.ti to make an initial thematic coding. After that I mapped out all the actors that were cited in the news articles and divided them into groups. Using these actor groups, I searched for the frames. There were eight actor groups, politicians and political organizations being the most prominent one. Looking at how these actors talked about the forest fires, two main frames came out: populist and scientific. The populist frame concentrated mainly on Jair Bolsonaro. In this frame there was a lot of nationalist and economic arguments and responsability was directed away from him. There seemed to be a lot of enemies also. The second frame concentrated in deforestation, climate change and the forest fires being a global issue. In this frame international actors used economic and political pressure in order to affect Bolsonaro´s policy solutions. The research showed, how difficult it can be to solve shared global problem and made visible a historical political division between authoritarianism and democracy. An other important notion is the lack of marginalized groups in the news media.
  • Klemelä, Anna (2022)
    The Baltic Sea consists of islands, islets, and underwater nature. The sea’s species and habitats form a complex, interdependent network. The Baltic Sea is a challenging environment due to its low salinity, slow water turnover, and the densely populated catchment area. Species in the Baltic Sea have adapted to these circumstances, but climate change, eutrophication and different human induced pressures threaten the sea’s biodiversity. Biodiversity loss can be mitigated through protection areas. However, protection is not always successful. For example, insects and fungi often lack sufficient protection, whereas animals such as birds are more eagerly protected. Humans tend to protect charismatic or beautiful species and ignore others, even when other species’ need for protection is more dire. Establishing effective marine protected areas (MPAs) is difficult as information on underwater life is lacking. Finland’s underwater nature is better known, as it has been explored in the VELMU programme since 2004. In this thesis I study the governing documents of privately owned MPAs established during the last ten years in the Baltic Sea. Privately owned MPAs are the most common MPA type in Finnish marine areas. My research questions are: 1) Which nature values are represented in the privately owned MPAs? 2) How well is the underwater nature represented? The number of governing documents is 63. My method is qualitative content analysis and quantification of data. The material was coded using Atlas.ti. The nature values in the governing documents formed three categories: vegetation, birds, and underwater nature. Protecting vegetation was mentioned in 52 documents, birds in 39 documents, and underwater nature in 28 documents. The protection of underwater nature was most often based on protecting underwater habitats outlined in the EU’s habitat directive, instead of protecting underwater species. Birds and vegetation in the archipelago are somewhat comprehensively protected in privately owned MPAs. Although all 63 MPAs included a water area, underwater nature is mentioned in less than half of the governing documents. Underwater nature values are not always mentioned even when the MPA consists mostly of water, or when the governing document mentions the beauty or value of the water area. Descriptions of underwater nature are also often lacking in detail compared to the descriptions of vegetation and birds. To ensure biodiversity both underwater and above, underwater nature values should be protected more efficiently. Especially from the perspective of bird protection, it is noteworthy that protection usually does not cover their underwater food sources.
  • Happonen, Jenni (2022)
    During times of complex sustainability crisis, there is an urgent need for policy measures that steer consumer-citizens towards environmental and climate friendly lifestyles, especially in rich high-consuming countries such as Finland. (Carbon)footprint calculators which have gained popularity in recent years, are considered as one potential policy measure. This explorative study aims at shedding light on what could be the role of footprinting tools in encouraging individuals towards sustainable lifestyles. The literature review delves into the previous research about the use and impacts of the footprinting tools. Empirically, I study the self-understanding and interpretations that users have about one specific consumption related carbon footprinting tool. The concept of carbon capability works as an analytical framework of the study. The concept refers holistically to the attributes and abilities of thought and action that a citizen should have in order to mitigate climate change in a meaningful way, both as an individual and as a member of society. The study asks what kind of speech related to carbon capability comes to the fore during the use of the carbon footprinting tool and what this reveals about the carbon capability of the users and the steering impact of the tool and its’ role as a carbon capability promotor. To answer these questions, I interviewed seven users of the tool “Sustainable Lifestyle Commitment” who live in Helsinki. As an analysis method, I apply theory-guided qualitative content analysis and adaptive research approach. The results highlight the diversity of interpretations given to the tool, making it difficult to demonstrate that the tool produces some certain impacts. Carbon capability approach shows that there is a need for policy measures encouraging more towards collective modes of action and societal level engagement towards sustainable living, in addition to (or in the context of) individual consumption related footprinting tools. Fairness should be an integrated part in efforts made to increase carbon capability of consumer-citizens.
  • Kavanagh, Kayleigh C (2022)
    Urban densification is resulting in the rapid loss of urban green spaces and their associated values. Moreover, the remaining urban green spaces are under increasing pressure to meet diverse resident needs and preferences. While past studies have investigated the intrinsic, instrumental, and relational values associated with such spaces, little attention has been paid to the sub-sets of relational values referred to a fundamental-relational (i.e., contributions toward enhanced social resilience) and eudemonic-relational values (i.e., actions, experiences, and habits linked to a “good life”). This study used public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS) surveys in a residential neighborhood of Helsinki, Finland to spatially explore and examine the differences between intrinsic, instrumental, fundamental-relational, and eudemonic-relational values in urban green spaces. I analyzed responses from residents and stakeholders (n = 1089) using Chi-square tests for significant associations and density-based clustering. Mapped values indicated that green spaces were primarily valued for their relational value, with an emphasis on eudemonic-relational values. Moreover, there were differences in the spatial distribution of instrumental, intrinsic, and relational values between green space types and values were spatially clustered by land use. Notably, there were few differences in how these values were assigned by different sociodemographic groups. I discuss the implications of these findings for local- and city-scale planning and the use of value typologies in PPGIS surveys. Further research in this field will benefit from the use of further value subcategories, increased geographic scale, and additional study of the influence of sociodemographic factors.
  • Oikarinen, Kaisa (2022)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, millaisia kehyksiä ilmastoahdistus saa kahdeksassa, vuonna 2021 julkaistussa suomalaisessa podcast-jaksossa. Näin pyritään lisäämään ymmärrystä ilmastoahdistuksen ilmiöstä, sekä siitä, millaisia kehystyksiä aihe mediassa saa. Tutkimus on tehty laadullisella kehysanalyysilla, joka perustuu Erwin Goffmanin (1974) kehittämään kehysteoriaan ja sen myöhempiin sovellutuksiin. Lyhyesti sanottuna, tutkimus pohjaa siihen olettamukseen, jossa median tavat kehystää ja esittää jokin aihe tai asia ohjaavat sitä, millä tavalla asiat meille esitetään ja millaisina me asiat näemme. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin suoratoistopalvelu Spotifysta, Yle Areenasta ja Suplasta. Kehyksien muodostamisessa hyödynnettiin Robert Entmanin (1993) median kehysanalyysin periaatetta, jossa kehyksillä on neljä tarkoitusta: Ongelmien määritteleminen, ongelman aiheuttavien tekijöiden tunnistaminen, moraalisten arvioiden tekeminen sekä ratkaisujen ehdottaminen. Tutkimuksen tuloksena syntyi kolme kehystä, jotka nimettiin luonnollisen ilmastoahdistuksen, ilmastoahdistus sukupolvikysymyksenä sekä ilmastoahdistus tarvitsee vertaistukea, käsittelyä ja toimintaa kehyksiksi. Jokainen kehys kuvaa omalla tavallaan sitä, millaisena ilmastoahdistus nähdään viime aikaisissa podcast-keskusteluissa. Luonnollisen ilmastoahdistuksen kehyksessä korostuvat näkemykset siitä, kuinka ilmastoahdistus voidaan nähdä luonnollisena ja normaalina, sekä hyvänä reaktiona motivoivan vaikutuksensa kautta. Kaiken kaikkiaan kehys kuvaa ilmasto- ja ympäristöahdistuksen ilmiön monitahoisuutta ja yksilöllisyyttä, sekä pyrkii vahvistamaan näkemyksiä siitä, mitä ilmastoahdistus on ja mitä se ei ole. Lisäksi ilmastoahdistuksen sisältämä ahdistus sana kyseenalaistetaan. Ilmastoahdistus sukupolvikysymyksenä - kehys avaa puolestaan näkemyksiä nuorten ilmastoahdistuksen syihin ja korostumiseen, sekä ottaa kantaa aikaisempaan ilmastoahdistuskeskusteluun, joka joidenkin keskustelijoiden mielestä näyttäytyi ilmiötä vähättelevänä. Kokonaisuudessaan kehyksessä kuitenkin korostuu näkemys siitä, että ilmastoahdistus ei ole vain nuoria koskettava asia, vaikka se tällä hetkellä korostuu ja ilmenee eniten nuoremmissa sukupolvissa. Kehys ilmastoahdistus tarvitsee vertaistukea, käsittelyä ja toimintaa, tuo esiin keskustelijoiden näkemyksiä ja kokemuksia liittyen ilmastoahdistuksen käsittelyyn ja lievittämiseen, sekä osallistuu keskusteluun koskien ilmastotekojen merkityksellisyyttä. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella voidaan sanoa, että ilmastoahdistus saa vuonna 2021 julkaistuissa, suomalaisissa podcastkeskusteluissa monia eri sävyjä ja ilmastoahdistusta käsitellään niissä laajasti. Ja vaikka keskustelijoiden näkemykset ovat pitkälti linjassa ilmastoahdistusta käsittelevien julkaisujen kanssa, muutamia kiinnostavia ja tutkimattomiakin näkökulmia ja kehystyksiä ilmenee. Osaltaan tutkimuksen tulokset täydentävät kuvaa siitä, miten valtavirtamediaa hitaammat lajityypit – kuten podcastit – mukautuvat muualla esitettyihin määritelmiin ja kehystyksiin, mutta myös täydentävät niitä. Tällöin podcast-keskustelujen voidaan nähdä tarjoavan vaihtoehtoisia kehyksiä, jotka osittain haastavat ja täydentävät julkisuudessa hallitsevia kehyksiä.
  • Kangas, Jonna (2022)
    Climate change is expected to cause salinity change in the Baltic Sea and therefore may affect organisms living in the Baltic such as plankton. The microbial loop is an important part of the plankton food web. It consists of heterotrophic bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates and is connected with the classic plankton food chain through interactions with primary producers and mesozooplankton. Therefore, salinity affects the functioning of the microbial food web not only directly, but also through salinity induced changes on primary producers and mesozooplankton. In this master’s thesis I studied the effects of salinity change on microbial loop components bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates in an outdoor mesocosm experiment containing four salinity treatments with salinities of 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 and 9.5, three replicas each. The experiment took place offshore at the Tvärminne Zoological Station. Bacteria were sampled from the mesocosms every other day and nanoflagellates and ciliates every 6th day. Bacteria were analysed with the flow cytometer, nanoflagellates with epifluorescent microscopy and ciliates using an inverted microscope. The effects of salinity on microbial loop components were statistically tested using linear mixed effects models. Results of the experiment show that salinity had an indirect effect on microbial loop components through changes in mesozooplankton composition. There were significant differences between high and low salinity treatments in bacteria abundance and composition, the interaction strength between HNFs and bacteria and in the mean cell size of ciliate communities. These were mainly caused by differences in mesozooplankton community structure between salinity treatments, which had cascading effects on the strength of top-down and bottom-up control on the trophic levels of the microbial loop, leading to changes in bacteria abundances and composition. Based on the results of this thesis, more studies are needed to detect the effects that changes in the composition and functioning of the microbial loop might have on the ecosystem. Further research should also focus on the significance of the structure and diversity of the communities within the microbial loop as well as the functional roles of different species in the microbial food web.
  • Silfverberg, Paula (2022)
    Toimiva vesihuolto on yhteiskunnalle elintärkeä. Tärkeimpinä vesihuollon tavoitteina on puhdistaa juomavesi ja vähentää jätevedestä aiheutuvaa ympäristökuormitusta. Kemianteollisuudella on keskeinen rooli tuottaa kemikaaleja vesihuollon käyttöön. Vedenpuhdistus on yksi osa kemikaalien arvoketjua, jossa useat eri toimijat osallistuvat kemikaalien raaka-aineiden valmistukseen, kemikaalien tuottoon, kuljetukseen ja käyttöön, sekä jätteiden loppusijoitukseen. Kemikaalien arvoketjulla on vaikutuksia ympäristöön. Vedenpuhdistuskemikaalien arvoketjua ei ole tutkittu kemikaalien valmistajien ja ostajien välisessä suhteessa. Tutkimuksessani selvitin, kuinka biodiversiteetti näkyy vedenpuhdistuskemikaalien arvoketjun päätöksenteossa ja miten se vaikuttaa kemikaalien ostopäätöksiin. Biodiversiteetti takaa ihmistoimintaakin ylläpitävien ekosysteemipalveluiden toiminnan, kuten veden kiertokulun. Merkittävimpiä uhkia biodiversiteetille ovat vieraslajit, ilmastonmuutos, ravinnekuormitus, ympäristömyrkyt ja roskaantuminen, elinympäristöjen muutokset ja luonnonvarojen liikakäyttö. Kestävillä ratkaisuilla arvoketjun eri toimijat voivat vaikuttaa biodiversiteettiin positiivisesti. Tutkimuksessa haastattelin kuutta vedenpuhdistuslaitoksissa ja kemikaaleja valmistavassa yhtiössä työskentelevää osto- ja myyntipuolen asiantuntijaa puolistrukturoiduilla asiantuntijahaastatteluilla. Lisäksi tarkastelin yhtiöiden vastuullisuusraportteja. Analysoin aineistoa teema-analyysin keinoin. Keskeisimpänä tuloksena havaitsin, että vesikemikaalien arvoketjussa päätettäessä kemikaalien ostamisesta ja myymisestä, toimijat asettavat kemikaalien hinnan ja toimitusvarmuuden ympäristöasioiden edelle. Biodiversiteettiä pidetään tärkeänä, mutta ostopäätöksiin se ei vielä vaikuta. Kemikaalien kehittämiseen ja hankintoihin tarvitaan lisää tietoa biodiversiteettivaikutuksista läpi koko kemikaalien arvoketjun.
  • Nikkola, Henna (2021)
    Ilmastonmuutos lisää sään ääri-ilmiöitä kuten mittavia rankkasateita, jolloin myös hulevedet, eli rakennettujen alueiden pinnoille kertyvät sade- ja sulamisvedet, muuttuvat yhä akuutimmaksi ongelmaksi. Yksi tiivistyvien kaupunkien haasteista on hulevesien hallinta. Hulevesiä hallitaan pääasiassa niin kutsutuin perinteisin menetelmin, eli pääasiassa viemäröiden, mutta sen rinnalle on nousemassa niin kutsuttu luonnonmukainen hulevesien hallinta. Luonnonmukaiset menetelmät hyödyntävät luonnon omia prosesseja, ja ne voivat parantaa hulevesien laatua, pienentää virtaamahuippuja, edistää luonnon monimuotoisuutta ja tarjota virkistyshyötyjä. Hulevesien hallinnan ja luontoarvojen huomioiminen kaupunkisuunnittelussa ei ole yksinkertaista - suunnittelussa on huomioitava monenlaisia tavoitteita, joiden yhteensovittamisessa kohdataan ristiriitoja. Ristiriidat voivat paljastaa tavoitteiden taustalla olevia arvoja, ja siten kertoa, minkälaista kaupunkia todellisuudessa toteutamme. Tutkielma toteutettiin osana HELSUS Co-Creation Labia ja yhteistyökumppanina toimi Helsingin kaupunki. Tutkielman tavoitteena oli luontoarvojen ja hulevesien hallinnan huomioimisen selvittäminen ja kaupunkisuunnittelijoiden agentuurin kartoittaminen Helsingin maankäytön suunnittelussa. Tutkielmassa pyrittiin vastaamaan seuraaviin tutkimuskysymyksiin: 1) Millaisia asioita asemakaavoitusvaiheessa mukana olleet Helsingin kaupungin työntekijät mielsivät kuuluvan luontoarvojen pariin? 2) Miten luontoarvot ja hulevesien hallinta huomioitiin projekteissa? 3) Mitä asioita suunnittelijat kokivat keskeisinä luontoarvojen ja luonnonmukaisen hallinnan huomioimiseksi suunnitteluprosessissa yksilön osalta? 4) Mitkä asiat vaikeuttivat luontoarvojen huomioimista tai suojelua ja luonnonmukaisen hallinnan toteuttamista? Tutkielma tehtiin käyttäen eksploratiivisen ja välineellisen tapaustutkimuksen menetelmiä. Aineistona toimi pääasiassa seitsemän Helsingin kaupunkisuunnittelijan haastattelut, joille tehtiin temaattinen analyysi. Tutkielman kohteena oli Helsingin kaupungin hulevesien hallintaa koskeva suunnittelu/päätöksenteko asemakaavoitusprosessissa. Yksittäiset tapaukset olivat asemakaavaprojekteja Helsingin Kaarelan, Laajasalon ja Lauttasaaren kaupunginosista. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä tutkielmassa hyödynnettiin pääasiassa arvojen, sääntöjen ja tiedon muodostamaa viitekehystä päätöksentekokontekstissa. Aineiston perusteella luontoarvojen ja luonnonmukaisen hulevesien hallinnan huomioimisen kanssa kilpailevia arvoja ja intressejä olivat tekninen toimivuus ja käytännöllisyys, ihmisten turvallisuus, esteettisyys, taloudellinen kestävyys, asuntotuotanto, rakentamisen tehokkuus, tietämättömyys/osaamattomuus, harrastusmahdollisuudet sekä liikenneratkaisut. Yleisesti kaiken kiteyttävänä haasteena oli tilan puute. Vaikka päätavoitteet ja lopulliset päätökset arvoineen tulevat poliittisilta toimijoilta, niin voidaan kuitenkin sanoa, että suunnittelijoilla on mahdollisuuksia toteuttaa omia arvojaan työssään ja säännöissä on jonkin verran niin sanotusti pelivaraa. Suunnittelussa on suunnittelijakohtaisia eroja esimerkiksi siinä, kuinka aktiivisesti ja minkälaisella asenteella kukin huomioi ja edistää luontoarvoja ja hulevesien hallintaa suunnitteluprosessissa. Hulevesien hallinta vaikuttaa Helsingissä olevan murrosvaiheessa kohti vihreämpään infrastruktuuriin nojaavaa suunnittelua. Sitä vauhdittaakseen kaupungin kannattanee lisätä pilottiprojekteja, suunnitella pilottikirjastoa, lisätä työvoimaa ja kuntien välistä yhteistyötä sekä varmistaa, että suunnittelijoilla on tarpeelliset tiedot ja työkalut, joita myös osataan hyödyntää. Tarve jatkotutkimusten tekemiselle löytyy kaupunkisuunnittelussa kilpailevien arvojen ja intressien selvittämisestä ja niiden tunnistamisesta suunnitteluprosessissa ja päätöksenteossa.
  • Haapanen, Aku (2022)
    Ilmastonmuutoksen torjuminen edellyttää ihmiskunnalta määrätietoisia toimia fossiilisten polttoaineiden käytön lopettamiseksi kasvihuonekaasupäästöjen lopettamiseksi. Yksi tärkeimmistä kysymyksistä ratkaistavaksi on yhä enenevissä määrin kehittyneeseen teknologiaan nojautuvien ihmisyhteisöjen energiansaannin varmistaminen. Ydinvoimaa pidetään luotettavana, tehokkaana ja ennen kaikkea jo olemassa olevana ratkaisuna käsillä olevan energiamurroksen toteuttamiseksi. Kaikki teknologiat ovat kuitenkin poliittisia ja ydinvoima ehkä kaikista teknologioista eniten mielipiteitä jakava. Toisaalta lupaus ainakin päällisinpuolin yksinkertaisesta ja tehokkaasta teknologisesta ratkaisusta puhuttelee monia. Toisaalta ydinvoiman käyttöön ja käyttöön ottoon liittyy suuria epävarmuustekijöitä, kuten rakentamisen hinta, ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutukset voimaloiden toimintaan ja suurvaltapoliittiset siirrot maailmanpolitiikan pelilaudalla. Tämä tutkielma ottaa selvää, kuinka ydinvoiman rooliin energiamurroksen ajurina suhtaudutaan Suomessa ja Ranskassa – kahdessa vauraassa, ydinvoimaa paljon hyödyntävässä Euroopan unionin jäsenmaassa. Aineistona on käytetty suomalaisen Helsingin Sanomat ja ranskalaisen Le Monde päivittäin ilmestyvien sanomalehtien ilmastonmuutosta ja ydinvoimaa käsitteleviä pääkirjoituksia. Analysoidut kirjoitukset ovat Pariisin ilmastosopimuksen ja vuoden 2021 lokakuun väliseltä ajalta. Lähtökohtani on, että Suomen ja Ranskan tärkeimmät sanomalehdet käyttävät aktiivisesti valtaa vaikuttaakseen lukijoidensa suhtautumiseen. Näin ollen Le Monde ja Helsingin Sanomat tarjoavat yhden ikkunan, jonka kautta tarkastella myös laajemmassa asiayhteydessä suomalais ja ranskalaista energia- ja ilmastopolitiikkaa. Käsiteltävät maat ovat monella tapaa samanlaisia, mutta poikkeavat myös paljon toisistaan, mikä näkyy myös maiden ydinvoimakannoissa. Ranska on entinen suurvalta, jonka ydinvoimaloilla on selvä merkitys suurvalta-aseman edes osittaiseksi palauttamiseksi. Suomi on sodan hävinnyt, todella nopeasti teollistunut maa, jolle alusta asti rauhanomainen ydinvoima on vipuvarsi oman teollisen tuotannon edistämiseksi. Analyysissä käy ilmi, että sanomalehdissä ydinvoimaan – sekä energiamurrokseen yleisesti – suhtaudutaan eri tavoilla Ranskassa ja Suomessa. Ranskassa korostuu sosiaalisen oikeudenmukaisuuden merkitys pysyvien ilmastoratkaisujen saavuttamiseksi, kun taas Suomessa pääkirjoituksia värittää ennen kaikkea markkinaorientoitunut tehokkuusajattelu. Suhtautuminen ydinvoimaan on myös erilainen. Ranskassa korostetaan ydinvoimaan liittyviä epävarmuustekijöitä. Suomessa puolestaan painotetaan ydinvoiman todistettuja vahvuuksia, erityisesti tehokkuutta ja päästöttömyyttä.
  • Tuomela, Nea (2022)
    Climate change causes changes in the Arctic lakes, such as shortening of the ice-covered period and changes in hydrology as well as vegetation of the drainage area around the lakes. With these shifts in the function of the ecosystems, dissolved organic matter drainage from terrestrial sources is expected to increase. Terrestrial, allochthonous DOM is more refractory, higher molecular weight organic matter, which is less available to bacterial consumption. Alterations in the DOM pool of the lake may change the bacterial community composition, which could in turn alter the lake ecosystem. Four ice-covered lakes in Kilpisjärvi region were sampled in spring 2021. Water samples were filtered and analyzed for dissolved and particulate nutrients and carbon. Coloured dissolved organic matter and fluorescent dissolved organic matter properties were defined. Bacterial community composition was determined with multiplex polymerase chain reaction and sequences analyzed with DADA2 pipeline. Principal component analysis (PCOA) was done to visualize differences between lakes, and distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) was used to detect any associations between dissolved organic matter properties and bacterial community composition. The lakes had low nutrient and carbon concentrations and had mainly similar properties of dissolved organic matter. However, P3 surface water had higher nitrate and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations. Optical properties in P3 surface water, Peak T, Peak M, biological index and humification index, indicated autochthonous production and lability of organic matter. This was reflected also in bacterial community composition by higher relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteriales. Lake P3 had also higher relative abundance of Cyanobacteria, which could be the cause for labile organic matter in the site. Sites P2 and P3 had similar bacterial community compositions, which is likely due to the sites forming a lake chain and sharing the same catchment area. The sites were oligotrophic and low nutrient environments as expected in the arctic environment. One of the sites had indications of more labile organic matter, which was reflected in the bacterial community structures. In the future shorter ice-cover period may induce autochthonous production such as Cyanobacteria, which reflects in the bacterial community. Changes in the DOM properties and bacterial communities can alter the whole food chain. with A more comprehensive study on this issue could be useful way of understanding the carbon cycling and impacts of climate change to the subarctic lakes.
  • Pirtonen, Heidi (2014)
    City of Helsinki is aspiring towards carbon neutrality by 2050. Households play an important role in this matter, as their share of carbon dioxide emissions is substantial in the city-level. The energy efficiency of different household appliances is improving, but their usage is rising in tandem. Overall, it is recognized that there needs to be a change in household behaviour. In this thesis I examine what kinds of low carbon actions households are taking and what has motivated them to do so. The thesis is done in co-operation with Aalto University’s HAPPI project, which deals with carbon neutral living in Helsinki. The project studies possibilities to promote climate friendly actions on a residential level. Research was carried out in Mellunkylä, a residential area in eastern Helsinki. The contribution of this thesis is to recognize customs that advance and support low carbon actions on a residential level. The research question took shape as: “What are the low carbon actions that the households in Mellunkylä are taking and why are they taking them?” In order to answer both questions, I decided to use two methods: a survey and interviews. The survey aimed to provide quantitative information about the people living in Mellunkylä as well as a generalization on how they were acting, what they were interested in and what they saw as barriers to further behavior change. In order to better understand what these actions mean for the households and to gain information about their values and other motivations, qualitative interviews were a justified method to further assess the research problem. They aimed to specify the behavior changes that had already occurred and what kinds of motives lie behind these behaviors, as well as to assess the barriers to other behavior changes. Results from both studies indicate that most households were generally making mostly curtailment actions, such as reducing the use of lightning, household appliances and water consumption. There were also efficiency actions, which for the most part consisted of investing on new lightning and household appliances. The households were not fond of acquiring green electricity and were not generally trying to reduce their emissions through heating-related solutions. The households had a general idea of why they should reduce their energy consumption: energy use was commonly understood a societal problem and everyone’s responsibility. The interviewees mentioned altruistic values and biospheric concerns most often, which was fruitful in that these kinds of values are important in saving energy in the long run. Of the external motivators economic factors were mentioned repetitively. They were thought to have an effect on the individual as well as on the economy. It seemed that the households were hoping to be able to use energy without worries and with small expenses. This suggests that the motivations for low carbon actions lie within costs and ease of life rather than environmental concerns. Habits were often mentioned as a barrier to behavior change. Also costs and inability to follow one’s energy consumption were some of the barriers that stood out in the studies. This is in line with the fact that the participants were making more of the curtailment actions rather than efficiency actions, which can be more costly. The case study households showed interest in following their energy consumption, so some kind of feedback as well as personal recommendations for improvement could be in place. This is an important area where the city could take actions, for example, by supporting the households to commit in reducing their energy consumption. It should be noted that in reaching a low carbon lifestyle, there are various routes, of which living-related low carbon actions are only one piece. It is important to find the actions and interventions which can result in long lasting behavioral changes.
  • Juurinen, Valtteri (2022)
    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin olosuhteiden muutosten vaikutusta torjunta-ainepitosuuksiin pilot-mittakaavan sedimenttipylväissä ja suodatinpylväissä. Pilot-mittakaavan pylväissä verrattiin ilmastuksen ja veden virtauksen muutosten vaikutusta pitoisuuksiin. Suodatinpylväissä tarkasteltavina tekijöinä oli orgaanisen aineen ja nollaraudan vaikutus torjunta-ainepitoisuuksiin. Tutkittavina torjunta-aineina olivat atratsiini, simatsiini, heksatsinoni ja diklobeniili, sekä hajoamistuotteet DIA, DEA, DEDIA ja BAM. Kyseisiä torjunta-aineita esiintyy pohjavesissä useissa eri Euroopan maissa mukaan lukien Suomi, vaikka niiden käyttö on lopetettu ja kielletty EU:n alueella useita vuosia sitten. Pylväistä analysoidut ulostulovedet valmisteltiin kaasukromatografia-massaspektrometria (GC-MS) mittausta varten kiinteäfaasiuutolla. Suodatinpylväiden torjunta-aineiden puhdistuskapasiteetti vaihteli testikertojen välillä ja yhdisteet käyttäytyivät eri tavalla suhteessa toisiinsa. Ensimmäisen kuukauden jälkeen talousveden raja-arvo 0,10 µg/l ylittyi heksatsinonin osalta. Toisen kuukauden jälkeen heksatsinonin pitoisuus ylitti jälleen talousveden raja-arvon, niin kuin myös BAM:n. Sitten viimeisellä testikerralla kohonneita yli 0,1 µg/l pitoisuuksia oli atratsiinilla ja heksatsinonilla. BAM:n ja heksatsinonin kulkeutuminen oli odotettavissa yhdisteiden ominaisuuksien perusteella ja niiden hajoaminen on hidasta verrattuna muihin yhdisteisiin. Puolestaan atratsiinin kohonneet pitoisuudet voidaan selittää maaperän kiintoaineksen liikkumisella suodatinpylväästä torjunta-aineiden kanssa. Pelkän hiekan vaikutus suodatinpylväissä aliarvioitiin, mikä vaikutti erityisesti BAM:n ja heksatsinonin pitoisuuksiin.
  • Joukainen, Nella (2022)
    Continuous development of urban areas poses challenges for sustainable use of resources and the management of complex waste streams. Recycling is seen as a solution for promoting sustainability, especially at the individual-level where waste sorting creates preconditions for successful material recovery operations. Behavior change strategies aim to encourage individuals to implement recycling practices in their daily lives. The effectiveness of behavior change strategies is achieved by broadly influencing capability, opportunity, and motivation to recycle, however, studies claim that many existing strategies are unable to do so. This study aims to gain an understanding in how extensively a municipal recycling service provider’s online communication on social media platforms (Instagram, Facebook, YouTube) enhances capability, opportunity, and motivation to recycle by communicating about means to overcome recycling barriers. Specifically, the study is interested in examining what types of recycling barriers are addressed in online communication and through which means it aims to deliver assistance for overcoming these barriers. Lastly, this study aims to explore the role of social media platform-based online communication as a channel to promote individual recycling behavior. This study focuses on social media materials published by a municipal service provider in the European Green Capital of 2021. The empirical material builds on a set of data collected from public and locatable online sources. The analysis includes 96 different types (pictural, textual, video) of recycling-themed online content. The data was analyzed by conducting qualitative content analysis. The results indicated that online communication addresses a broad range of recycling barriers. The most common means to overcome these was information provision through which the company aimed to increase knowledge and understanding of recycling practices. Although information provision alone is claimed to be insufficient to profoundly change behavior, results showed that it could serve as a means to generate a broad influence on areas behind behavior formation. The result of this study suggests that social media platforms as channels for online communication have the potential to create preconditions for overcoming recycling barriers especially through the means of information provision. The development of more profound recycling behavior, however, needs to include a broader range of collaborative information, motivation, and engagement elements that could engage and encourage people to implement more profound recycling behavior. This calls for future research that discovers means to stimulate behavior formation widely to support overcoming recycling barriers and the implementation of profound recycling behavior in everyday lives.
  • Hanström, Neea (2022)
    Heterobasidion genus fungi are the most significant pathogens in Finland causing root rot. These fungi infect Norway spruce (Picea abies), causing wood deficit in the forest industry. Leucoanthosyanidin reductase enzyme encoding gene, PaLAR3, has been linked in to the resistance of Norway spruce against H.parviporum induced root rot infections. The alleles in this locus can be AA, AB or BB, and the enzyme production and (+)-catechin concentrations have been proven to be higher in inoculation experiments in individuals with B allele present in their PaLAR3 locus. Climate change is predicted to increase disturbances in not only on the hydrological cycles, but also on the weather conditions. The drought is predicted to increase in the Northern hemisphere, increasing the risk of pathogens to spread into new areas. Forest breeding programs aim to make the forests more profitable and productive in the future as well. By studying the genetics of Norway spruce, it is possible to add more resilient individuals into the breeding program, to tackle the climate challenges the future might hold. In this Master’s thesis the spreading of the root rot infection under drought stress was studied. The PaLAR3 alleles were determined, and the area of necrosis caused by the fungal infection was compared against the alleles, watering treatments and the fungal strain used in the inoculations. Regarding the results the alleles in an individual’s PaLAR3 locus did not have any effect on the area of the necrosis. There were no statistically significant differences between the watering treatments. The only statistically significant result was that the different fungal strains’ (Hpa1 and Hpa2) infectiveness varied between different watering treatments. This is probably due to the different routes of pathogenesis. Hpa2 strain seems to be more infective in normal watering conditions. However, considering these results the PaLAR3 gene should not be added into the forest breeding program as itself. In the future, the research should focus more on gene interactions, since also other genes (e.g., PaLAC5) have been linked in the resistance against root rot infections in Norway spruce. By studying these genes together, the solutions for the deteriorating situation of the spreading of the fungal diseases could be discovered.
  • Rajala, Salla (2022)
    Tiivistelmä * Referat * Abstract Brownification is a serious environmental problem, which means a substantial increase in water color. Suggested reasons for brownification are soil recovery from acidification, land-use change, especially ditching, climate change. Brownification changes the light conditions in the lakes, increases thermal stratification, and sedimentation. Despite the considerable effects of brownification on lake ecosystem, currently in the EU Water Framework Directive, there is no sufficient biological indicator for lake browning. Biological indicators of the Water Framework Directive are mainly targeted to eutrophication, and thus are not sufficient for measuring the effects of brownification. Macrophyte chlorophyll a:b ratio has been shown to decrease with decreasing light conditions, thus making it a potential indicator for browning. The seasonal variation of macrophyte chlorophyll content is not well studied. This master’s thesis aims to find out, how the chlorophyll content of yellow water lily (Nuphar lutea) changes during the growing season in lakes with variable water quality. N. lutea was chosen as a study species, as it is very common in different lakes in Finland. It is important to study the seasonal variation of the macrophyte chlorophyll content, because if the chlorophyll content reacts rapidly for example changes in the weather, it might be too sensitive to be used as a long-term indicator for lake browning. It is also needed to study, if the seasonal variation is different in lakes with variable water quality, so that in the future, the possible sampling can be timed right in different lakes. The study lakes were clear water lakes, humic and eutrophic lake, and their water quality and the chlorophyll content of N. lutea were examined with two weeks intervals from June to September. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were measured from the floating leaf and from the petiole at 10 cm intervals. Based on these, the total chlorophyll concentration (CHL a+b) and CHL a:b ratio was calculated. In addition to macrophyte samples, water samples were taken from each lake from both epilimnion and hypolimnion. From the water samples, dissolved organic carbon, water color, iron concentration and specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm were measured. In addition, water temperature, light intensity, oxygen concentration and water turbidity were measured at each sampling time. The results of this thesis showed, that the CHL a:b ratio, and total CHL concentration (a+b) were significantly lower in the humic than in the clear water lake. In the eutrophic lake, CHL a:b ratio and CHL a+b concentration was higher than in the humic lake but lower than in the clear water lake. In each lake, the CHL a:b ratio increased during the growing season, together with the increasing water clarity. The change in the CHL a:b ratio was detected best in the 10-30 cm petiole depth. In the floating leaf, CHL a:b ratio and CHL a+b concentration varied a lot, meaning that the floating leaf is not a sufficient indicator for brownification. The change in CHL a:b ratio took approximately 5 to 7 weeks, and the seasonal variation was similar in each lake. Based on the results of this thesis, the CHL a:b ratio of the N. lutea petiole seems to be a very promising long-term indicator for lake browning. In the future, it would be, however, important to study, how the carbon sequestration changes as a result of brownification, if the macrophyte chlorophyll concentration decreases, since this might have considerable effects on lake carbon sequestration. Also, the eutrophic study lake of this thesis had a water color over 100 mg Pt l-1, so it would be important to study, what is the macrophyte chlorophyll content in clear, but eutrophic lakes.
  • Manninen, Juulia (2022)
    Immune-mediated diseases, such as various allergies and asthma, are increasing rapidly in an urbanized world where biodiversity is steadily declining. Decreased biodiversity and homogenous microbiota have been associated with weaker immune defence. Studies show that contact with the natural environment enriches the human microbiota, promotes immune response, and protects against allergies and inflammatory diseases. For this reason, in order to prevent immune-mediated diseases, solutions have been sought from nature-based approaches in which the immune system encounters environmental microbial stimuli in a natural way. The aim of this master's thesis was to study how different nature-based materials (sod and forest floor) affect the skin microbiota of kindergarten-age children and to examine how different factors such as varying weather conditions and different sampling times affect the results. The results supported the hygiene hypothesis and previous research according to which increasing biodiversity can have a positive effect on human skin microbial communities. A positive effect on children's skin was achieved with sod alone, which is important information in the development of suitable biodiverse materials for urban planning. The results also supported the surmise that different weather conditions and sampling methods can significantly affect the results.
  • Tiisala, Katja (2022)
    Sustainability is a normative concept embedding ethical commitments. A central ethical issue in the sustainability debate and sustainability science regards moral standing. Moral standing is a philosophical concept that means that a being matters morally for their own sake and that there are direct duties owed to the being. It is widely accepted in contemporary ethics that, in addition to humans, at least some sentient nonhuman animals have moral standing. However, the dominant academic and political discourse of sustainability has hitherto focused only on the moral claims of humans without a critical examination of this anthropocentrism. In anthropocentrism, a view of moral standing, only humans have moral standing or they have a much higher moral standing than any nonhumans. Animal and environmental ethicists have questioned anthropocentrism through philosophical arguments. Nevertheless, the academic discourse of sustainability has been disconnected from the philosophical research on moral standing. There is, thus, a research gap in examining moral standing within sustainability science by drawing also on ethical research. This master’s thesis integrates the two distinct fields of knowledge, that is, sustainability science and ethical research on moral standing. The aim is to answer the following research questions: (1) What kind of anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric conceptions of sustainability are there in sustainability literature? (2) What kind of conceptions of sustainability ensue from the main philosophical views of moral standing? (3) How plausible are the different anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric conceptions of sustainability? The thesis applies the philosophical method for investigating the plausibility of alternative views. With animal ethical arguments, I defend the plausibility of a sentiocentric and unitarian conception of sustainability that considers the interests of all sentient beings equally. Also, I present a typology of the main anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric conceptions of sustainability based on philosophical literature on moral standing. My typology characterises the key features of what I call the strong variety of anthropocentric sustainability, the weak variety of anthropocentric sustainability, sentiocentric sustainability, biocentric sustainability and ecocentric sustainability. In addition, this research employs interdisciplinary literature related to the topic and reviews the anthropocentric and non-anthropocentric conceptions of sustainability in sustainability literature. Based on my analysis, I contend that the dominant conceptions of sustainability maintain anthropocentric speciesism, that is, discrimination according to species classification within an anthropocentric worldview. This bias is present, for example, in the conceptions of sustainability of the Brundtland Report, the United Nations’ Agenda 2030, the planetary boundaries framework as well as IPCC reports examined in this thesis. Some non-anthropocentric conceptions of sustainability are starting to emerge in academic discourses: interspecies sustainability, posthuman sustainability, ecocentric sustainability, multispecies sustainability, what I call multicriterial sustainability and defences of the animal ethical dimensions of sustainability. Hitherto, the discourse of sustainability has, still, rarely questioned anthropocentric speciesism. I argue that the anthropocentric conceptions of sustainability lack plausibility for five reasons. Firstly, it is morally wrong to engage in speciesist discrimination. It is wrong to disregard sentient nonhuman animals’ interests and equal duties owed to these creatures in the context of sustainability. Secondly, anthropocentric speciesism is connected to discrimination against certain animalised and marginalised humans, such as indigenous peoples. Thirdly, normative claims require ethical justification, which makes it unacceptable to assume anthropocentrism without critical examination. Sustainability science should consider ethical research on moral standing and aim at overcoming the speciesist bias through critical reflection. Fourthly, from a psychological perspective, it is valuable to oppose oppressive systems that, according to research by Melanie Joy, distance humans from reality and their authentic experience. Fifthly, the sentiocentric equality of all sentient beings protects environment and wellbeing by opposing the animal industry. Also the biocentric and ecocentric conceptions of sustainability lack plausibility, despite their non-anthropocentrism, as only sentient beings have interests. I conclude that there is a duty to embrace the sentiocentric and unitarian conception of sustainability that commits to the equality of all sentient beings, which eliminates discrimination. This conclusion entails a duty to transform the paradigm of sustainability science and the discourse of sustainability. In future research, it is essential to further develop this sentiocentric conception of sustainability, examine its possible challenges and how societies and the academic world could implement it.
  • Laiho, Helene (2022)
    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal acknowledged as a worldwide contaminant that accumulates in organisms and biomagnifies in food webs. The organic methylmercury (MeHg) species is harmful to animals, including humans, and mainly derived from the diet. The dietary Hg consumed by fish is mostly removed through the intestine, but some of the MeHg bioaccumulates, especially in the white muscle tissue of fish. Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) are commonly found fish species in Finland. Perch has additional im-portance as it is the national fish of Finland, a popular food fish, as well as a monitoring species used to evaluate the chemical status of lakes. Seasonal variation of Hg in muscle tissue of fish is supposedly caused by starvation in winter, which condenses Hg in the muscle, and growth dilution in summer, which refers to fast somatic growth during the growing season, which dilutes Hg in the muscle. Similar to winter, spawning has also been found to condense Hg in muscle tissue of fish due to high energy investment into gonad development. Seasonal variation of Hg and variables driving seasonal changes have been shown to differ between fish species. Seasonal variation has been studied mainly during the open-water season. However, less is known about how winter conditions under ice affect Hg levels in fish. In this MSc thesis, I asked (Q1) How total mercury (THg) content in the muscle tissue of perch and roach change annually? (Q2) How THg bioaccumulation in the muscle tissue of perch and roach change annually? (Q3) What are the factors explaining annual variation in THg content in the muscle tissue of perch and roach? The practical application of results was to discuss if annual variation should be considered in monitoring programs and human health questions. The materials used in this study were collected from Lake Pääjärvi monthly from March 2020 to March 2021. Fish were collected using gillnet series. Length, weight, sex, sexual maturity, stomach fullness, Fulton’s condition factor (K), and muscle THg were determined from each fish. The annual length-corrected THg content variation was tested using analysis of variance. The annual THg bioaccumulation variation in the relationship between muscle and fish length was tested using simple linear regression analysis, and the seasonal variation in THg bioaccumulation was tested with LOESS regression analysis. Variables affecting seasonal variation were tested with stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. THg content of perch was the highest in winter and spring and the lowest in fall, while roach showed no significant seasonal variation. THg bioaccumulation of both species was highest in winter, spring, and early summer and lowest in fall. Perch displayed more substantial seasonal variation than roach. Biological and environmental variables that explained the THg content of perch were length, ice thickness, gonadosomatic index (GSI), light, and condition factor. Variables that explained the THg content of roach were length, sex, and total phosphorus (Tot-P). This study confirmed that starvation in winter, growth dilution in summer, and spawning in spring/early summer are vital factors driving seasonal variation. Due to evident seasonal variation, monitoring month should be pre-set in current monitoring programs.
  • Torvinen, Ida (2022)
    More than half of the global population lives in urban areas. Urban sprawl and densification have affected urban ecosystems and the services they provide. Urban vegetation is one of the most important providers of ecosystem services. Previous studies have shown that plant functional type and age of parks/trees affect soil properties in urban environments. However, knowledge on the effects of plant roots on ecosystem services is limited. In this thesis I focused on exploring the contribution of root biomass to soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation under evergreen and deciduous trees in urban greenspaces. In addition, I explored how soil properties differ based on tree type and age of the park/tree, and how sampling distance from the tree affects root biomass and soil properties. Soil samples were taken at five distances: 1) under the canopy (midway between the trunk and the canopy edge), 2) at the canopy edge, and 3)–5) 1 m apart, starting from the canopy edge. This transect of five distances was replicated three times per tree (30 trees in total). Trees belonging to two functional types were sampled, evergreen (mostly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and deciduous (Linden, Tilia x europaea L.) trees. Sampling was done in young (ca. 15 years) and old (>70 years) urban parks in Lahti and Helsinki. The results show higher root biomass under young trees than old trees, and spruces had higher root biomass compared to lindens. Root biomass was positively correlated with soil organic matter, soil carbon and soil nitrogen. Sampling distance from the tree affected both root biomass and soil properties in young and old parks. Plant functional type affected soil organic matter, soil carbon, C/N ratio and acidity, but not soil nitrogen. Irrespective of tree type, soil properties varied less in old parks than in young parks between the sampling distances. Soils under old spruces had higher total carbon content compared to young spruces, whereas for lindens, tree age affected soil carbon less on. Total nitrogen content was higher in old parks than in young parks for both tree types. My study provides new information about how park tree roots affect urban park soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation. There are no previous studies on how far this root effect extends, and my study fills this knowledge gap. My results show that tree roots are an important factor in urban park carbon stocks. I also showed that age of the park/tree has an evident effect on urban soil properties. In the light of my research findings, it seems that a significant portion of ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation is produced underground.
  • Höglund, Eiko (2022)
    Kiihtyvän ilmastonmuutoksen aikana on entistä tärkeämpää löytää tapoja vähentää päästöjä ja sitoa hiiltä. Biohiilen käyttö on yksi keino ilmastonmuutoksen hillitsemiseen, ja sillä on potentiaalia parantaa maatalouden satoja. Ennen kuin biohiilen käyttö voi yleistyä, sen mahdolliset ulkoisvaikutukset, kuten vaikutukset maaperän eliöstöön, on kuitenkin ensin selvitettävä. Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin biohiilen käytön vaikutuksia mikrobien suhteelliseen runsauteen, kastematoyhteisöihin ja mikrobibiomassaan. Vain lauhkean ja boreaalisen vyöhykkeen kenttätutkimukset olivat osana tutkimusta. Biohiilen vaikutukset mikrobiryhmien suhteelliseen määrään selvitettiin kirjallisuuskatsauksella. Kirjallisuuskatsaus tehtiin myös selvittäessä biohiilen vaikutuksia kastematoihin. Biohiilen vaikutukset mikrobibiomassaan selvitettiin meta-analyysillä. Meta-analyysissä käytetyt tutkimukset luokiteltiin muuttujien, kuten biohiilen raaka-aineen, pyrolyysilämpötilan, maaperän pH:n, SOC:n, maaperän rakenteen ja biohiilen levitysmäärän perusteella. Tätä kautta voitiin selvittää, voisiko jokin näistä muuttujista selittää meta-analyysin tulokset. Mikrobien suhteellisen runsauden havaittiin muuttuvan biohiilen lisäyksen myötä, mutta reagoivat organismiryhmät vaihtelivat suuresti ja vaikutus yleensä haihtui ajan myötä. Biohiilen lisääminen ei vaikuttanut kastematoihin merkittävästi. Meta-analyysien tulokset viittaavat siihen, että biohiilellä ei myöskään ole merkittävää vaikutusta mikrobien kokonaisbiomassaan. Eri muuttujilla tehdyt meta-analyysit viittaavat siihen, että biohiilen lisäyksellä on positiivisin vaikutus mikrobien biomassaan happamissa maaperissä, joissa on karkea rakenne ja korkea SOC-pitoisuus, kun biohiiltä tuotetaan 500 °C–700 °C:ssa ja levitetään määrinä, jotka ovat suurempia tai yhtä suuri kuin 30 t ha-1. Biohiilen raaka-aineella ei havaittu olevan merkittävää vaikutusta. Yhteenvetona voidaan todeta, että mikrobi- ja kastematoyhteisöt pysyvät yleensä vakaina biohiiltä käytettäessä. Tämä mahdollistaisi biohiilen käytön mm. hiilen sitomiseen ja maaperän hedelmällisyyden lisäämiseen maaperän eliöstöä vahingoittamatta. Lisätutkimusta kaivataan kuitenkin erityisesti boreaalisilla alueilla sekä biohiilen ja pääviljelykasvin mahdollisista vuorovaikutuksista. Tutkia kannattaisi myös mahdollisuuksia käyttää biohiiltä yhdessä muiden orgaanisten käsittelyjen, kuten lannan tai kompostin kanssa biologisen monimuotoisuuden ja sadon parantamiseksi.