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Repeated increase of transposable elements and satellite DNA in three hybrid (Formica aquilonia × F. polyctena) wood ant populations

Show simple item record 2022-06-15T07:25:40Z 2022-06-15T07:25:40Z 2022-06-15
dc.title Repeated increase of transposable elements and satellite DNA in three hybrid (Formica aquilonia × F. polyctena) wood ant populations en
ethesis.faculty Bio- ja ympäristötieteellinen tiedekunta fi
ethesis.faculty Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences en
ethesis.faculty Bio- och miljövetenskapliga fakulteten sv
ethesis.faculty.URI Helsingin yliopisto fi University of Helsinki en Helsingfors universitet sv
dct.creator Heidbreder, Patrick
dct.issued 2022
dct.abstract Hybridization between species is widespread across the tree of life and plays a role in adaptation, speciation and evolution. A critical component of hybridization is the compatibility of the combining genomes. Mechanisms that create incompatibilities, such as transposable element (TE) activity, are thus central to understanding and predicting the evolutionary effects of hybridization. The genomic shock hypothesis posits a burst of TE activity in hybrid genomes due to the uncoupling of TEs and their silencers. While many studies on this topic have focused on laboratory hybrids, there is relatively little data for wild hybrid populations, especially in non-model species. Here, I take advantage of a recent (< 50 generations ago), natural, and replicated hybridization events between two wood ant species, Formica aquilonia and F. polyctena, to test for increased TE abundance in hybrids. Analyses of whole genomes (N total = 99) from both parental species and three hybrid populations revealed significantly more total TE copies in all hybrid populations compared to each parental species, and this partly remained after controlling for genome size, suggesting TE reactivation in the hybrids. LINE, DNA, and LTR elements, as well as multiple new and unclassified repeats, contributed most to the observed increase. However, I also found concurrent increases in satellite DNA copies in hybrids, suggesting heterochromatin expansion after hybridization. So while the observed TE-copy number increase I have detected is consistent with the genomic shock hypothesis, additional work is required to demonstrate and fully characterize TE reactivation in hybrids. Overall my work contributes to our understanding of the effects of hybridization on TE reactivation, satellite DNA abundance, and genome size evolution in natural populations. en
dct.subject Transposons
dct.subject genomic shock
dct.subject genome expansion
ethesis.language englanti fi
ethesis.language English en
ethesis.language engelska sv
ethesis.supervisor Dr. Pierre Nouhaud and Dr. Jonna Kulmuni und
ethesis.thesistype pro gradu -tutkielmat fi
ethesis.thesistype master's thesis en
ethesis.thesistype pro gradu-avhandlingar sv
dct.identifier.ethesis E-thesisID:c1122465-f071-4c21-a23e-f24a30e24410
ethesis-internal.timestamp.reviewStep 2022-05-02 16:16:55:544
ethesis.principalprofessor Perttu Seppä und
dct.identifier.urn URN:NBN:fi:hulib-202206152491
ethesis.facultystudyline Ekologia ja evoluutiobiologia fi
ethesis.facultystudyline Ecology and evolutionary biology en
ethesis.facultystudyline Ekologi och evolutionsbiologi sv
ethesis.mastersdegreeprogram Ekologian ja evoluutiobiologian maisteriohjelma fi
ethesis.mastersdegreeprogram Master's Programme in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology en
ethesis.mastersdegreeprogram Magisterprogrammet i ekologi och evolutionsbiologi sv

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