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Browsing by Subject "psykologinen kehitys"

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  • Malin, Julia (2018)
    Goals. Biological basis of temperament is formed during fetal period. Inflammation-related states during pregnancy, such as psychosocial stress or neonatal complications, are associated with childhood temperament. Moreover, maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with offspring’s adverse psychological development. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a clinical marker of inflammation. To date, no studies have examined the association between CRP and infant temperament. This study explores association between maternal and cord blood CRP and childhood temperament. Methods. This study used data from the VIDI (Children’s D-vitamin research). The sample consisted of 841 mothers. Infant temperament was assessed at the age of one year using IBQ-R (Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire). CRP levels were measured during early pregnancy and/or from the umbilical cord at birth. Associations between maternal and cord blood CRP and temperament were examined using regression analysis with confounding variables. CRP concentration was examined as a continuous and as a categorical variable. High CRP level cut-points were CRP>10 mg/l for maternal and CRP≥0.09 μg/ml for cord blood CRP. Results and conclusions. CRP during early pregnancy was not related to temperament after adjustment for confounding factors. Elevated levels of cord blood CRP predicted lower negative emotionality and higher soothability. These results suggest a link between cord blood CRP and biological basis of temperament. These findings support previously discovered links between inflammation-related states during pregnancy and childhood temperament. In addition, the findings provide further insight into etiology of psychiatric disorders.
  • Mantere, Selena (2016)
    Goals: Earlier studies have shown that a low concentration of prenatal vitamin D is associated with child's psychological well-being. The connection between prenatal vitamin D level and, for example, eating disorders and neurocognitive development has been shown to exist. Child's temperament has shown to predict later mental health. It is commonly believed that temperament has roots in fetal period. However, there is no earlier research on the connection between prenatal vitamin D level and child's temperament. The goal of this study is to examine whether or not such a connection exists. Methods. This research is part of a Helsinki University Children's Vitamin D Intervention Study (VIDI). The material for VIDI has been gathered between January 2013 and June 2014 in Kätilöopisto Maternity Hospital in Helsinki. Current study includes participants with information on prenatal vitamin D levels and on maternal rated temperament at the age of one year (Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R)) (n=839). The connection between prenatal vitamin D level and the superfactors of the temperament dimensions were examined with regression analysis with confounding variables (child's gender, mother's maternal smoking habits, mother's education, marital status, age and BMI before pregnancy). The superfactors are Surgency/Extraversion, Negative Affectivity and Regulatory/Orienting. Prenatal vitamin D level was treated as a continuous and a dichotomous variable. Vitamin D levels were measured in early and late points of pregnancy, and categories low and high were created accordingly. Cut-points for categories were ≤ 73.70 nmol/L in the early point and ≤ 59.70 nmol/L in the latter point. Also, the association between the change in prenatal vitamin D level-or it staying low during pregnancy-with the superfactors of child's temperament was examined. Results and conclusions. Vitamin D level (25(OH)D) in the early-pregnancy was associated with child's negative emotionality: a higher vitamin D level predicted a lower negative emotionality score at the age of one year when examined as a continuous variable. The connection remained statistically significant after controlling for confounding variables. Vitamin D level in early pregnancy was not associated with any other superfactors of temperament. Moreover, early-pregnancy vitamin D categories were not associated with any temperament superfactors. Prenatal vitamin D level in late pregnancy was not related to temperament superfactors, measured either as a continuous or as dichotomous variable. Also, the change in prenatal vitamin D level, or it remaining in the low category in both measuring points, had no statistically significant associations with the superfactors of child's temperament. The results are in line with the earlier findings that vitamin D level-especially in early pregnancy-is associated with the child's psychological development. The functional mechanism of vitamin D level in early pregnancy is believed to be based especially on the sensitivity periods of the prenatal development of a brain. It is possible that a low prenatal vitamin D level modifies temperament through the development of the brain-which affects disorders of psychological development. In this case, temperament can account for at least a part of the connections that have already been found between prenatal vitamin D level and psychological development. This gives important knowledge of the origin of psychological disorders.