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Faba bean protein gelling properties affected by wet fractionation processes with and without spray-drying

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Title: Faba bean protein gelling properties affected by wet fractionation processes with and without spray-drying
Author(s): Niskakoski, Anni
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry
Degree program: Master's Programme in Food Sciences
Specialisation: no specialization
Language: English
Acceptance year: 2022
Previous studies have demonstrated that legume proteins have high potential to lose their native functional properties during conventional wet fractionation, since heating and drying in the processes can lead to protein aggregation and solubility reduction. However, the effect of this process on faba bean protein has not been investigated thoroughly before, according to the literature review. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of wet fractionation process with and without spray drying on faba bean protein gelling properties. The hypothesis was that protein isolate produced with isoelectric precipitation without spray drying would have better solubility and gelling properties than spray dried isolate. Faba bean protein concentrate (FBPC) was used to prepare faba bean protein isolate with alkaline extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation, which was then dispersed into water and neutralized (faba bean protein slurry, FBPS). Some of FBPS was spray-dried (pilot faba bean protein isolate, FBPI-P). Commercial faba bean protein isolate (FBPI-C) was used as a reference sample. Their (FBPC, FBPS, FBPI-P, FBPI-C) functionality was studied by measuring thermal denaturation (DSC), protein solubility, particle size and light microscope pictures. In addition, glucono delta lactone (GDL) induced oil-in-water emulsion gels were prepared from FBPS, FBPI-P and FBPI-C. Water holding capacity (WHC), rheological and texture properties were measured from the gel samples. Surprisingly the obtained results of faba bean in this study were different from previous research on other legume proteins. It was found that spray-dried FBPI-P showed better gelling properties than wet based FBPS. This might be due to differences in thermal denaturation. Based on DSC curves, FBPI-C was found to be fully denatured and in a poor solubility. Interestingly, GDL-induced gels had strongest gel properties, which might be highly related to industrial manufacturing process of FBPI-C. When considering the theoretical environmental impact of these processes, FBPS could show potential of being more environmentally friendly process, as it could be more energy efficient than processes which require drying and heating. It was demonstrated that FBPS showed almost as good functional properties as the pilot spray-dried isolate. Hence, FBPS could work as functional and more environmentally friendly option for food industry. Future study could be conducted in near future about FBPS safety, technological applications, process optimization and environmental impact.
Keyword(s): Faba bean protein gelation GDL wet fractionation functionality

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