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Browsing by Subject "psykologinen ahdinko"

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  • Järvenpää, Juulia (2021)
    Among the clients of social work, the people who have traumatic experiences are more common than in the general population. In the recent years MDMA, also known by its street name ecstasy, has been studied for treating posttraumatic stress disorder, with promising results. As the research goes on, it is possible that some people turn to MDMA for the purpose of treating their own traumas by themselves. Social workers should be able to evaluate realistically the risks and potential benefits of such behavior, and also think about the problems of the current prohibition and punishment-based drug laws in terms of human rights. If MDMA-assisted therapies become a legal treatment option, social workers should know how to assist and guide their clients in case they wish to engage in such treatment. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted a breakthrough status to psilocybin (a psychedelic compound found in some mushroom species) and MDMA-assisted psychotherapies. This means that the preliminary results have been so promising it is possible to make these treatments available faster, in case the further research provides results as good as the previous research. Currently phase 3 studies are ongoing. Lately there have also been discussions about whether these substances are dangerous or even beneficial outside the clinical context. Multiple studies have been done on psychedelics regarding this matter, and the researchers have found out that lifetime use of psychedelics is associated with reduced risk for mental health problems and suicidality instead of increased risk. A similar investigation has not yet been done to the same extent on MDMA. The purpose of this analysis is to fill the void in the research regarding MDMA and find out whether MDMA use is linked to increased likelihood of past month psychological distress, measured by K6 scale, and past year suicidality, defined as suicidal thoughts, suicide plans and suicide attempts. The dataset used for this study is National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from the years 2016–2019. The data of NSDUH is collected via randomized selection of a representative population of the US. The main method of the analysis is multivariate logistic regression. Among the lifetime use of MDMA and other drugs, also the effects of recency have been investigated. The weighted odds ratios were compared to the odds ratios of other drug use groups. Based on the results of this analysis, MDMA use was not associated with increased likelihoods of past month psychological distress or past year suicidality, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, risk-taking tendency and other illicit/non-medical drug use. Instead, lifetime use of MDMA was associated in most of the models to decreased likelihood of the predicted variables. The odds ratios of MDMA groups were smaller than the odds ratios for other substances in almost every model. Among the other substances, the results of psilocybin were the closest to the results of MDMA. The study suggests that the increased risk for mental health problems and suicidality among the people who use MDMA is likely to be more linked to other drug use than specifically to MDMA use. This analysis does not suggest that MDMA would be an independent risk factor for psychological distress or suicidality.