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Between power and protest : The Japan Times and Anpo-protests in 1960

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Title: Between power and protest : The Japan Times and Anpo-protests in 1960
Author(s): Timonen, Meri
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Social Sciences
Degree program: Master's Programme in Society and Change
Specialisation: Political History
Language: English
Acceptance year: 2021
The aim of this thesis is to research Japan-U.S. Security Treaty protests in 1960 in global context. The Anpo-protests were selected as research topic because not much research was found of the protests. Anpo-protests begun in 1959 and ended in late 1960. The main motive was to oppose revision of U.S.-Japan Security Treaty but eventually protests led to resignation of the prime minister Kishi Nobusuke. The protests were the largest in Japanese history and left their legacy to Japanese political history and civil society. Scholars have researched Anpo-protests to some extent. However, the Anpo-protests have not been analysed in Worldwide context of Cold war which is why transnational history got selected as primary theoretical framework for this thesis. This thesis uses the Japan Times as the primary source. The Japan Times is Japan’s oldest English language newspaper firstly published in 1897. As for main method theory-guided content analysis was used. Analysis was carried out with coding in which Atlas.ti software was used. Theory of historical study of images got selected as second theoretical framework after transnational history because this thesis aims to construct comprehensive image of the Anpo-protests from the lens of the Japan Times. The research question asks how the Anpo-protests are portrayed in the Japan Times. The goal of the research question is to find out whether the Anpo-protests were portrayed as transnational in the Japan Times. This thesis is interested if the Anpo-protests had transnational influences. The results of the analysis indicate that the Japan Times is mainly interested certain issues, such as who are protesting, why they are protesting and how the protests are carried out. The codes that appear most frequently are communism, students and protests techniques. During the analysis over 1200 codes were reduced into 16 categories which were evolved further into themes. The themes are social unity of Japanese people, legitimacy and transnationalism. Social unity represents how people who were breaking the cohesion of society are judged on the newspaper. Legitimacy deals with the issue of what is legal and what is not. Transnationalism pays interests on transnational influences of the Anpo-protests such as peace activism, communism and democratic ideals. All themes express change in Japanese society. Results explain how the conception of peace, democracy, authority, violence and social unity changed due the Anpo-protests. The results indicate that Anpo-protests were portrayed transnationally to some extent on the Japan Times. Thus, Anpo-protests may have had some transnational connections. Broader analysis would offer more reliable results and thus this thesis serves only as a brief outlook to the Anpo-protests. However, this thesis offers valuable information of the Japan Times itself and of the major change in Japanese society that has often left without notice. Anpo-protests itself served as transnational influence on other protests which evolved later in the 1960s.
Keyword(s): Anpo-protests Japan civil society peace activism student movement transnationalism 1960s Japan-U.S. relations japanilaisuus yhteiskunta kansalaistoiminta protestit 1960

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