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  • Ainetdin, Aydil (2019)
    Research of RNF43, which is part of the WNT signaling pathway, has been done primarily in relation to cancer research, but mutations in this gene have recently been detected in some families with severe tooth agenesis. It has been proven that WNT signaling has an important role in regulation of tooth development, but RNF43 has earlier not been investigated in a dental context. Mouse and human genome are very homologous and the tooth development is remarkably similar. In this research with RNAScope, a specific in situ mRNA detection method, we show that Rnf43, as well as the homologous gene Znrf3, are expressed in the molar tooth germs and continual dental lamina of E12.5-E16.5 (E=embryonic day) mice embryos. We found out that Rnf43 is expressed in the epithelial parts and Znrf3 both in the epithelium and the mesenchyme of the developing tooth in every developmental stage from placode to early bell. This evidence supports the hypothesis that Rnf43 and Znrf3 have a role in murine tooth development, that these genes are expressed at every developmentally important stage of murine tooth development and also that these genes could be involved in tooth agenesis.
  • Nurminen, Kimi (2019)
    Finding and developing new antimicrobial compounds against clinically important antimicrobial drug resistant bacterial pathogens is necessary to counter the threats to global health, food security and development caused by these organisms. One potential source for leads for novel antimicrobial agents are bacteriophages, whose genomes hold vast numbers of genes encoding for proteins that are able to inhibit bacteria in yet uncharacterized ways. Characterization of these proteins and their functions is likely to aid the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. This study aimed to optimize the heterologous production of three bacteria-inhibiting proteins from bacteriophage φR1-RT for the characterization of the proteins and their interactions with the bacterial host cell. Expression plasmids were successfully constructed for the heterologous production of the proteins in both Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli -based expression systems. The L. lactis expression system utilized a tightly regulated nisin-controlled promoter and featured a lactococcal SSusp45 secretion leader to target the produced protein to extracellular secretion. The E. coli expression system used a tightly regulated arabinose-inducible promoter to control the expression of the bacteriotoxic proteins. Despite the successful construction of the expression plasmids, the bacteriophage φR1-RT proteins were not able to be produced in quantities suitable for protein purification in either of the expression systems used in this study. The lack of protein expression is likely due to either codon bias or the harmful effects of the bacteriotoxic proteins that build up inside the bacterial cells. Codon optimized genes or a eukaryotic expression system could be tried to produce enough protein for purification and further characterization.
  • Baral, Bikash (2015)
    Phytopathogens, notably Heterobasidion annosum, evolved several strategical combinations to infect and subsequently colonize their host even under different stress conditions. Fungal ABC transporters are well-known defenses that can confer resistance against host-secreted secondary metabolites by transporting them outside of the fungal cells and thus keeping their intracellular concentration low. Here, we aim to unveil the evolutionary trajectories of total ABC transporters-encoding genes in Heterobasidion annosum. The gene expression pattern was monitored with the fungus subjected to different chemical stressors and during fungal growth on wood. We identified 32 putative ABC protein-encoding genes in the Heterobasidion genome. Altogether 20 putative ABC transporter-encoding genes of H. annosum were further analyzed and it was revealed that several genes were either up or downregulated, while some were not differentially expressed under the experimental conditions. The results obtained from the gene expression analysis revealed that an ABC gene (annotated as Ha.ABC-G1 or Hetan_66124), was highly up-regulated in most conditions. This particular transporter-encoding gene (Hetan_66124) with induction level of up to 47 –fold (in heartwood and similar levels in other conditions) was traced, PCR amplified, cloned in Escherichia coli and expression of recombinant protein performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as platform. Several experiments aiming to dissect functional roles of this hypothetical protein were performed. The growth of the yeast transformant over expressing the recombinant ABC protein in different terpenoids and weak organic acids were monitored. The growth rate of clones with and without transporters were not significantly different when cultured in plates (SC·gal-ura-) that were exposed to the volatile compounds (limonene, carene and ?-pinene). Based on our findings, we concluded that the yeast transformants carrying the H. annosum ABC-G1 transporter encoding gene do not show increased resistance or tolerance against the monoterpenes. The results of the transcript profiling have further contributed to our understanding about gene expression during fungal colonization upon exposure to chemical stressors. However, further studies are needed in order to specifically unveil the functional roles of these efflux pumps that underlie their transport mechanism with response to the host secreted secondary metabolites.
  • Das, Bishwajit (2020)
    Asteraceae comprises of approximately 10% of all angiosperm plant species. These species are well known for their highly compressed inflorescences known as capitula which consists of morphologically different types of flowers: ray, trans and disc flowers. This immense morphological difference excels Gerbera as an ideal plant to study flower type differentiations. Even though this complex process is governed by several genes, the ray flower identity is believed to be greatly influenced by GhCYC3 promoter mediated gene regulations. In previous studies two TCP transcription factors (TF): GhCIN1and GhCIN2, and two MADS TFs: GAGA1 and RCD5 were identified as the potential upstream regulators of GhCYC3. So, the aim of this study is to test whether these potential upstream regulators physically bind to GhCYC3 promoter in in vitro conditions. In order to achieve the goal, these transcription factor proteins from Gerbera hybrida were successfully expressed in E. coli and purified as fusion proteins to maltose-binding protein (MBP). Physical binding of the purified fusion proteins to the putative target DNA sites in the promoter region of GhCYC3 gene was tested by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The results showed that none of the gerbera transcription factors (GhCIN1, GhCIN2, GAGA1 and RCD5) bind to their putative target sites under the condition tested in this study. However, it might not be justifiable to deduce that these TFs do not interact with GhCYC3 promoter. The absence of in vitro interaction between the tested TFs and GhCYC3 promoter might be caused by either lack of proper folding and activity of the TFs or absence of co-factors which are available in vivo.
  • Mykkänen, Esa (2017)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee palauttamiskielto-periaatteen sisältöä kolmessa eri ihmisoikeussopimuksessa. Palauttamiskielto-periaate liittyy pakolaisoikeuteen, mutta sitä toteuttaa nykyisin myös yleiset ihmisoikeussopimukset. Valitut kolme ihmisoikeussopimusta ovat sopimus pakolaisten oikeudellisesta asemasta (1951, myöhemmin YK:n pakolaissopimus), Euroopan ihmisoikeussopimus (1950, myöhemmin EIS) ja kidutuksen ja muun julman, epäinhimillisen ja halventavan kohtelun tai rangaistuksen vastainen yleissopimus (1984, myöhemmin KVY). Ensimmäinen ja viimeinen sopimus ovat YK:n alaisuudessa solmittuja sopimuksia, kun taas keskimmäinen sopimus on Euroopan neuvoston alainen. Palauttamiskielto-periaate merkitsee pääpiirteissään sitä, että henkilöä ei saada siirtää pois maasta, jos häntä siirron kohteena olevalla alueella kohtaisi perusteltu riski vainosta, kidutuksesta taikka epäinhimillisestä tai alentavasta kohtelusta tai rangaistuksesta. YK:n yleissopimus suojaa henkilöä vainolta ja koskee henkilöitä, jotka ovat kotimaansa ulkopuolella eli sillä on selvin kytkös pakolaisiin. EIS suojaa kaikkia henkilöitä kotimaassa olemisesta riippumatta, ja sen tarjoama suoja kattaa niin kidutuksen kuin epäinhimillisen tai halventavan kohtelun tai rangaistuksen. KVY suojaa samaten kaikkia henkilöitä kotimaassa olemisesta riippumatta, mutta sen tarjoama suoja kattaa vain kidutuksen. Työssä on eroteltu periaatteen sisällöstä eri osa-alueita, jotka ovat suojan alueellinen ja henkilöllinen kattavuus, kielletyn kohtelun sisältö, riskiä koskeva harkinta ja periaatteen absoluuttinen luonne. Näitä osa-alueita käsitellään sekä kussakin sopimuksessa erikseen, että sopimuksia vertailevasti. Täten tarkoituksena on selvittää periaatteen sisältöä kussakin sopimuksessa huomioiden mahdollisia eroja ja yhtäläisyyksiä sekä aukkoja suojelussa, jota periaate etenkin pakolaisille tarjoaa.
  • Kaipio, Mikko Ari Ilmari (2014)
    This master's thesis consists of two parts related to atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes: a literature survey of so-called ex situ in vacuo analysis methods used in investigations of the ALD chemistry and a summary of the work performed by the author using in situ methods. The first part of the thesis is divided into four sections. In the first two sections ALD as a thin film deposition method is introduced, and in situ and ex situ in vacuo publications related to ALD are summarized. The third section is a general overview of ex situ in vacuo analysis methods, and the final section a literature review covering publications where ex situ in vacuo techniques have been employed in studying ALD processes, with a strong emphasis on analysis methods which are based on the use of x-rays. The second part of the thesis consists of in situ quartz crystal microbalance and quadrupole mass spectrometry studies of the V(NEtMe)4/D2O, V(NEtMe)4/O3, Mg(thd)2/TiF4 and Cu2(CH3COO)4/D2O ALD processes. The experimental apparatus and related theory are given a brief overview, followed by a presentation and discussion of the results.
  • Rissanen, Olli (2014)
    Delivering more value to the customer is the goal of every software company. In modern software business, delivering value in real-time requires a company to utilize real-time deployment of software, data-driven decisions and empirical evaluation of new products and features. These practices shorten the feedback loop and allow for faster reaction times, ensuring the development is focused on features providing real value. This thesis investigates practices known as continuous delivery and continuous experimentation as means of providing value for the customers in real-time. Continuous delivery is a development practice where the software functionality is deployed continuously to customer environment. This process includes automated builds, automated testing and automated deployment. Continuous experimentation is a development practice where the entire R&D process is guided by conducting experiments and collecting feedback. As a part of this thesis, a case study is conducted in a medium-sized software company. The research objective is to analyze the challenges, benefits and organizational aspects of continuous delivery and continuous experimentation in the B2B domain. The data is collected from interviews conducted on members of two teams developing two different software products. The results suggest that technical challenges are only one part of the challenges a company encounters in this transition. For continuous delivery, the company must also address challenges related to the customer and procedures. The core challenges are caused by having multiple customers with diverse environments and unique properties, whose business depends on the software product. Some customers also require to perform manual acceptance testing, which slows down production deployments. For continuous experimentation, the company also has to address challenges related to the customer and organizational culture. An experiment which reveals value for a single customer might not reveal as much value for other customers due to unique properties in each customers business. Additionally, the speed by which experiments can be conducted is relative to the speed by which production deployments can be made. The benefits found from these practices support the case company in solving many of its business problems. The company can expose the software functionality to the customers from an earlier stage, and guide the product development by utilizing feedback and data instead of opinions.
  • Koutsompinas, Ioannis Jr (2021)
    In this thesis we study extension results related to compact bilinear operators in the setting of interpolation theory and more specifically the complex interpolation method, as introduced by Calderón. We say that: 1. the bilinear operator T is compact if it maps bounded sets to sets of compact closure. 2.\bar{ A} = (A_0,A_1) is a Banach couple if A_0,A_1 are Banach spaces that are continuously embedded in the same Hausdorff topological vector space. Moreover, if (Ω,\mathcal{A}, μ) is a σ-finite measure space, we say that: 3. E is a Banach function space if E is a Banach space of scalar-valued functions defined on Ω that are finite μ-a.e. and so that the norm of E is related to the measure μ in an appropriate way. 4. the Banach function space E has absolutely continuous norm if for any function f ∈ E and for any sequence (Γ_n)_{n=1}^{+∞}⊂ \mathcal{A} satisfying χ_{Γn} → 0 μ-a.e. we have that ∥f · χ_{Γ_n}∥_E → 0. Assume that \bar{A} and \bar{B} are Banach couples, \bar{E} is a couple of Banach function spaces on Ω, θ ∈ (0, 1) and E_0 has absolutely continuous norm. If the bilinear operator T : (A_0 ∩ A_1) × (B_0 ∩ B_1) → E_0 ∩ E_1 satisfies a certain boundedness assumption and T : \tilde{A_0} × \tilde{B_0} → E_0 compactly, we show that T may be uniquely extended to a compact bilinear operator T : [A_0,A_1]_θ × [B_0,B_1]_θ → [E_0,E_1]_θ where \tilde{A_j} denotes the closure of A_0 ∩ A_1 in A_j and [A_0,A_1]_θ denotes the complex interpolation space generated by \bar{A}. The proof of this result comes after we study the case where the couple of Banach function spaces is replaced by a single Banach space.
  • Vazquez Muiños, Henrique (2016)
    In this thesis we consider an extension of the Standard Model (SM) with a SU(2) symmetric Dark Sector, and study its viability as a dark matter (DM) model. In the dark sector, a hidden Higgs mechanism generates three massive gauge bosons, which are the DM candidates of the model. We allow a small coupling between the SM Higgs and the scalar of the dark sector, such that there is a scalar mixing. We study the new interactions in the model and analyse the consequences of the scalar mixing: new possible decays of the Higgs into DM, Higgs decay rates and production cross sections different from SM predictions, and possible interactions between DM and normal matter. We study the evolution of the DM abundance from the early universe to the present and compare the relic densities that the model yields with the experimental value measured by the Planck satellite. We compute the decay rates for the Higgs in the model and test if they are consistent with the experimental data from Atlas, CMS and Tevatron. We calculate the cross section for the interaction between DM and normal matter and compare it with the data from the latest direct detection experiments LUX and XENON100. We discuss the impact of the experimental constraints on the parameter space of the model, and find the regions that give the best fit to the experimental data. In this work we show that the agreement with the experiments is optimal when both the DM candidates and the dark scalar are heavier than the Higgs boson.
  • Eklund, Max Julius (2013)
    The importance of universities providing quality-assurance schemes has increased during the last two decades due to, among other things, an increased tendency in public administration to use evaluations as a tool to enhance efficiency and the changed nature of the state-university relationship. Moreover, we can witness an increased integration of European higher education. Also Finnish higher education has been exposed to these trends and external evaluation and quality assurance systems has become a recurring phenomenon. The objective of this research was to analyse organizational responses at universities to the demand of showing a QA-scheme, and to increase understanding on the role of audits in relation to national and supranational developments, from a perspective of organizational intuitionalism. In so doing, attention is put on what kinds of effects and practices a national form of evaluation has, if compared at the organizational level of two universities. The methodological approach builds on insights from qualitative methods, new-institutional theory and organizational institutionalism. The empirical materials used consisted of documents and half-structured interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analysed through the creation of reference codes in the program ATLAS TI. The reference codes were created according to logics of analytic coding. In the research, four core themes were witnessed. First, in implementing processes or reforms that might be perceived critically in universities, the role of commitment and semantics become of high importance, as does a degree of hierarchy. Second, responding to the demand of showing a quality assurance-scheme and succeeding in audits are not seen to be of high importance by university leadership in that only scarce resources were allocated to the exercise. Third, developing the QA-system was clearly accepted to be a response to European developments but this is hardly an instrument for governance that the Ministry of Education would value in comparison to other instruments. Finally, the recommendations made by the audit teams are not as neutral as they seem, in that they do define what the Universities should accomplish. However, the loosely coupled structure has in many ways lessened many of the impacts and recommendation gained from the audits.
  • Laitinen, Miikka (2021)
    Oat β-glucan is well known for its health benefits, which are related to its rheological behavior in the gut. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the extractability and viscosity of β-glucan from oat bread under physiological conditions and to see whether there were varietal differences. Oat flours of twenty different cultivars were used to bake breads which were subjected to in vitro digestion. The resulting extracts were studied for viscosity using a rheometer, and the β-glucan contents of the breads and the extracts were determined to evaluate the extractability. In addition, the effect of flour particle size on extractability was investigated. Variance in the in vitro extractability of β-glucan was seen between cultivars, which was not explained by flour particle size. All samples produced highly viscous extracts, and the viscosities increased sharply with increasing β-glucan concentration, which suggests that the β-glucan was not extensively degraded during the breadmaking process. The viscosities also varied between cultivars, as some exhibited considerably higher viscosities at similar concentrations. The results indicate that the β-glucan from the oat breads would have good capacity to increase viscosity in the intestine, although varietal differences were observed.
  • Stengård, Anni-Kaisa (2017)
    Substitution of animal food products and non-biodegradable plastics is of interest for addressing climate change and pollution. Plant proteins are potential raw materials with low environmental impact which can be utilized for development of protein rich foods or biodegradable plastics. Grain legumes and especially lupins are rich in proteins that could be utilized. Protein fibril is a self-assembled non-random protein structure which has a large length to width ratio. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the concept of fibrillating proteins extracted from two lupin species (L. albus and L. angustifolius) and to characterize the formed fibrils. The proteins were extracted from dried and milled lupin seeds with alkaline followed by an isoelectric precipitation. The standard extraction procedure was combined with additional process steps such as dehulling, defatting, extraction with acidic extraction media and dialysis. The extracted protein isolates were hydrolyzed into peptides in different concentrations and assembled into fibrils by heating at pH 2.0 for 24, 48 or 72 h. The fibrillated samples were analyzed with a thioflavin T (ThT) assay to indicate the β-sheet secondary protein structure. Some of the fibrillated samples were imaged with atomic-force microscopy. Samples prepared from dehulled and defatted L. angustifolius flour had the highest total protein content of 98.3 ± 0.4% on dry matter basis. ThT binding was observed in most samples indicating formation of fibrils. The binding increased significantly for samples after standard extraction process and for lower ionic strength. The fibrils appeared to form within 48 h and samples with higher protein concentration (40 mg/ml) showed massive gelation after 24 h. Studying the samples with atomic-force microscopy showed 300 nm long curly fibrils. These initial results indicate that the proteins extracted from lupin can be fibrillated.
  • Nykänen, Tina (2013)
    Rhazya stricta Decne. is a small evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family. The plant grows in South Asia and the Middle East, and in these areas it is used in traditional medicine. All parts of the plant are used in different preparations for a variety of purposes such as infections, bowel diseases, itching and diabetes. R. stricta synthesizes about a hundred different alkaloids, of which only a fraction has been studied closer. Some of the analyzed alkaloids have showed some interesting pharmacological properties such as antibacterial and cytotoxic properties. Because it is often both economically and ecologically unsustainable to cultivate or to collect large amounts of medicinal plants from nature, cell cultures have been developed from plants. The properties and synthesized substances of the cell cultures can be analysed and modified in laboratories. In the experimental part of this work, a system was developed for alkaloid extraction, fractionation and isolation from dried cell material from cultured R. stricta hairy root-cells. The goal was to develop a functioning system that eventually enables identification of the alkaloids synthesized by the cultured cells under given conditions. Alkaloids were extracted from 26 g of dried and ground cell mass. The fractionation of the alkaloids was performed with medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) and the fractions were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The alkaloids were purified by horizontal TLC and preparative HPLC. Ion-pair chromatography was used for analyzing the extract, fractions and purified alkaloids. Five components from two fractions were eventually isolated. One of the components was tentatively identified as vincanine, but further analyzes have to be performed to identify all components reliably. In total, hairy root-cells seem to synthesize approximately 20 alkaloids with variable polarity.
  • Oravisto, Liisa (2014)
    The European Court of Human Rights has brought a revolutionary aspect to the extraterritorial application of its Convention by extending it to cover the state parties’ actions abroad. By opening the door to the application of the European Convention on Human Rights to activities of a member state beyond its territorial borders, the Court has changed its case-law practice from more restrictive to more allowing. The major authority on the extraterritorial application of the ECHR has thus far been the Bankovi? v Belgium case from 2001. In Bankovi? the Court decided on the claims against 17 NATO states for the bombardments in Yugoslavia in 1999. The Court dismissed the claims on the basis of jurisdiction as it held that the jurisdictional threshold of Article 1 of the ECHR was not met. Contrary to Bankovi?, the Court decided on Al-Skeini and Al-Jedda positively on the application of the Convention outside of its direct territory. This is a big change in the practice and will have an even bigger impact on the states and thus it is now time to reevaluate the issue in light of these new cases. The incoherence of the Court’s judgments places the states, and individuals, in an unpredictable world as the meaning of ‘within their jurisdiction’ as set out in Article 1 of the Convention remains controversial. The two identities of the Convention as a regional, European instrument and as a universal human rights mechanism create a challenging relationship. This thesis explores the change in the Court’s interpretation views through the case law concerning the extraterritorial application of the ECHR. For a global comparison other human rights treaties and their jurisdiction clauses are reviewed in order to evaluate the status quo in this field and the impacts on states’ actions and respective policies thereof. The Article 1 plays a fundamental role in this context and thus it is reflected throughout the thesis.
  • Grönholm, Jessica (2015)
    This thesis addresses the role of home states in relation to extraterritorial human rights violations committed by their corporate nationals, more specifically transnational corporations (TNCs). This thesis examines the difficulties of holding TNCs directly accountable for the violations they commit. Secondly, this thesis explores whether and to what extent home states of TNCs can become responsible for extraterritorial human rights violations committed by TNCs domiciled in their territories. This thesis approaches the issue of home state responsibility from two separate points of view namely the law on state responsibility and international human rights law. Growing corporate power and its possible detrimental impact on the enjoyment of human rights has not gone unnoticed. TNCs’ corporate structures are as the name says, transnational, and their operations are commonly global. This in turn leads to a situation in which the operations of a TNC existing under the laws of one state may impact the lives of people located in other the countries hosting the operations of the TNC. Although some attempts have been made in the international legal sphere to keep corporations directly accountable for the human rights violations they commit, under the current state of international law, no legally binding provisions exist to keep corporations directly accountable. Focus has therefore been on states’ obligations to ensure the adequate protection of human rights and this thesis stresses the obligations of the home state. The two separate approaches to state responsibility examined in this thesis are built on very different premises. Firstly, the law of state responsibility provides the circumstances pursuant to which the acts of TNCs can become attributable to the home state as an act of state. As a general rule, private acts are not automatically imputable to the state, but may under certain circumstances be considered as such. This thesis explores the exemptions to this basic rule of non-attribution and the conditions when a state can be held responsible for the acts of TNCs. Pursuant to the rules of state responsibility, acts of TNCs may become attributable to the home state in four situations, namely when the TNC has the status of an organ of the state de facto or de jure; when the TNC has been authorized to exercise governmental authority; when the TNC has acted under the instructions, direction or control of the state and when the home state acknowledges and adopts the conduct as its own. However, as this thesis demonstrates the criteria for attribution of TNCs’ conduct to the state are rather strict and the practical usefulness of the law of state responsibility for the purposes of keeping home states responsible for human rights abuse is rather speculative. The second approach adopted in this thesis finds its basis in human rights law. It is widely acknowledged that states are under an obligation to respect, protect and fulfil human rights. Of these three aspects, the obligation to protect is central to this thesis as it concerns the state’s duty to protect human rights of individuals from infringements of non-state actors such as TNCs. The positive duties to protect human rights have traditionally been perceived to apply in the domestic territories of the state, and this thesis examines whether the home states of a TNC can be under an obligation to extend this protection to the human rights of people in third states and thus to control their corporate nationals by means of e.g. legislation. The recent developments in this field signal of a willingness to recognize and strengthen the duties of home states’ extraterritorial obligations. This is perhaps due to the fact that recent initiatives have on the one hand abandoned the idea of direct corporate accountability and relied solely on the permissibility of home state regulation, which is insufficient and gives rise to governance gaps. However, the work of various human rights treaty bodies signal of the possibility of recognizing such home state obligations and is also discussed in this thesis. Conclusively, the discussion in this thesis provides that home states can incur state responsibility under certain rather strict conditions. The conclusions also highlight that of the two approaches addressed in this thesis, international human rights law is perhaps a better tool in this regard. Nevertheless, the existence of legally binding norms is still an unresolved matter. Therefore the conclusions of this thesis observe the need to clarify the precise scope of the extraterritorial obligations of home states with regard to control of TNCs.
  • Pasanen, Vilma (2016)
    Already since the 1980’s, in order to combat irregular immigration states have emphasized controlling immigration at source, also with the assistance of private actors. One of the oldest of these extraterritorialization and privatization methods is carrier sanction legislation, which imposes document control activities to transport companies by threatening them with financial penalties. This method is nowadays endorsed in several international conventions. The downside of the extraterritorial border control is its severe implications on refugee protection. Refugees are often unable to obtain the proper travel documents and therefore cannot resort to international protection. However, due to states’ growing control over their borders and on the other hand detrimental effect on refugees, the scope of the human rights and refugee rights obligations has come under debate. This thesis is participating in the discussion by evaluating can the norms of refugee and human rights protection apply extraterritorially, and if yes, can carriers’ border control actions breach these rights or are refugees’ rights already taken into account efficiently. Refugee rights and human rights obligations rise from international and regional conventions, which impose obligations mainly to the sovereign states. Thus, the first issue in establishing responsibility is whether carriers’ conduct could be attributed to the state according to the customary rules of international law codified in Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts. Secondly, the scope of the international obligations must be established. Carrier sanctions have been widely criticized for circumventing the non-refoulement principle recognized in the Refugee Convention and several human rights treaties and also described as the cornerstone of refugee protection. Besides, the carrier sanctions affect the obligation not to penalize refugees for illegal entry recognized in Refugee Convention, right to leave a country and the right to seek asylum. However, whether these obligations apply only on the territory of the state or also in the situations of extraterritorially is not always crystal clear. Even if state´s obligations could apply extraterritorially, states can clearly be responsible only for violations they can impact on. Thus, the third threshold of state´s extraterritorial responsibility is establishing extraterritorial jurisdiction. There is no case law on attribution of carrier’s actions to states and creation of extraterritorial jurisdiction is still an exceptional thing applied inconsistently by different courts. In cases where the attribution is not possible or jurisdictional link is weak, the last chapter of this work discusses if states’ human rights due diligence obligation could still provide a layer of protection and mitigate the negative effects on refugees. Accepting extraterritorial effects on refugee protection would have massive effects on the Western states asylum regimes. It would also create problems targeting responsibility between states and increase the phenomenon of jurisdiction shopping. On the other hand, states’ extraterritorial control might create a human rights vacuum where persons are artificially blocked from protection.
  • Laurila, Terhi (2016)
    An intense storm named Mauri swept over Lapland, Finland on the 22nd of September 1982 causing 3 Mm3 forest damage and two fatalities. There were thoughts that Mauri originated from a category 4 hurricane Debby but the linkage between Debby and Mauri and their connection to climatic conditions have not been investigated before. In this thesis, a climatic overview of September 1982 in comparison to 1981-2010 Septembers is provided. The calculations are based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data produced by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The track of the storm is determined from ERA-Interim data from the time Debby occurred until Mauri crossed Finland. The evolution of Debby is also presented with the storm track data by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to comparison. Extratropical transition (ET) and phase diagram of Debby and the synoptic evolution of Mauri are examined. ET is defined to start when the cyclone loses a symmetric hurricane eye feature to form asymmetric fronts, and ET is completed when the warm core of the storm turns cold. A comparison between Mauri and two other intense storms that have affected Europe is briefly presented. It was discovered, that Debby completed ET before rapidly crossing the North Atlantic. However, near the UK ex-Debby started to lose its cold core and asymmetric structure typical to an extratropical cyclone. Ex-Debby phased back to warm cored while crossing Sweden, and at the same time it was rapidly deepening up to 27 hPa in 24 hours defining the storm as a meteorological bomb. Ex-Debby developed a frontal structure along a pre-existing cold front before hitting Lapland. It merged with the pre-existing low pressure center from the Norwegian Sea and proceeded right ahead of an upper trough, a region for cyclogenesis. These made the storm, now named Mauri, more intense as it crossed Lapland, and led to 30 m/s winds based on Finnish Meteorological Institute. Meanwhile, an occluded bent-back front approached Mauri, wrapped around the storm trapping the warmer air inside it and formed a warm seclusion. Due to that, Mauri regained the symmetric structure before reaching the Barents Sea. Examining the climatic aspect, positive surface pressure and temperature anomalies over central Europe caused the jet stream to shift northward. Also, positive NAO and AO phases changed the storm track in general to higher latitudes. Hence, climatic conditions favoured the storm track to move more north. The results of this thesis suggested that Mauri was the remnant of a hurricane Debby. It was shown that ERA-Interim was successful in locating the evolution of a cyclone and analysing its structure whereas it underestimated the surface pressure and wind speed values. Future work is still needed, for instance comparing these results to different reanalyses and collecting a statistic examination of hurricane originated storms in Europe, in order to adapt these methods and climatic indicators to future cases and storm predictions.
  • Kantanen, Katja (2020)
    New alternatives for meat as the main source of protein are needed due to the negative impact of meat production on the environment and its high utilization of land sources. Vegetable proteins offer a more sustainable choice for meat and they can be processed into a structure that resembles meat using extrusion technology. The aim of this study was to produce a minced meat analogue using extrusion technology. The goal was to gain more information on the textural properties, colour and sensorial features of the meat analogue. In the experimental part, extrudates with replicates were produced from plant protein and fibre concentrate. Three differently processed samples were analysed. Texture analyser was used to measure the gumminess, springiness, chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness and shear energy of the samples. In addition, colour and moisture content were measured and a sensory experiment was conducted. According to the results, the content of the plant protein and fibre concentrate affected the textural properties and the colour of the samples. The results also showed that the composition of minced meat analogue had different effect on the textural properties depending how the sample was processed. In the sensory experiment, the reference sample (minced meat) had significantly higher score of pleasantness compared to extrudate containing samples. No significant differences were observed among the extrudate containing samples. This study showed that a product with some similarities to minced meat can be produced using extrusion technology with plant protein and fibre concentrate. For the development of the meat analogue, a more comprehensive sensory analysis would help to gain more information about the development targets of the product.
  • Elomaa, Timo (2018)
    Objective: There are few studies on the effect of Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) therapy on eye symptoms in sleep apnea patients and the conclusions of these studies are inconsistent. We evaluated by questionnaire, possible changes in eye symptoms with PAP therapy. Methods: Consecutive sleep apnea patients referred for PAP initiation were asked about their eye symptoms at baseline, four days and two months of PAP therapy. We used a Visual Analog Scale. Zero value means no symptoms, whereas a value of 100 indicates severe eye dryness or severe eye watering. During a PAP preparation session, a sleep nurse tried to choose the most suitable mask interface for a good mask seal and to avoid eventual air leak toward the eyes. Results: We included 46 patients (14 women) with a mean age 56.0 ± 15.9, BMI 31.7 ± 6.0, apnea and hypopnea index 34.1 ± 21.8. No significant changes in dry eye symptom values at baseline (27.5 ± 26.6) compared to four days (28.7 ± 26.0) or two months (30.0 ± 28.2) of PAP therapy were observed. Eye watering values also showed absence of significant changes with PAP therapy. Five patients discontinued PAP therapy within two months; dry eye symptom and watering values at baseline in these patients did not differ from those who continued. Conclusions: When assuring a good individual PAP mask interface adjustment, short-term PAP therapy did not increase eye symptoms in sleep apnea patients. Patients who discontinued PAP had the same eye symptom values as those who continued beyond two months.
  • Ryyppö, Timo (2012)
    Islannissa purkautui Eyjafjallajökull-niminen tulivuori 14.4.2010. Purkauksen voimakkuus ja siitä syntynyt tuhkapilvi pysäytti lähes koko Euroopan lentoliikenteen Suomi mukaan lukien. Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa kerrotaan, miksi juuri Islannissa purkautui tulivuori, ja mitä vaikutuksia purkauksella oli. Tutkielma esittelee erilaisia menetelmiä havainnoida ja mallintaa tuhkan kulkeutumista. Tulkitsemalla ja yhdistämällä erilaisten mallien ja menetelmien tuloksia pyritään vastaamaan kysymykseen: oliko Suomessa tuhkaa vai ei? Tutkielma painottuu kaukokartoitusmittauksiin sekä satelliiteista että maanpinnalta. Satelliittiaineisto on peräisin Ilmatieteen laitoksen (IL) Lapin ilmatieteellisessä tutkimuskeskuksessa vastaanotettavista satelliiteista. Käytetyt satelliitti-instrumentit ovat MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ja OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). Maanpinnalta tehdyt kaukokartoitushavainnot on tehty Brewer-spektrofotometrilla ja PFR-aurinkofotometrillä (Precision Filter Radiometer). PFR-mittauksia on sekä Sodankylästä että Jokioisista ja Brewer-mittauksia Sodankylästä. Kaukokartoitusaineiston lisäksi tutkielmassa käytetään kahta numeerista mallia: IL:n SILAMia (System for Integrated modeLling of Atmospheric coMposition) sekä UK Met Officen NAMEa (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment). Näiden lisäksi IL:n rikkidioksidimittausverkostoa käytetään sekä vertailussa satellittiaineiston kanssa että trajektorianalyysissä. Tutkielmassa käytettiin erilaisia lähestymistapoja tuhkan olemassaolon ja määrän selvittämiseen. Minkään yksittäisen mittauksen tai mallin perusteella ei kuitenkaan voida varmasti sanoa, oliko Suomessa vulkaanista tuhkaa vai ei keväällä 2010. Tätä voidaan pitää tutkielman tärkeimpänä johtopäätöksenä. Tulivuorten purkausten havainnoimisessa ja monitoroinnissa onkin tärkeää yhdistää erilaisten mittausten, ja mallien tuloksia ja tarkastella näitä suurena kokonaisuutena.