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Browsing by Subject "Formalization"

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  • Teräväinen, Venla (2021)
    Water interaction at cellular level has been investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood section of acetylated and paraformaldehyde-treated woodblocks. Unmodified wood samples were used as reference samples. Acetyl group from acetic anhydride bounded to H of OH sorption site whereas paraformaldehyde bound to the sorption site and also create a cross-linking. Both mechanisms cause hindrance towards the accessibility of available sorption site but up to what extent which is unknown. With our designed approach, we can estimate the moisture uptake in both treatments. Knowledge of the cellular level changes is important to define wood physical properties. Wood is hygroscopic material which tend to reach to equilibrium moisture content. It causes dimensional instability and fungal degradation. The number of accessible OH sites correlates with wood’s ability to uptake moisture. Acetyl and methyl groups occupy the accessible sorption sites and limit the availability of free sites. Gravimetrical estimation of the available OH sites can relate to the effect of cross-linking and hindrance towards water molecules. Both modification methods reduced the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and the sorption hysteresis. Maximum WPG of acetylation (17%) reduced 15.63% moisture content (MC). Maximum formalization WPG (7,5%) reduced 15.09% MC. Acetylation reduced water sorption through the relative humidity (RH) range 0-95%, whereas formalization reduced water sorption steadily, but only above 20% RH. This difference was caused by the cross-linking, which increased the stiffness of the cell wall polymers. The shape of sorption hysteresis was similar in all the samples. Still, formalization reached the maximum hysteresis at a lower point related to the other samples. Accessible sorption sites also reduced by modifications. Acetylated wood reduced the greatest amount of OH groups according to its high WPG value, 16%. The reduction of OH accessibility was steady with acetylation. In formalization, the reduction of accessible sorption sites was rapid and constant. With our developed method, we can precisely investigate the OH accessibility of both treatments, which can reveal the fundamental aspect of water uptake related to its structural changes at the cellular level.