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  • Haapala, Johanna (2015)
    Nopeakasvuinen ja lyhytkuituinen hybridihaapa (Populus tremula L x P. tremuloides Michx) voi tulevaisuudessa osoittautua ekonomisesti merkittäväksi raaka-aineeksi materiaalitekniikan kehittyessä. Tautien sekä muiden mahdollisten viljelyä rajoittavien tekijöiden tarkka tutkiminen on haavan laajempaa käyttöä silmällä pitäen tärkeää. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää 1) onko hybridihaapakloonien taudinkestävyydessä eroja Venturia tremulae -sienen aiheuttaman haavan mustaversotaudin suhteen, eli onko a) kloonien taudinkestävyydessä ja b) taudin aggressiivisuudessa eroja hybridihaapakloonien välillä, sekä 2) onko Neofabraea populi -sienen aiheuttaman kuoripoltteen aggressiivisuudessa eroja tutkittavien kloonien välillä. Aineisto on kerätty Metsäntutkimuslaitoksen Ruotsinkylän ja Suonenjoen koealoilta vuosina 2004 - 2006. Ruotsinkylässä tutkittiin yhteensä 12 kloonia, ja 1200 puuta, Suonenjoen koealalla oli 10 kloonia ja puita yhteensä 1000 kappaletta. Puista arvioitiin lehtilaikkujen peittävyys, infektoituneiden sivuversojen määrä sekä pääverson vaurioiden vakavuus. myös puiden kasvua seurattiin. Tulosten mukaan hybridihaapakloonit eroavat toisistaan mustaversotaudin kestävyyden osalta. Kun tautia esiintyi paljon, olivat erot merkittäviä. Ruotsinkylän aineiston mukaan kaksi kloonia olivat selkeästi muita kestävämpiä ja kasvuominaisuuksiltaan parempia. Suonenjoella tulokset olivat tasaisempia, mutta myös siellä kestävimmät kloonit kasvoivat parhaiten. Kuoripoltteen osalta puut jakautuvat kahteen ryhmään: niihin jotka pystyivät tarkastelujaksolla rajoittamaan sienen leviämistä ja niihin jotka eivät pystyneet. Kaikissa klooneissa oli taimia jotka pystyivät kontrolloimaan sienen leviämistä, mutta vain kahdessa kloonissa ei ollut yhtäkään taimea, joka olisi kärsinyt vakavista tuhoista. Tutkimuksen tuloksia voi käyttää hybridihaavan jalostukseen etsittäessä parasta viljelymateriaalia käytettäväksi Suomen oloihin. Kuoripoltteen osalta tutkimus antaa ainoastaan kuvan kloonien selviytymisen todennäköisyydestä infektion jälkeen, ja siksi kloonien kestävyyttä sienen taudinaiheuttamiskykyä kohtaan tulisi vielä tutkia.
  • Li, Janet (2020)
    Keuhkosyöpä on kolmanneksi yleisin todettu uusi syöpä Suomessa ja leikkaus on sen ainoa parantava hoito. Potilaan on tultava toimeen leikkauksen jälkeisellä keuhkojen toiminnalla, joten leikkauskelpoisuus on selvitettävä ennen toimenpidettä. Spirometria, diffuusiokapasiteettitutkimus ja suorituskykytestit ovat ensivaiheen tutkimuksia keuhkotoiminnan ennustamisessa. Ventilaation ja perfuusion gammakuvausta eli radiospirometriaa voidan käyttää riskinarvion tarkentamiseksi. Sen avulla selvitetään keuhkojen perfuusion ja ventilaation alueellinen jakautuminen. Ventilaation ja perfuusion gammakuvaus suoritetaan tällä hetkellä kaksiulotteisella gammakuvauksen tasokuvantamismenetelmällä. Tutkimuksessani selvitän uuden SPECT/TT hybridikuvantamismenetelmän hyötyä verrattuna nykyiseen kaksiulotteiseen menetelmään sekä muihin vaihtoehtoisiin laskennallisiin menetelmiin keuhkosyöpäleikkauksen jälkeisen keuhkojen toiminnan arvioinnissa. Tutkimusaineistona on kymmenen kliinisellä indikaatiolla radiospirometrialla kuvattua potilasta, jotka ovat menossa keuhkosyöpäleikkaukseen Meilahden sairaalassa vuonna 2019-2020. Nykyinen kaksiulotteinen gammakuvauksen tasokuvantamismenetelmä tuotti kolmiulotteisen SPECT/TT-menetelmän kanssa varsin yhteneviä tuloksia koko keuhkon poiston osalta. Suunniteltaessa lohkon poistoa menetelmien erot lisääntyivät. Kliininen laskuri tuotti kuvantamista matalampia arvoja. Vain kaksiulotteiseen gammakuvauksen kuva-analyysiin perustuva menetelmä erosi merkittävästi muista menetelmistä, mikä vastaa aiempien tutkimusten tuloksia. SPECT/TT mahdollistaa kajoamattoman ventilaation ja perfuusion mittaamisen sekä tarkan keuhkosyöpäleikkauksen riskinarvion huomioiden erityisesti oikean keuhkon monimutkaisen kolmiulotteisen anatomian. Menetelmä otetaan HUS isotooppilääketieteellä käyttöön ensisijaiseksi radiospirometrian kuvantamismenetelmäksi.
  • Salmela, Aki (2020)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää osakeyhtiön liikkeeseen laskeman hybridilainan asema ensinnäkin suhteessa osakeyhtiölain (”OYL”) 1:5:ssä mainittuun toiminnan tarkoitukseen ja toiseksi millaisissa olosuhteissa toiminnan tarkoituksen kriteeri voi täyttyä. Osakeyhtiöoikeus on laajan dispositiivista, mikä on osaltaan muokannut yhtiön rahoituskenttää kohti markkinoilta suoraan hankittavaa rahoitusta. Hybridilainojen sääntely on varsin vähäistä, eikä esimerkiksi OYL tunne sitä käsitteenä ollenkaan. Hybridilaina on yksi välipääomarahoituksen kenttään kuuluvista instrumenteista, jotka sisältävät sekä oman että vieraan pääoman tunnusmerkkejä. Rahoitusvälineiden räätälöinnistä johtuen niillä voi olla erilaisia vaikutuksia osakkeenomistajiin. Juuri nämä vaikutukset ovat tämän tutkimuksen keskiössä. Yhtiön toiminnan tarkoitusta arvioidaan pitkällä tähtäimellä, going concern. Osakeyhtiössä osakkeenomistajat ovat luovuttaneet yhtiön haltuun pääomaa, jota yhtiön johto disponoi lähtökohtaisesti osakkeenomistajien varallisuuden maksimoivalla tavalla. Hybridilainan liikkeeseen laskeminen toiminnan tarkoituksen arvioinnin kannalta on tutkimuksen ydin. Tutkimus jakautuu johdantokappaleen lisäksi hybridilainaa välipääomarahoitusinstrumenttina käsittelevään toiseen kappaleeseen, osakkeenomistajan positiota yhtiössä käsittelevään kolmanteen kappaleeseen, yhtiön arvon maksimointia käsittelevään neljänteen kappaleeseen ja johtopäätöksiin. Tutkimus perustuu oikeusdogmaattiseen metodiin ja käyttää hyväkseen myös oikeustaloustieteellistä ajattelua. Yhtiön rahoitusrakenteen analysointi ja johtopäätösten tekeminen edellyttävät taloudellista ajattelua puhtaan osakeyhtiöoikeuteen paneutuvan oikeusdogmatiikan lisäksi. Tutkimus käyttää hyväkseen aikaisempaa kirjallisuutta muun muassa osakeyhtiön rahoituksesta, osakkeenomistajan riskipositiosta sekä sopimusoikeudesta. Tutkimuksen johtopäätöksistä ilmenee, että hybridilaina täyttää OYL 1:5:n toiminnan tarkoituksen kriteerin todennäköisesti niissä tilanteissa, joissa hybridilainalla saatava kirjanpidollinen oma pääoma estää yhtiötä ajautumasta insolvenssimenettelyyn. Toisaalta toiminnan tarkoituksen kriteeri voi täyttyä myös lievemmissä tilanteissa esimerkiksi silloin, kun hybridilaina estää liikkeeseenlaskijan muiden rahoitusinstrumenttien kovenanttien rikkoutumisen. Hybridilainan kustannus on tällöin perusteltu osakkeenomistajan varallisuuden maksimoinnin kannalta. Hybridilainan korkea kustannus voi olla suhteellista, jos yhtiö onnistuu saamaan hybridilainalla hankkimalleen pääomalle korkean tuoton. Ytimenä toiminnan tarkoituksen mukaisuuden tarkastelussa on hybridilainan vaikutus yhtiön toimintaan going concern. Pitkällä aikavälillä tapahtuva arviointi osoittaa myös sen, että toiminnan tarkoitus voi edellyttää hybridilainan lunastamista yhtiön taloudellisen aseman muututtua paremmaksi.
  • Syrjälä, Timo (2016)
    Tämän pro gradu -tutkielman tarkoituksena on tarkastella Margaret Atwoodin MaddAddam-tieteiskirjallisuustrilogiaa eläintutkimuksen näkökulmasta. Keskeistä tutkielmalleni on tunnistaa ja analysoida tapoja, joilla Atwood lähestyy toislajisten eläinten esittämistä kirjallisuudessa, ihmisten ja eläinten suhdetta sekä näiden välistä rajaa. Analysoin näitä teemoja hybridisyyden käsitteen ja trilogiassa esiintyvien hybridiolentojen sekä niihin vaikuttavien teknologisten käytäntöjen näkökulmasta. Tarkastelen hybridisyyttä sen fyysisten ja symbolisten ilmentymien kautta ja käsittelen myös hybridisyyden ja eläinkysymyksen sosiaalisia ja kielellisiä merkityksiä. Toisessa luvussa tarkastelen monia trilogiassa esiintyviä, geneettisesti manipuloituja eläinhybridejä ja analysoin, miten ne ilmentävät ihmisten suhdetta toislajisiin eläimiin. Väitän, että Atwoodin luomat eläinhybridit haastavat lajien välistä erontekoa ja ihmisten taipumusta kategorisoida luontoa. Eläinhybridien kautta Atwood myös analysoi ihmisten teknologian käyttöä ja siihen liittyvää problematiikkaa sekä käsittelee esimerkiksi keinotekoiseen lihaan liittyviä eettisiä kysymyksiä. Kolmannessa luvussa keskityn trilogiassa esiintyviin, geneettisen manipulaation avulla luotuihin ihmis-eläinhybrideihin. Ihmis-eläinhybridit syventävät ja monimutkaistavat luvussa 2 käsiteltyjä aiheita ja mahdollistavat Atwoodin lähestyä kannibalismin ja antropomorfismin kaltaisia ilmiöitä. Ne myös alleviivaavat ihmisten ja eläinten välisen rajan häilyväisyyttä sekä haastavat käsityksiä ihmisten ylivertaisuudesta muihin eläimiin nähden. Atwoodin taipumuksena on korostaa ihmisten ja eläinten välisiä yhtäläisyyksiä sekä näiden välisen rajan kulttuurisesti tuotettua luonnetta ja täten asettaa tuon rajan kyseenalaiseksi. Neljännessä luvussa käsittelen trilogiassa esiintyviä symbolisen hybridisyyden muotoja sekä eläinten ja kielen välistä suhdetta. Analysoin, kuinka trilogian ihmishahmot toistuvasti muuntautuvat symbolisesti eläimiksi sekä sitä, kuinka ihmisten kielenkäyttö vaikuttaa heidän suhtautumiseensa eläimiin esimerkiksi eläinmetaforien ja -sanontojen kautta. Väitän myös, että Atwood kumoaa ja toisaalta myös toistaa eläimiin liittyvään kielenkäyttöön kytkeytyviä konventioita. Atwoodin kuvaamat eläinhahmot eivät käsittele ainoastaan trilogiassa esiintyviä hybridiolentoja, vaan keskustelu ihmisten ja eläinten välisestä suhteesta ulottuu myös tosimaailman ilmiöihin. Kuvaamalla paradoksaalista ja monimutkaista suhdettamme toislajisiin eläimiin usein huumorin keinoin Atwood tarkastelee myös eläinsuhteemme vakavia eettisiä ulottuvuuksia ja haastaa lukijoitaan pohtimaan niistä kumpuavia kysymyksiä.
  • Heczko, Vilma (2021)
    Plasmonic catalysis utilises light energy to drive chemical reactions. Compared to conventional catalytic processes, which are run by high temperatures and pressures, light-driven processes can lower energy consumption and increase selectivity. Conventional plasmonic nanoparticles (Ag, Au) are relatively scarce and expensive, and therefore the use of materials with earth-abundant elements in plasmonic catalysis is widely pursued. Despite their good optical properties, plasmonic nanoparticles are often unsuitable catalysts. Hybrid catalysts, structures consisting of a light-harvesting plasmonic part and a catalytical centre of different material, have emerged as an opportunity to address these challenges and obtain desired properties. This thesis consists of two parts: In the first part, properties of plasmonic materials are described, and previous studies of hybrid catalysts with earth-abundant plasmonic materials are reviewed. Experimental work on plasmonic-catalytic nanohybrids, with TiN as the plasmonic part and Pd as the catalytic entity, is described in the second part. In this context, a Pd/TiN (Pd nanoparticles supported into TiN) catalyst was synthesised, characterised and applied to test catalytical reactions. Contrary to the hypothesis, light-induced rate enhancement was not observed in our current catalytical studies. These results call for further optimisation of synthesis and reaction conditions to prepare an earth-abundant, light-active catalyst.
  • Alho, Markku (2016)
    The localized, crustal magnetic fields on the Moon show complex interactions with the impinging solar wind. Understanding these interactions aid in characterizing the lunar plasma and dust environment, in developing advanced remote imaging techniques for airless bodies such as the Moon and Mercury, and in comprehending the basic plasma processes of plasma environments and phenomena on the Hall physics scale. In this work a lunar magnetic anomaly is modeled in the mesoscale of hundreds of kilometers with 100 nT surface field anomaly. A numerical hybrid plasma model is employed, in which ions are treated as fully kinetic macroparticles, with electrons providing a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid. The effects of electron currents in these environments are discussed, and results of the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field conditions on the minimagnetosphere are presented in three cases: Open, closed, nominal. Results for three different impinging solar wind velocities in the nominal case are presented. The results are compared with satellite observations and are found to reproduce observations of proton deceleration and reflection by anti-moonward electric field. The model is shown to reproduce observed ENA emission from the lunar surface, with predictions on solar wind-depentant features. Model development by the author is presented with regards to the convergence and stability of the numerical scheme, especially in terms of dealing with a fast whistler mode. Considerations on the validity of the results are presented, with the conclusion of reasonable confidence in the results, with suggested improvements to the model brought forwards.
  • Mikkola, Meri (2022)
    This study aimed at finding out what kinds of views and experiences Finnish comprehensive and upper secondary school language teachers have on hybrid teaching and what kinds of challenges and benefits teachers have identified related to hybrid teaching. The target group of the study included foreign language teachers who taught in comprehensive school or in upper secondary school in Finland. The method of this study was survey, and an online questionnaire that was written in Finnish was used to collect data. The online questionnaire included three parts: background of teachers, 26 Likert-scale statements on hybrid teaching, and a voluntary questions section that focused on training and other aspects of hybrid teaching. In total, 56 respondents took part in the study. The collection of data took place during February 2022. Data was collected in Facebook groups for language teachers as well as via emails to language teachers. Content analysis was used to analyze and categorize open-ended question data. The findings show that language teachers found the implementation of hybrid teaching to be challenging in comprehensive and upper secondary schools. Especially, lack of training, lack of proper instructions for both teachers and pupils, increase in workload and time used to plan teaching, technical difficulties during the lessons and lack of proper devices in schools, as well as acknowledging both remote and on-site learners simultaneously caused issues. Teachers saw hybrid teaching as beneficial from the viewpoint of remote learners. Through hybrid teaching, remote learners could participate in the lesson, and this then allowed them to stay on track with schoolwork as well as stay in contact with the school. Teachers were of the opinion that hybrid teaching was not suitable for learners in comprehensive school, but that it could be used with older learners. Organizing training, having proper instructions for implementing teaching, having two teachers in the classroom, and having proper devices that function were mentioned as aspects that could make hybrid teaching easier. Further research could focus on university and adult education language teachers’ experiences, in order to compare whether the findings correlate with those of this study.
  • Hukkamäki, Maria (2020)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan demokratian merkityksiä dokumenttiteatteriesityksestä Yhdestoista hetki (2019) luettuna. Tutkielmassa analysoidaan esitysanalyysin keinoin, miten demokratiaa kuvataan ja tuotetaan esityksessä. Dokumenttiteatteri on poliittisen teatterin muoto, joka hyödyntää esitysteksteissään historiallista materiaalia kuten haastatteluja tai asiakirjoja ja muuta dokumentaatiota. Yhdestoista hetki kuvaa ja tuottaa näyttämölle myös tunnelmia ja vaikutelmia aineistoon liittyen. Esitys hyödyntää tragedian ja komedian keinoja sekä draamanjälkeisen nykyteatterin estetiikkaa. Tutkielman yhtenä keskeisenä kiinnostuksen kohteena on esityksen tragedialuonne ja se, miten nykyistä demokratiaa on mahdollista lähestyä tragedian ominaisuuksien läpi nähtynä. Esityksen tunnelmassa on läsnä odotus siitä, että ollaan lähestyvän tuhon partaalla. Esityksestä luettuna näitä tragedian mahdollisuuksia sisältyy siihen, miten kansalaiset ja päättäjät näkevät suhteensa demokratian ihanteeseen ja toteuttamiseen, sekä uusliberalistisen talouspolitiikan suhteessa luonnonvaroihin. Suhde näihin on hybriksen kaltainen. Tämä asenne johtaa kohtalokkaaseen erehdykseen hamartiaan, jonka seurauksena hyvinvointivaltion rakenteita puretaan, yhteiskuntarauha on vaarassa ja luonto alistetaan talouskasvun välineeksi. Näistä seuraa vääjäämätön loppu, katharsis, joka ilmaisee meille kokemuksellisena tietona sen, mihin vallalla olevat yhteiskunnalliset kehityskaaret ovat kulkemassa. Esitys ei kuitenkaan suhtaudu demokratia-aiheeseen pessimistisesti. Analyysin mukaan esitys ehdottaa solidaarisuutta, ylikansallista vastuunkatoa ja taidetta keinoiksi elvyttää demokratiaa ja uudistaa sitä.
  • Turtiainen, Harri (2020)
    A promising Cu-Ni-PGE containing sulphide ore deposit was discovered in 2009 by Anglo American and since the company has continued studies aiming towards utilisation of the deposit. The discovered deposit lies underneath a Natura 2000 protected mire complex, Viiankiaapa, in Sodankylä municipality in Finnish Lapland. The research and exploration activities in the area are performed with mitigation and preventing actions in order to minimize the deterioration impact to the delicate ecosystem. The more detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemistry of the mire environment in its current state can assist: in monitoring, mitigating and preventing of potential environmental effects due to future mining operations as well as planning the monitoring program. Hydrogeochemical studies, consisting of water and peat sampling at eight sampling points, were carried out along a 1.6 km long study line. Water samples were collected from the surface of the mire as well as within the peat layer and the bottom of the peat layer. Water samples were collected using a mini-piezometer. The analyses for the water samples involved: major components, trace elements and δ18O & δ2H. Groundwater influence in the different sampling points as well as different sections of the peat was investigated using the mentioned chemical and isotopic properties. Peat sampling focused on finding samples which would have different hydraulic properties in order to find the influence of peat in the hydrology in the mire. Hydraulic conductivity of peat samples was determined using rigid wall permeameter test setup. The chemical and physical methods were supplemented by a ground penetrating radar survey completed with 30 and 100 MHz antennas. Studies of peat showed that the hydraulic conductivity varies substantially even inside the rather small study area. Widely recognized correlation between hydraulic conductivity and depth was not observed statistically, but the sampling sites individually show a clear connection with depth and hydraulic conductivity. The influence of the hydraulic properties of peat on to the flow of water in the mire was observed to be significant. In cases where the hydraulic conductivity of peat was very low, water flow may be prevented altogether. This was confirmed with the use of chemical analyses. With higher hydraulic conductivity, groundwater influence was seen more or less throughout the peat profile.
  • Ekman, Nicole (2021)
    The energy sector causes a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions annually. Consequently, decarbonization of the energy sector is vital for the EU to reach its target of becoming climate-neutral by 2050. Previously, the focus in the EU has been to push the production of renewable energy, but due to an increasing consensus among stakeholders that renewable energy alone will not be enough, hydrogen has become a viable option for energy sector decarbonization. This puts the focus on policy instruments available to facilitate this energy transition and thereby, the aim of the thesis is to analyze how hydrogen guarantees of origin as a policy instrument can support energy sector decarbonization and what the challenges related thereto are. Before analyzing the research question itself, the anticipated role of hydrogen in energy sector decarbonization is established by a review of relevant EU policy. The review shows that hydrogen, particularly renewable hydrogen, is expected to play a significant role in energy sector decarbonization, especially in hard-to-abate sectors, alongside with renewable energy. This emerging European hydrogen economy is policy-driven and currently guided by the EU hydrogen strategy and its roadmap with action points for upcoming years. The scale-up of hydrogen will require the successful adoption of several policy instruments simultaneously, and hydrogen guarantees of origin is recognized as a key policy instrument. Briefly, guarantees of origin enable both governments and end users of hydrogen to know the quality and origin of it. Furthermore, guarantees of origin make it possible to track the total CO2 emissions caused by hydrogen and thereby, determine where the use of hydrogen is effective. A review of guarantees of origin in the context of the EU shows that the guarantees of origin market for renewable energy is already quite well-established and in the midst of expanding towards hydrogen as the demand for hydrogen guarantees of origin is expected to grow. With regards to regulation, RED II has extended its applicability to renewable gases, including renewable hydrogen. In terms of hydrogen guarantees of origin schemes, it can be noted that different schemes are beginning to emerge, the CertifHy scheme currently being the most prominent one in the EU. However, the landscape for hydrogen guarantees of origin schemes and standards is currently fragmented, which is foreseen to become an issue for the emerging hydrogen market if not resolved. Some of the main differences among available hydrogen guarantees of origin schemes and standards relate to hydrogen terminology, the type of hydrogen supported, the threshold, greenhouse gas emission accounting and chain of custody, all of which can have an impact on how well a hydrogen guarantees of origin system supports the trade of renewable and/or low-carbon hydrogen and simultaneously energy sector decarbonization. The findings of a comparison of the EU and Australia indicate that lack of harmonization with regards to hydrogen guarantees of origin is not only an issue within the EU, but a challenge with regards to international trade of hydrogen as well. Lack of harmonization between the hydrogen guarantees of origin system adopted in the EU, with Member States as importing countries, and exporting countries such as Australia could result in reduced interoperability and efficiency of the global hydrogen market and technical barriers to the trade of hydrogen if not resolved. All in all, there is a pressing need for clear policy guidelines with regards to hydrogen guarantees of origin, which also has been noted by several EU bodies or institutions and other stakeholders. The European Commission is expected to elaborate on its currently vague standpoint later in 2021. These upcoming policy guidelines regarding hydrogen guarantees of origin, together with other policy instruments, will likely support energy sector decarbonization and harmonization within the EU, and potentially internationally, if designed duly while balancing competing interests and taking other relevant aspects into consideration. The key trade-offs and considerations are recognized to be: the economic impact of the hydrogen guarantees of origin system, the political aspect of hydrogen guarantees of origin, work already conducted with regards to hydrogen guarantees of origin, the relationship between hydrogen guarantees of origin and other policy measures and support schemes for hydrogen as well as the international aspect of hydrogen guarantees of origin.
  • Lahtinen, Tatu (2017)
    In 2011, Anglo American Sakatti Mining Oy published an ore discovery in Sodankylä, Finnish Lapland. The rich Ni-Cu-PGE orebody, named Sakatti ore, is partially underlying Viiankiaapa-mire’s Natura 2000 protection area. This sets additional challenges for the utilization of the resource without compromising the fragile nature of the area. To estimate the impacts of possible future mining operations, the complex hydrochemical and hydrogeochemical conditions at Viiankiaapa must be well understood. Most water samples from the research area show a chemical composition close to the natural Finnish groundwater composition Ca–HCO3. However, in four groundwater observation wells, located south from Kiimakuusikko, Na–HCO3 type waters were detected. These sites were GA300 (8.26 ppm of Na), GA202 (17.34 ppm of Na), GA202 deep (15.23 ppm of Na) and GA201 (7.92 ppm of Na). Source for the anomaly is likely lithological due to lack of chloride in the samples. One possible source could be weathering of albite to kaolinite. Albite is hosted in the breccia unit, located close to the site. Albite-kaolinite weathering could release Na+ ions into the surrounding soil solution, which would provide a source for the high sodium concentrations. Kitinen river shows slightly higher Al, Li and Cu contents compared to other waters from the research area. This could possibly be used to distinguish river water from groundwater at sites where river water infiltrates the groundwater system. On the other side, Na, K and DSi have higher concentrations in groundwaters compared to surface waters. This could make them useful groundwater indicators. Sakattioja and the other smaller streams draining the mire, are characterized by very high isotope values, low amounts of DSi and low EC. These characteristics likely reflect the hydrogeochemistry of the water on the surface of the mire. The hydrogeochemical similarity of these streams is also highlighted by the hierarchical cluster analysis, where the samples from these sites form a clear cluster of their own. Stable isotope results are mixed and difficult to interpret. The most striking features are the low values observed at the mire near Kiimakuusikko and the high values observed in Sakattioja. Many groundwater samples show signs of evaporated source water component or re-infiltration of surface waters. This could be due to water from the mire infiltrating the groundwater system and then re-emerging in the observation wells and springs close to Kitinen. Overall, based on the results, the hydrogeochemistry at the research area can be considered to be very complex. The samples represent multiple different water compositions residing in poorly connected groundwater and surface water systems. This makes interpreting the results particularly difficult and is also reflected in the statistical analyzes which produce somewhat mixed results.
  • Jalava, Linda (2016)
    University of Helsinki, precisely the Department of Geology and Geography installed a groundwater station on Lammi Biological Station, to be used for academic research and education purposes. The main principle of this study was to collect basic properties of the soil and groundwater circumstances on the site and to test the main functions of the groundwater station. The groundwater station includes six groundwater monitoring wells, installed in January 2015. To describe the groundwater circumstances as widely as possible, the wells were installed on places where groundwater both recharges and discharges. Soil samples were collected and a field estimation of the layer order was made during the installation of the wells. Grain size distribution and hydraulic conductivity were defined in the laboratory and multiple other hydraulic conductivity measurements of the soil were made in the field. Also groundwater samples were collected and the chemical composition of the water examined. Besides elevated concentration of iron, manganese and uranium the quality of the groundwater was good. pH-values were close to neutral, alkalinity normal and electrical conductivity low. There was a regional variation in the quality. Continuous measurement devices were installed to the monitoring wells in June 2015, to follow the temperature, groundwater level and in one of the wells electrical conductivity. This data was followed from the early summer to the next spring, to receive versatile data due to climate factors. Groundwater level seems to react to the amount of precipitation. Similar variation pattern were noticed in the groundwater levels in all of the wells. An estimation of groundwater table, bedrock surface and soil thickness were made using data from this and the earlier studies. The soil on the site consists for the most of stony sand till overlaid by 1 – 4 meter thick layer of fine sediment. The hydraulic conductivity and grain size distribution of till variated largely even in the same spot. The hydraulic conductivity variated between 4,8 * 10-6 – 1,0 * 10-1 ms-1, normal values from silt to gravel. The groundwater table is situated without exception in the till layer, thus its thickness and depth variates regionally. The site was divided in two zones based on the contours, field observations and old and new drilling data.
  • Bigler, Paula (2019)
    Viiankiaapa mire, located in the municipality of Sodankylä, has drawn public attention after mining company, AA Sakatti Mining Oy published their discovery in 2011. The discovered Ni-Cu-PGE ore deposit, Sakatti, is located mainly under the Natura 2000 protected Viiankiaapa. Viiankiaapa is Natura 2000 protected due to the several natural habitat types and plant species one of these, H. vernicosus is known to thrive at the areas of groundwater influence. The Sakatti deposit is in exploration phase but it is possible that mining will start in future. Knowing the hydrogeology of the area is crucial for preventing possible negative changes if the mining starts. In this study the objectives were to study 1) the influence of groundwater at the western margin of Viiankiaapa, 2) the influence of Sakatti ore deposit to the hydrogeochemistry of the area, 3) the influence of hydrology and hydrogeochemistry to the endangered H. vernicosus species. The sampling was done in September and October 2016, March and April 2017 and continued in summer 2017. Samples were collected from surface water of the mire, groundwater, spring water as well as from different depth of peat pore water using mini-piezometer. EC, pH, temperature, stable isotopes, DSi, main ions, trace elements and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were analyzed. The groundwater influence was visible at the area of Lake Viiankijärvi and Särkikoskenmaa fluvial sediment deposit. Depth profiles of stable isotopes and main ions indicated groundwater flow in deep peat layer and mixing with surface water as the groundwater flow upwards through the peat layer. At the Sakatti ore deposit area the isotopic composition of surface water samples represented mainly season’s precipitation with few exceptions. Possible groundwater discharge was visible at the area between Sakatti main deposit and River Kitinen as well as near Pahanlaaksonmaa. The isotopic chemistry of spring water samples at the bend of River Kitinen had values of mixed groundwater and surface water. It is likely that the mire water infiltrates through the peat layer and fluvial sediments and discharges to the springs and River Kitinen. The bedrock of the area is known to be weathered, which could explain surface water like isotope values in springs and in some of the bedrock groundwater observation wells. Positive correlation was found between H. vernicosus ecosystems and the depth of peat. A ribbon-shaped zone of habitats and 2 – 4 m thick peat layer crosses the mire. The correlation with groundwater discharge was not clear. Ca and Mg concentrations were smaller but pH and alkalinity were higher at the areas of H. vernicosus ecosystems. However the Ca and Mg concentrations resembled areal spring water chemistry, which could indicate groundwater influence. Areas without the ecosystems are located mainly near the Sakatti ore deposit. The influence of the deposit in hydrogeochemistry was locally visible as elevated electric conductivity, main ion and trace element concentrations of the surface water and peat pore water. This most likely explains why the areas without the ecosystems had higher element concentrations.
  • Koivisto, Sara (2022)
    Viljat ja palkokasvit ovat merkittäviä proteiininlähteitä ja tärkeitä kestävämmän ruokavalion ja ruokaturvan edistämisessä. Lipidejä muokkaavat entsyymit voivat kuitenkin aiheuttaa virhemakuja prosessoinnin ja varastoinnin aikana. Peroksigenaasi (POX) on entsyymi, joka katalysoi tyydyttymättömien rasvahappojen muutosta epoksi- ja hydroksirasvahapoiksi, joista osa on maultaan karvaita. POX:in toiminta on toistaiseksi huonosti tunnettua, mutta sen on havaittu olevan melko lämmönkestävä, joten perinteiset lämpökäsittelyt eivät välttämättä riitä sen inaktivointiin. Erityisesti kaurassa on havaittu POX-aktiivisuutta. On epäselvää, kuinka suuri merkitys tällä on kauran laatuun ja aistinvaraisiin ominaisuuksiin. Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia, miten kauran ja härkäpavun POX-aktiivisuus vaikuttaa syntyvien epoksi- ja hydroksirasvahappojen pitoisuuksiin varastoinnin aikana. Lisäksi tutkittiin lämpökäsittelyjen vaikutusta POX-aktiivisuuteen. Tavoitteena oli myös kehittää menetelmää trihydroksihappojen määritykseen sopivaksi. POX-aktiivisuudet määritettiin eri tavoin lämpökäsitellyistä kaura- ja härkäpapunäytteistä. Aktiivisuudet määritettiin kaasukromatografisesti entsyymiuutteista epoksidinmuodostukseen perustuen. Neljä kauranäytettä ja kaksi härkäpapunäytettä, joilla kaikilla oli erilainen POX-jäännösaktiivisuus, valittiin varastointikokeeseen. Epoksi- ja hydroksihapot määritettiin korkean erotuskyvyn nestekromatografilla ja valonsirontadetektorilla 0, 1, 2 ja 3 kk aikapisteissä ja tunnistettiin massaspektrometrin avulla. Lämpökäsittelyt eivät inaktivoineet POX:ia kokonaan. Aktiivisuus lämpökäsitellyissä kauranäytteissä ennen varastointia oli 0,05–0,40 µmol g-1 min-1. Lähtömateriaalin POX-aktiivisuus ei merkittävästi vaikuttanut syntyvien hapettumistuotteiden pitoisuuksiin. Varastoinnin lopussa lämpökäsittelemättömässä kaurajauhossa epoksi- ja hydroksihappoja oli 548 ± 69 µg/g ja lämpökäsitellyissä näytteissä 251–334 µg/g. Eniten havaittiin 13-hydroksi-9,11-oktadekadieenihappoa, 9-hydroksi-10,12-oktadekadieenihappoa ja 9,10-epoksioktadekaanihappoa. Trihydroksihappoja havaittiin lämpökäsitellyissä kauranäytteissä, mikä saattaa viitata entsyymin hetkelliseen aktivoitumiseen lämpökäsittelyn aikana. Epoksi- ja hydroksirasvahappojen pitoisuudet lämpökäsitellyissä näytteissä olivat melko pieniä, joten vaikutus aistinvaraiseen laatuun on todennäköisesti pieni. Trihydroksihappojen vaikutusta kauran aistinvaraiseen laatuun olisi kuitenkin hyödyllistä tutkia lisää. Härkäpavussa POX-aktiivisuus oli vähäistä (0,01–0,05 µmol g-1 min-1) ja hapettuneita rasvahappoja syntyi alle 40 µg/g.
  • Welsh, Shawna (2013)
    The largest wetland drainage project in Michigan was initiated in 1912 near the town of Seney in the eastern Upper Peninsula. This project included the construction of a series of drainage ditches intended to prepare the land for agricultural use. The largest of these ditches was the 35 km-long Walsh Ditch. Much of the drained wetland affected by the Walsh Ditch is now managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as part of Seney National Wildlife Refuge (Seney NWR). Starting in 2002, a series of earthen ditch plugs were installed along the length of the ditch found within Seney NWR (and adjacent to the Seney Wilderness Area) in an attempt to restore the hydrology and ecological integrity to the affected wetlands and streams. The plugs North of C-3 Pool were completed in 2002. The ditch plugs South of C-3 Pool were completed in 2005. This study explores the effect of the ditch plugs on the hydrology and vegetation structure in the adjacent landscape north of C-3 Pool at multiple scales. Plot level measurements of hydrology and vegetation, combined with an analysis of landcover change over the entire study area, indicate that some areas are converting from artificial upland communities created by wetland drainage to more natural wetland community types. Mortality of upland tree species and colonization by typical wetland species are good indications that these sites will continue to develop into wetland ecosystems over time. However, some areas have shown no response to the hydrologic restoration. This is expected, as areas of the landscape were upland (referred to as “pine islands” in the literature) before Walsh Ditch and should remain so as natural hydrology is restored to the area. Landcover change analysis showed a decrease in open water of 90.82 ha, a decrease of upland area of 67.88 ha and an increase in wetland area of 151.88 ha. The areas of change were concentrated around stream channels and in the area just east of Walsh Ditch. With time, it is possible that areas further removed from the ditch will show a shift towards more natural hydrology and vegetation composition, but for the areas furthest removed from the ditch this may require active management.
  • Ahonen, Veronica (2019)
    Permafrost peatlands have the capacity to store significant amounts of carbon, and thus they act as important controllers of the climate. Approximately 14% of the world’s soil organic carbon pool is stored in permafrost peatlands, which are sensitive to climatic fluctuations due to their location in the high latitudes of the subarctic zone. Permafrost peatlands also act as a habitat for a large number of moisture-sensitive organisms, such as bryophytes and testate amoebae, which can be used to study how the hydrology of peatlands has changed and will continue to change throughout time, giving us an opportunity to predict the future of peatlands under a changing climate. In this Master’s Thesis I examined the testate amoebae composition and used these species as indicators to study hydrological fluctuations from three subarctic permafrost peatland cores extracted from Taavavuoma and Abisko in northern Sweden. The species compositions were combined with radiocarbon (14C) and lead (210Pb) dates to reconstruct the past water table levels for the late Holocene, spanning four climatic periods. The reconstructions were then compared to past studies on testate amoebae to understand how permafrost peatlands and their species assemblages respond to changes in the hydrology of the active layer of the peat. Out of the study sites only the Taavavuoma cores spanned the Dark Age Cold Period (DACP) and Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Species compositions in both cores indicated fluctuating water tables during the DACP, but during the MCA the results began to contradict with one site showing a wetter, and the other a drier MCA. Two out of three study sites indicated a wetter Little Ice Age and a drier Post-Industrial Warming, supporting past studies indicating similar results, whereas one study site gave opposite results. The results indicated large variability in testate amoebae assemblages throughout time, indicating that the hydrology of peatlands can change very abruptly and vary considerably even on a local scale. Modelling is however complicated by the poorly known ecology of testate amoebae, which is why a multi-proxy approach is essential to reliably predict the future fate of permafrost peatlands.
  • Boxström, Agneta (2021)
    Abstract: Northern boreal peatlands form one of the biggest carbon pools in the biosphere, thus having great potential to cause major changes to the global carbon cycle. The ongoing recent warming may affect the carbon dynamics though factors, such as, vegetation, hydrology and permafrost balance. As the future is still uncertain there are no definitive answers on how the peatlands will react in the future. Fortunately, moisture sensitive organisms such as, bryophytes and testate amoeba is preserved in the peat and can therefore be used to reconstruct past climatic shifts. In this thesis I studied palaeohydrology and peat accumulation over the last two millennia, from three peat cores originating in a permafrost peatland in Rogovaya, Russia. I used testate amoeba as a proxy of past moisture conditions and plotted the taxa composition of each core against 14C and 210Pb dated samples, to reconstruct past moisture shifts. The results were also supplemented by plant macrofossil and carbon accumulation data for more robust results. Of the three cores, Rog11 provided the oldest testate amoeba dataset by reaching the Dark Ages Cold Period. During this period there were indications of dry moisture conditions followed by a wet Medieval Warm Period. The Little Ice Age gave indications of a drying trend, while toward the end of the LIA Rog8 indicated opposite moisture conditions. From the end of the LIA onwards a general trend of drying and increased carbon accumulated is noted. Yet, during the last decade the trend has turned. The wet shift might indicate that the threshold for the peatland has been reached and the amount of melting permafrost has exceeded the evapotranspiration rate. As a conclusion my result indicates that the dynamics of both hydrology and carbon are complicated processes affected by both autogenic and allogenic factors, therefore causing large variability even on a local scale. The absence of widely spread observations of the most recent wet shift also indicates that the response of the peatland to the recent warming might be unequal. To rectify this situation, continued research is crucial, so that we can increase our understanding of climate-peatland interactions.
  • Rautiainen, Oona (2013)
    This piece of research scrutinizes the relationship between the Grand Renaissance Dam project and the struggling Nile cooperation. It incorporates the themes of transboundary river disputes and power asymmetries within regional cooperation into a qualitative case study in order to achieve a better understanding of the hydro-political situation at the Nile Basin. It approaches the issue through qualitative content analysis of 35 interviews and uses the framework of hydro-hegemony as a theoretical explanatory tool to help in the analysis of its findings. The study analyses the different issues, processes and dynamics related to the Dam project through the different factors of presented in the framework of hydro-hegemony and counter hegemonic act presented by Mark Zeitoun and Ana Cascao. The framework states that the balance of power is the factor that ultimately determines how the riparian states interact over shared resource. The framework assumes that the overall goal of each riparian is to maximize their objectives with the certain resource through control. The control can be achieved through different and strategies. The study confirms the current view rising from the recent research literature that the Nile river basin offers an example of hydro-hegemonic power structures in a transboundary river context. There is a clear asymmetry in power relations between the riparian states which can be seen in power dynamics and in all the aspects of cooperation. The outcome of hydro-hegemony at the Nile basin can be seen in the tension between the riparian states and unequal water distribution. The most downstream riparian state Egypt has been able to establish a consolidated control over the waters of the Nile for decades but through the political changes in the region the control has been contested. One of the main results of this study is to give confirmation to the view that the hydropolitical relations at the basin are in constant transformation mostly due to the increased the bargaining power of the upstream riparian states. At the moment three main challenges are characterizing the Nile cooperation. Firstly the question of CFA was seen by most of the informants as one of the main challenges in the Nile cooperation. Secondly the issue of water allocations was brought up as the most difficult matter to solve before reaching an agreement. Thirdly the environment of mistrust and misknowledge is seen as seriously hindering the cooperation. In addition to the factors which are challenging and hindering the Nile cooperation, the study presented other types of developments which describe the current state of the Nile cooperation. Those observations can be summarized to five factors which are: change in regional power dynamics, the rise of emerging new actors, the frustration of the traditional international donors, clear upstream vs. downstream dualism and the rise of unilateral action. This study states that the main challenges of the Nile cooperation are the main points of contradiction also in the case of the Grand Renaissance Dam project. It concludes that before reaching a permanent legal and institutional framework to the region the issue of water security and water allocations must be redefined and the lack of trust between the countries must be alleviated.
  • Ullgren, Aki (2013)
    The Rautuoja deposit lies at the contact of the ca. 1.86 Ga Haparanda Group Monzonite-Diorite intrusions and the Savukoski Group supracrustal rocks. The deposit is adjacent to the SSW-NNE trending shear zone that is a part of the Kolari-Pajala shear structure. The deposit consists of disseminated type Fe-Cu-Au mineralization. The deposit also contains skarn-hosted magnetite lenses and bands. The hanging wall rocks consist of monzonites and hydrothermally altered diorites and the footwall rocks consist of hydrothermally altered metavolcanic rocks. The deposit also contains strongly albitized rocks, referred to as albitites. The deposit also contains quartz veins that are located in the proximal ore zone. The quartz veins have correlation with the Au and Cu grades.The main oxide mineral in the deposit is magnetite, and the main sulphide minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. Native gold can be found with pyrite and chalcopyrite. Rock types associated with the Rautuoja deposit are categorized to five different lithologies: monzonite, diorite, albitite, skarn and amphibolite. The main alteration minerals in the Rautuoja deposit are albite, magnetite, biotite, clinoamphiboles (tremolite, actinolite, hornblende), potassium feldspar, quartz and sulphides (chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite). Minor alteration minerals include apatite, titanite, chlorite, carbonate, epidote, andradite and hematite. Alteration textures are variable and primary textures are destroyed mostly due intense alteration. Hydrothermal alteration in the Rautuoja IOCG deposit consists of sodic, potassic, calcic-iron, silicic and late calcic alteration stages. Primary rock types in the Rautuoja deposit were distinguished by Zr-TiO2, Zr-Al2O3 and TiO2- Al2O3 ratios. Textural-based protolith recognition is controversial because the alteration has destroyed most of the primary textures in the host rocks. The trend that can be distinguished in the immobile element ratios indicates different origins for the diorite and monzonite in the Rautuoja IOCG deposit. Immobile element ratios indicate that the diorite has similar composition to the type-2 metavolcanic rock found in the Hannukainen IOCG-deposit.
  • Huotari, Edna (2022)
    Hygiene as a phenomenon is constantly present in our lives but it is rarely questioned. This thesis explores the concept of hygiene as a large-scale, social phenomenon and as a tool of oppression. My approach stems from the tradition of critical theory, and therefore in this thesis I define hygiene as form of ideology and employ ideology critique to criticise it. I argue that hygiene is a form of abjection meaning that it is a tool to create boundaries between members of a certain group and others. Additionally, hygiene functions as a positive technology of power, since its practice is connected to striving towards the ideal of normalcy and it is enforced by individuals repeating hygienic practices. Hygiene creates hierarchies between different groups of people, because it categorizes some groups as cleaner or healthier than others. These categories have moral and political dimensions and therefore hygiene can create oppressive structures. To define hygiene as a form of ideology, I explore the discussion concerning the different definitions of ideology. Within my framework of critical theory, ideology is always something pejorative. I divide the main challenges that one faces when defining ideology into two: the normative and the epistemic challenges. The normative challenge asks why we should be concerned with ideology from a normative point of view: How is it harmful for us? The epistemic challenge is concerned with the falsity of ideology and the possibility of gaining knowledge, if ideology is something that can cloud our epistemic judgement. I argue that a solution to these challenges can be found in the definition of ideology formulated by Theodor W. Adorno. This definition claims that ideology is a form of identity thinking: A system where we falsely think that we are perceiving objects as they are. This is never the case, since our way of thinking is conceptual and therefore we always see things through concepts. Ideology as identity thinking creates concepts affected by our current economic structure. We falsely assume that they are accurately describing the world. This limits our view of what is and what could be. The solution to this is negative dialectics, a system of critique which contrasts the potential of concepts with how they are in the world. Through the negation of our conditions and their ideal concepts, we can see objects as constellations: as things constructed from pieces of history, societal and economic structures etc. From this perspective we can critique our current conditions. The main conclusion of the thesis is that hygiene can be used as a tool of oppression because it is a form of ideology. Ideology as identity thinking describes hygiene successfully, because hygiene functions through identifying particulars under its concepts. This can be oppressive since some of its concepts, like unhealthy, dirty and so on, are derogatory and therefore create hierarchies between groups of people. Because hygiene is a form of ideology, i.e. a form of identity thinking, negative dialectics should be used to critique and change its oppressive forms.