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Cow manure and biowaste as a biogas substrate : a review

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Title: Cow manure and biowaste as a biogas substrate : a review
Author(s): Zhao, Chuanhui
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences
Degree program: Master's Programme in Agricultural Sciences
Specialisation: Agrotechnology
Language: English
Acceptance year: 2020
The research of this thesis was focused on anaerobic digestion of cow manure mixed with different types of biowaste, especially those material that are available in Finland. The research was conducted by search, collection, and analysis of different data in literature. Topic of the thesis was predetermined by the Co-Creation Lab project of Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science (HELSUS), which was seeking solution to achieve carbon neutral cow milk production. The solution was co-approached by three participants conducting thesis from technological, economical, and legislative points of view, in which I was responsible for writing mainly the technological part, and general findings in economic efficiency and legislative terms by the other two co-creators were also included in this thesis. The research was mainly related with the whole cycle of biogas production, including basics about anaerobic digestion (AD), applications of the biogas and digestate as a product and by-product of AD. Substrates for AD were researched with a focus to find the best combination of cow manure (CM) and biowaste in regard with methane yield outcome, especially a mixture of CM and silage waste that suits the cow farming situation in Finland. Methane yields for mono-digestion of various types of biowaste and co-digestion of CM with different biomass were collected and analyzed. Premises for biogas plant establishment were researched briefly, including facility composition, and consideration of feasibility and raw material availability. CM with grass containing 75% timothy and 25% meadow fescue grass at 70%:30% mixing ratio could be the best combination of CM: grass co-digestion, followed by 0.5:0.5 mixed CM and perennial ryegrass. Furthermore, CM mixed with food waste at 52:48% ratio could be the best combination among co-digestion of CM with biowaste other than grass, followed by CM and food waste mixed with 68%:32% ratio, and CM with oat straw mixed at 1:2 ratio could be a considerable combination of CM and crop waste.
Keyword(s): Anaerobic digestion (AD) cow manure (CM) waste co-digestion biogas methane.

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