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Browsing by Subject "sustainable livelihoods"

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  • Bleyer, Maja (2015)
    The low population density and consequent high land availability in Niassa, Mozambique have attracted foreign private forest investments. Since 2005 forest companies have acquired the right to establish forest plantations in the area, which naturally affects the livelihoods in communities located close by. This study aimed to analyse the impact of forest plantations on the livelihood and wealth of local communities. The main objectives were the evaluation of impacts on natural resources, livelihood strategies and differences in the experienced impacts between different wealth groups. With these objectives, household interviews, focus group meetings and key informant interviews were held in five different villages in the province of Niassa. With principal component analysis (PCA) weights for valuable assets possessed by households were created and summed up to a factor score. On the basis of these scores the households were divided into three wealth groups, which were used to analyse differences in the perception of different groups of households. The main analysis of the perception of impacts on the natural resources, livelihood strategies and overall livelihood was carried out with binomial and multinomial logistic regression models. The results showed that while the natural capitals were impacted negatively by the establishment of forest plantations, households benefited from more diversified livelihood strategies. Furthermore, it was discovered that the wealth of a household does not have a major impact on the perception of impacts of a household. Instead relocation of farm plots and formal employment have been identified as determining factors. The study showed that the perception of the impacts differs greatly between the villages due to different initial resource endowment and different forest companies. Throughout the study it became evident that the weak implementation of land use rights is an underlying cause for many conflicts between companies and local communities.
  • Tomankova, Hana (2018)
    The tourism industry has a big impact on world economies since it is a leading sector in employment. The big growth of the tourism industry since 1950s brought many problems to destinations. Mass tourism caused overuse of local resources which has led to environmental degradation in destinations. In order to stop the overexploitation of destinations, sustainable development and further sustainable tourism development concepts have been created. Implementation of sustainable tourism development should ensure environmental, economic, social and cultural sustainability of destinations. However, this concept is defined vaguely, and it lacks specificity, and therefore, it allows many different interpretations of its application. This case study is located in Sade village on Lombok island in Indonesia. It is focused on exploring the impact of tourism development on sustainability of local livelihoods. Livelihood sustainability is analyzed through the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework for Tourism to which was added cultural capital as a livelihood asset since cultural capital has a big impact on sustaining traditional livelihoods. The TALC model is also used to analyze stages of tourism development in said location. Finally, the discourse of tourism sustainability is examined in the location. The results show that currently tourism is an additional livelihood activity to farming, which is a main livelihood activity of the local community. Thus, tourism serves as a diversification tool of local livelihoods; therefore, local livelihoods are sustainable over a long term. However, further findings indicate that this situation might not last long, since big governmental tourism development interventions are ongoing. Foreign direct investment, which is part of this intervention can have negative impact on local livelihoods and can break established ties between local people and tourists. Massive tourism development that includes construction of the Mandalika all-inclusive resort will exclude the majority of the local population from involvement. Furthermore, tourists staying in this resort will have no need to go outside the resort, thus; local community will not profit from this type of tourism in the future. Furthermore, this study reveals the impact of tourism development on the economic situation of the local population, which is improving due to tourism activities. On the other hand, negative impacts are visible on culture, such as acculturation and cultural commodification phenomena, and in the environment, where landscape transformation and land grabbing are taking place. This tourism development cannot be labelled as sustainable, since local people are not involved in any stage of the tourism process, environment is being slowly degraded and cultural and social impacts are extensive. Local population is considered in governmental tourism development only on paper but not in reality. This qualitative research was conducted in Sade village among Sasak population on Lombok island. The data were collected during one month visit at the beginning of the year 2017 through 20 semi-structured interviews, supported by informal conversations and participant observations. The data was transcribed and analyzed together with field diary through qualitative content analysis.