Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Pitkälä, Salla (2021)
    Aviation emissions are on the rise as a result of growing numbers of air passengers and more efficient emission reductions in other industries. There are, however, a number of different means to achieve emissions reductions in aviation as well: these include, for example, technological solutions, taxes and different emissions compensation systems. In addition to these, a change in air travel behaviour has been suggested as a means to achieve emission reductions. However, there is no agreement about which solution or solutions should be prioritized. My thesis examines attitudes related to air travel and climate change in 17 Finnish blog texts. The blog texts were analysed using a qualitative attitude approach. The texts were analysed as collections of reactions to the claim that because of climate change, individuals should fly less. Based on the differences and similarities in reactions, or arguments, I categorized them and formed four groups of attitudes which highlight different ways of thinking about reducing individual air travel. The four groups of attitudes are the following: 1) attitudes that agree that individuals should fly less, 2) attitudes that question the claim, 3) mixed attitudes, and 4) attitudes that attempt to avoid the issue. As a part of the analysis, I also examined the bloggers’ perceptions about who should bear the responsibility for reducing aviation emissions and I also examined how these perceptions differ between the four groups of attitudes. The bloggers’ understandings of air travel vary between air travel as an unnecessary luxury and a view that flying is a crucial part of modern world and giving up air travel is not realistic. To achieve emission reductions, some bloggers are willing to switch from flying to travelling by land and sea, or they are ready to reduce travel altogether. Other bloggers stress the importance of technological solutions and policy measures in reducing emissions. Among the visible themes is also a tendency to stress the importance of doing things in moderation, which also applies to air travel. Some bloggers also wonder whether there are some reasons that could justify air travel from time to time. In any case, it is typical that bloggers show varying attitudes towards air travel and consider counterarguments to their initial arguments. In the blog texts, reducing aviation emissions comes across as a complex issue. Studying attitudes can help build knowledge about which means of reducing emissions are considered fair and desirable. Studying attitudes can also help locate barriers to environmentally friendly behaviour. In Finland, there is little research on attitudes towards air travel, and the results of my thesis can be utilized, for example, in planning transport policies or campaigns that promote sustainable travel. However, it should be noted that using blogs as research material poses some questions about the validity and the generalizability of the results. The public and potentially commercial nature of blogs may affect which kinds of attitudes are expressed. Because of this, it is important to study attitudes towards air travel by using different methods and material as well.
  • Suutari, Miina (2021)
    Even though bats have no specialized predators in the temperate zone, they are still predated on. In fact, 11% of their annual mortality is caused by avian predators, especially owls. Bats are particularly vulnerable at emergence from their roost because this behaviour is very predictable. Because a successful predation event is mortal, it would be expected that bats need antipredatory responses to avoid it. The time and focus for these responses need to be shared with foraging in a way that maximizes survival. I studied antipredatory responses of bats in two settings: 1. during roost emergence and 2. during foraging at tawny owl territories and at places where there have been no tawny owl sightings. I collected acoustic data from 24 roosts and 11 foraging grounds for 10-13 nights. The roost emergence data was collected with the help of citizen science. Two controlled predation threats, recorded tawny owl calls and nestling sounds, were used. Nestling sounds were only played during roost emergence. In both tests music and silence were used as controls. Owl calls, music or tawny owl territory have no effect on bat presence when they are foraging. However, bats alter their emergence time and leave over 20 minutes later when tawny owl calls are played outside the roost. There is no difference in exit time when music or nestling sounds are played. These results show that bats have antipredatory responses. They also suggest that bats may be able to recognize high-risk situations and allocate their behaviour accordingly or that they place higher importance on foraging than avoiding predation.
  • Ittonen, Mats (2017)
    Because of their eusociality and diverse adaptations, ants are classic study objects in evolutionary biology. Supercolonies consisting of numerous nests have recently received much attention. Supercoloniality is an ecologically dominant and successful lifestyle, but it may be an evolutionary dead end. A supercolony has extremely many queens, and relatedness between colony members is thus very low. Inclusive fitness theory predicts selfish traits to spread in such low relatedness colonies, and if relatedness is zero, kin selection cannot act on worker traits. In such situations eusociality cannot persist. Dispersal is dangerous to daughter queens, and only a small fraction succeeds in establishing new nests. When relatedness between daughter queens and the rest of a colony is high, kin selection will, however, favor dispersal, because competition against relatives does not benefit daughter queens. But when relatedness is low, daughter queens may maximize their inclusive fitness by staying in their natal colony, although dispersal would be the collective interest of the colony. Non-dispersing by daughter queens is thus selfish behavior and is expected in low relatedness colonies. I studied dispersal between a large nest aggregation and other smaller colonies of the ant Formica pressilabris in Raseborg, Southern Finland. I found a supercolony-like dense aggregation of more than 1 300 nests on a 9 ha large abandoned field, as well as three other nest aggregations a few hundreds of meters away from the assumed supercolony. I studied dispersal between these subpopulations indirectly by estimating gene flow using microsatellite DNA markers. I extracted DNA from 285 nests and studied ten microsatellite loci. In addition to the population genetic study, I performed behavioral experiments, on one hand to determine whether supercolony workers identify intruders at all, and on the other hand to investigate whether the large nest aggregation actually is one supercolony. My results show limited gene flow between the four subpopulations. The two largest subpopulations are viscous, i.e. neighboring nests are genetically more similar to each other than to more distant nests in the same subpopulation. However, my results do not support my hypothesis that supercolony daughter queens disperse less than daughter queens from other colonies in the area. One explanation for this result is that non-dispersal of daughter queens does not show up in microsatellite studies. This might be the case if there is enough male dispersal to even out the gene flow between subpopulations. Another possible explanation is that dispersal is limited from all of the subpopulations, which all seem to be polydomous. Thirdly, it may be that even supercolony daughter queens disperse, which would be against my hypothesis. This possibility is supported by the weakness of the population structuring. These three alternatives are mutually nonexclusive and may all affect my results. In my behavioral experiments I found aggression between nests of the nest aggregation assumed to be a supercolony. Thus, it is not a uniform supercolony, as ants of a colony are by definition not aggressive towards each other. This result is surprising, and such a supercolony-like nest aggregation with aggression between its nests has not been reported earlier. If the nest aggregation actually consists of many smaller polydomous colonies, the result from my population genetic study, which is against my a priori hypothesis, would be expected. My results underline that sufficient attention should be paid to the interactions between individual nests when studying supercolonies.
  • Puikkonen, Laura (2020)
    Individuals of long-lived animal species can improve their reproductive success through experience. While individual’s resources available for survival and reproduction decrease toward the end of its lifespan through senescence, terminal investment hypothesis predicts the less likely old individuals reproduce again the more they invest in their current offspring. Experience gained through a long lifespan might have an important role in changing behavior to optimize the use of resources and compensate the effects of senescence. In addition, behavioral plasticity allows animals to respond changes in their habitat within much shorter timespan than on an evolutionary timescale. Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) is a wild subspecies of reindeer. It is only found in Svalbard, a remote archipelago in the Arctic with extreme weather conditions rapidly changing due to climate change. It has been isolated at least 5000 years and adapted to a barren habitat with nearly no hunting, predation or harassment of flying insects. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age and a calf at heel in Svalbard reindeer females’ maternal, vigilant, and social behavior and time budget in the light of life history theory and its senescence and terminal investment hypotheses. I carried out the field work for the study in two periods in summer in Semmeldalen valley and the south-western part of Reindalen valley on the island of Spitsbergen, Svalbard. I collected behavioral data on marked individuals by instant scan sampling and focal watch methods, wrote observations down manually and later fed them into computer. In addition, I have used birth year data collected by the long-term monitoring program by the Norwegian Polar Institute. I used generalized linear mixed models to analyze the effects of age and calf at heel to the behavior of females. The main results include that young dams maintained shorter distance to their calf in July than in August, and old females were less vigilant. Younger dams and older females without calves were in smaller groups than older dams and younger females without calves. In addition, females with calves spend proportionately less time lying down than females without calves. Dams maintained a longer distance to the nearest neighbor than females without calves. Older dams spend proportionately more time feeding and in groups in August than younger dams. These results show that the age and calf at heel do play a role in the behavior of Svalbard reindeer females and the effect varies over the course of the short Arctic summer. Experience may make older females more effective mothers by optimize the use of resources for example from vigilance to feeding in a predator-free environment. On the other hand, senescence may affect the amount of energy females can spend on their calves, potentially influencing their survival.
  • Saartama, Vili (2019)
    Maaperän saastuminen ihmisen toiminnan seurauksena on vakava ympäristöongelma. Pilaantuneista kohteista moni on sekasaastunut. Tämänkaltaisissa kohteissa orgaanisten haitta-aineiden lisäksi maassa saattaa olla myös raskasmetalleja. Tavanomaiset saastuneen maaperän kunnostusmenetelmät, kuten massanvaihto, ovat usein kalliita ja ekologisesti kestämättömiä. Monet biologiset kunnostusmenetelmät ovat taloudellisempia ja aiheuttavat kohteiden ekosysteemille vähemmän vahinkoa. Näiden menetelmien käyttö Suomessa on kuitenkin suhteellisen vähäistä niihin liittyvien epävarmuustekijöiden takia. Yksi biologinen maaperän kunnostusmenetelmä on biostimulaatio, jossa maan luontaisen mikrobipopulaation hajotustoimintaa pyritään nopeuttamaan. Menetelmässä maaperän oloja muokataan haitta-aineiden mineralisaatiolle sopivammaksi. Tämä voidaan toteuttaa lisäämällä maaperään muun muassa ravinteita, yleisimmin typpeä ja fosforia. Lisäksi maaperän redox-potentiaalia voidaan pyrkiä muokkaamaan. Biostimulaatio toimii parhaiten orgaanisiin haitta-aineisiin, joita mikrobit kykenevät hajottamaan, esimerkiksi öljyhiilivetyihin. Menetelmän avulla ei kyetä hajottamaan raskasmetalleja. Biostimulaatio kuitenkin muuttaa maaperän olosuhteita suuresti. Muutokset redox-potentiaalissa ja pH:ssa voivat vaikuttaa suuresti maaperän raskasmetallien liukoisuuteen ja liikkuvuuteen. Jos biostimulaation avulla pyritään kunnostamaan raskasmetalleilla ja orgaanisilla haitta-aineilla saastunutta kohdetta, olisi hyvä selvittää, miten biostimulaatio voi muuttaa raskasmetallien liukoisuutta. Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa testattiin lihaluujauholla suoritetun biostimulaation vaikutusta raskasmetallien liukoisuuteen. Tutkielmassa suoritettiin mikrokosmoskoe ja suuremman mittakaavan koe lysimetreillä Soilia-maaperäntutkimusasemalla. Kokeissa selvitettiin, miten lihaluujauhon sekoittaminen raskasmetalleilla saastuneeseen maahan vaikuttaa näiden metallien liukoisuuteen veteen. Lisäksi selvitettiin, liukeneeko lihaluujauhosta merkittäviä määriä fosforia. Kokeessa tutkittiin metalleja Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb ja P. Kokeissa käytettiin aidosta kohteesta peräisin olevaa saastunutta maata. Kokeessa käytetty lihaluujauho oli peräisin Honkajoki Oy:ltä. Mikrokosmoskokeissa käytettiin saastuneella maalla täytettyjä pönttöjä, joiden läpi perkoloituneesta vedestä analysoitiin liuenneiden metallien ja fosforin pitoisuudet. Lysimetrikokeissa saastuneella maalla täytettyjä lysimetrejä kasteltiin puhtaalla vedellä ja lysimetrien läpi perkoloituneesta vedestä analysoitiin niihin liuenneiden metallien ja fosforin pitoisuudet. Kokeissa selvisi, että lihaluujauholla on suuri vaikutus joidenkin metallien liukoisuuteen. Metalleista erityisesti rautaa ja mangaania liukeni suuria pitoisuuksia sekä mikrokosmoskokeissa, että lysimetrikokeissa. Korkeimmillaan mangaanin pitoisuudet olivat jopa yli 1000 mg/l. Myös nikkeliä havaittiin korkeita pitoisuuksia, yli 60 mg/l. Sinkin ja lyijyn pitoisuudet taas olivat varsin matalia, eikä lihaluujauhokäsittelyllä ollut merkittävää vaikutusta niiden pitoisuuksiin. Fosforia uuttui enemmän lihaluujauholla käsitellystä maasta, mutta määrä ei ollut ympäristön kannalta merkittävä. Mangaanin ja raudan liukoisuuden kasvu johtuivat todennäköisesti hapettomien olojen muodostumisesta maaperään lihaluujauhon lisäyksen tehostaman mikrobitoiminnan vaikutuksesta. Metallien liukoisuuden runsas kasvu voi aiheuttaa riskejä pohjavedelle. Toisaalta lisääntynyt metallien liukoisuus voi olla myös hyödyksi, jos näitä metalleja pyritään biostimulaation yhteydessä poistamaan muilla kunnostusmenetelmillä. Fytoakkumulaatio tai elektrokineettinen kunnostus voisivat soveltua biostimulaatiota tukeviksi kunnostusmenetelmiksi kohteessa, joka on saastunut sekä hiilivedyillä, että raskasmetalleilla.
  • Hulkko, Liisa (2005)
    Kevyen liikenteen kulkutapaosuus on viimeisen kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana jatkuvasti vähentynyt autoliikenteen samalla kasvaessa. Autoliikenteen aiheuttamat ekologiset ja yhteiskunnalliset haittavaikutukset ovat yleisessä tietoudessa, ja autoliikenteen kasvu on asetettu kyseenalaiseksi. Kevyen liikenteen kulkutapaosuus ei silti ole noussut huolimatta useista sille asetetuista tavoitteista. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitetään, millainen kevyen liikenteen asema ja rooli Tiehallinnon liikennesuunnittelussa on ja mistä tekijöistä se muodostuu. Aineistona ovat eri organisaatiotasojen ja aikavälien liikennesuunnitelmat. Tutkimuksen näkökulma on kognitiivinen instituutionäkökulma. Kevyen liikenteen asemaa tarkastellaan tutkimalla, mitkä perustavanlaatuiset käsitykset ja oletukset ohjaavat liikennesuunnittelua Tiehallinnossa ja vaikuttavat siten liikennemuotojen erilaiseen asemaan. Tutkimuksessa osoitetaan, miten nämä suunnittelun lähtökohdat (eli ongelmanasettelu) rajaavat toimintavaihtoehtoja ja keinoja suunnittelussa. Näin kuvataan, millaista liikennepolitiikka Tiehallinnossa harjoitetaan kevyen liikenteen näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen tuloksena on, että kevyttä liikennettä ei mielletä autoliikenteen tapaan liikenteeksi, jonka sujuvuuden ja toimivuuden koettaisiin olevan välttämätöntä yhteiskunnan ja talouden toiminnan kannalta. Kevyen liikenteen hyödyt ympäristöllisesti ja sosiaalisesti kestävänä liikkumisena tunnetaan, ja vastaavasti autoliikenteen kasvun haitat yleisesti tiedostetaan, mutta se ei ole muuttanut liikennesuunnittelun ongelmanasettelua. Liikenteen määrää koskeva ennuste on liikennesuunnittelun lähtökohtana. Autoliikenteen kasvua pidetään merkkinä taloudellisesta toimeliaisuudesta, eikä siihen siksi haluta puuttua. Autoliikenteen sujuvuuden turvaaminen on edelleen tärkeimmällä sijalla, ja yhteiskunnalliset tavoitteet, kuten kevyen liikenteen edistäminen, pyritään saavuttamaan erillisjärjestelyin, elleivät ne ole saavutettavissa sujuvuuden kanssa samanaikaisesti. Strategisissa, pitkän tähtäyksen suunnitelmissa näkyy selkeä pyrkimys yhteiskunnalliseen liikennepolitiikkaan ja -suunnitteluun. Niiden ohjaus keskipitkän aikavälin suunnitelmiin on kuitenkin heikkoa. Yhteiskunnalliset tavoitteet, mukaan lukien kevyen liikenteen tavoitteet, ovat usein niin väljästi muotoiltuja, että ne jättävät paljon varaa tulkinnoille. Yhteiskunnallisten tavoitteiden taustalla vaikuttavat perinteisen liikennekeskeisen väyläpolitiikan mukaiset näkemykset. Suunnittelussa vastataan taloudellisesta kasvusta aiheutuvaan liikenteen kysyntään liikenneyhteyksiä parantamalla. Liikennemuotoja ja eri tavoitealueita myös tarkastellaan liikennekeskeisen mallin mukaisesti erillisinä, eikä autoliikenteen kehittämisen katsota esimerkiksi vaikuttavan kevyen liikenteen asemaan. Vaikka puhutaan liikennejärjestelmäsuunnittelusta, ei käytännössä kuitenkaan suunnitella kokonaisuutta, vaan sen irrallisia osia.
  • Tuomela, Nea (2022)
    Climate change causes changes in the Arctic lakes, such as shortening of the ice-covered period and changes in hydrology as well as vegetation of the drainage area around the lakes. With these shifts in the function of the ecosystems, dissolved organic matter drainage from terrestrial sources is expected to increase. Terrestrial, allochthonous DOM is more refractory, higher molecular weight organic matter, which is less available to bacterial consumption. Alterations in the DOM pool of the lake may change the bacterial community composition, which could in turn alter the lake ecosystem. Four ice-covered lakes in Kilpisjärvi region were sampled in spring 2021. Water samples were filtered and analyzed for dissolved and particulate nutrients and carbon. Coloured dissolved organic matter and fluorescent dissolved organic matter properties were defined. Bacterial community composition was determined with multiplex polymerase chain reaction and sequences analyzed with DADA2 pipeline. Principal component analysis (PCOA) was done to visualize differences between lakes, and distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) was used to detect any associations between dissolved organic matter properties and bacterial community composition. The lakes had low nutrient and carbon concentrations and had mainly similar properties of dissolved organic matter. However, P3 surface water had higher nitrate and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations. Optical properties in P3 surface water, Peak T, Peak M, biological index and humification index, indicated autochthonous production and lability of organic matter. This was reflected also in bacterial community composition by higher relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteriales. Lake P3 had also higher relative abundance of Cyanobacteria, which could be the cause for labile organic matter in the site. Sites P2 and P3 had similar bacterial community compositions, which is likely due to the sites forming a lake chain and sharing the same catchment area. The sites were oligotrophic and low nutrient environments as expected in the arctic environment. One of the sites had indications of more labile organic matter, which was reflected in the bacterial community structures. In the future shorter ice-cover period may induce autochthonous production such as Cyanobacteria, which reflects in the bacterial community. Changes in the DOM properties and bacterial communities can alter the whole food chain. with A more comprehensive study on this issue could be useful way of understanding the carbon cycling and impacts of climate change to the subarctic lakes.
  • Jukarainen, Aili (2020)
    Lintuvedet ovat merkittävimpiä elinympäristöjä Suomen linnustonsuojelualueilla. Tästä huolimatta on lintuvesistä riippuvainen lintulajisto uhanalaistunut merkittävästi läpi koko 2000-luvun. Monet arvokkaat lintuvedet ovat saaneet lintuvesiluonteensa ihmistoiminnan seurauksena, ja elinympäristö tarvitsee hoitotoimia säilyttääkseen linnustoarvonsa. Huolimatta kansainvälisistä velvoitteista ja lintuvesien lajiston epäsuotuisasta kehityksestä, eivät lintuvesien kunnostus- ja hoitotoimet ole edenneet tavoitteiden mukaisesti vaan yli puolet suojelluista lintuvesistä tarvitsee kunnostustoimia. Lintuvesien kunnostamisen riittämättömän toteuttamisen syitä ja mahdollisuuksia muuttaa tilannetta selvitettiin tutkimalla, miten hyvin John F. Kingdonin (1995) agendan asettamista kuvaava teoria selittää lintuvesien kunnostusten toteuttamisen vajetta. Teoria kuvaa eri tapoja, joilla asia voi nousta agendalle, poliittisen päätöksenteon kohteeksi. Asiat nousevat agendalle monivaiheisen prosessin kautta, jossa vaikuttavat kolme virtaa: ongelma-, toimenpiteiden- ja politiikkavirta. Normaalitilanteessa virrat kulkevat itsenäisenä, mutta kriittisenä hetkenä ne yhdistyvät, mahdollisuuksien ikkuna aukeaa ja asioita on mahdollista nostaa agendalle, päätöksenteon kohteeksi. Toimintapolitiikan uudistajiksi kutsutaan henkilöitä, jotka liittävät virtoja yhteen ja saavat aikaan ikkunan aukeamisen. Työn tutkimuskysymys on seuraava: minkälaisia edellytyksiä ongelmien, toimenpiteiden ja politiikan virroissa on ollut toimintapolitiikan ikkunan avautumiselle lintuvesien kunnostuksille ja -hoidolle. Lintuvesien kunnostusten hallinto tapahtuu monella tasolla. Toimintaa ohjaavat kansainväliset sopimukset ja EU:n lainsäädäntö. Kansallisella tasolla toimintaa ohjaa ympäristöministeriö. Alueellisella tasolla kunnostuksia on toteutettu elinkeino-, liikenne- ja ympäristökeskusten (ELY-keskukset) toimesta, jotka ovat vastanneet oman alueensa lintuvesikohteiden kunnostuksesta. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin haastattelemalla puolistrukturoidulla teemahaastattelulla jokaisesta ELY-keskuksesta vähintään yksi lintuvesien kunnostuksista vastannut asiantuntija. Aineisto litteroitiin, koodattiin ja siitä laadittiin valittua teoriaa noudattava temaattinen sisällönanalyysi. Tutkimuksen perusteella virroissa oli tunnistettavissa teorian kuvaamia edellytyksiä, joiden perusteella lintuvesien kunnostaminen voi nousta agendalle. Ongelmien virrassa keskeistä on, että ongelma tunnistetaan. Haastateltavat olivat saaneet tietoa lintuvesien kunnostustarpeesta erilaisten indikaattoreiden, seurantojen ja omakohtaisten kokemusten kautta. Haastateltavat eivät kuitenkaan edusta päättäjiä, joiden tulisi teorian mukaan kiinnittää ongelmaan huomiota. Toimenpiteiden virrassa lintuvesikunnostusten laajaksi toteuttamiseksi laaditut ehdotukset eivät olleet levinneet asiantuntijoiden keskuudessa, mutta toisaalta haastatelluilla asiantuntijoilla oli yhteneväiset käsitykset siitä, miten lintuvesien kunnostuskysymys tulisi ratkaista. Politiikan virrassa kunnostuksiin suhtauduttiin pääasiassa myönteisesti tai neutraalisti, mikä voisi saada päättäjät nostamaan asian agendoilleen. Lintuvesien kunnostukselle ei kuitenkaan löydy voimakkaita puolestapuhujia, eikä se ole saanut juuri näkyvyyttä ja päättäjien huomion kiinnittäminen ei ole onnistunut. Agendalle mahtuu asioita rajallinen määrä ja elinympäristöistä suot ja metsät ovat saaneet lintuvesiä enemmän huomiota luonnonsuojelupolitiikassa. Toimintapolitiikan uudistajia, jotka olisivat liittäneet virtoja yhteen ja saaneet mahdollisuuksien ikkunan aukeamaan valtakunnan tasolla ei aineistosta löytynyt. Tämän vuoksi tieto lintuvesien kunnostuskysymyksestä ei mahdollisesti ole tavoittanut päättäjiä. Tutkimuksella tavoitettiin hyvin alueellinen ja paikallinen taso sekä ongelmien ja toimenpiteiden virrat. Sen sijaan valtakunnan tason tarkempaa tarkastelua ja politiikkavirran tutkimista varten tulisi haastatella ympäristöministeriön virkamiehiä ja ympäristöministeriä. Myös tämän työn aineistona käytettyjen haastattelujen toistaminen olisi kiinnostavaa, sillä mahdollisuuksien ikkuna aukesi haastattelujen toteuttamisen jälkeen ja lintuvesien kunnostaminen on mukana ympäristöministeriön Helmi-elinympäristöohjelmassa.
  • Sinha, Snehadri (2018)
    Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease characterized by the formation and growth of plaque within the arteries. Lipoproteins, especially LDL, initiate atherosclerosis by accumulating in the intima of arteries and becoming modified, e.g. oxidised. Oxidised LDL (OxLDL) is highly pro-atherogenic and promotes atherosclerosis in multiple ways. The role of platelets in the later stages of atherosclerosis is well-documented, but platelets may also be involved in earlier stages of atherosclerosis. Platelets release extracellular vesicles (PEVs) in the form of microvesicles (microparticles) and exosomes that participate in intercellular signalling and in similar pathophysiological processes as platelets. Lipoproteins are known to activate platelets but their effects on PEV formation have not yet been studied. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of OxLDL on PEV formation and compare it to other potential agonists such as LDL, HDL, ATP, thrombin and collagen. Platelets were activated with these agonists separately or in combination with OxLDL. PEVs were studied from the platelet-depleted supernatant and the isolate, which was obtained by differential centrifugation. PEVs were quantified in terms of CD61+ PEVs and particle count by flow cytometry and nanoparticle tracking analysis, respectively. PEVs were characterized by the relative amounts of CD41 (platelet and PEV marker) and Hsp70 (general EV marker) detected by Western blotting. Lastly, the uptake of the differently induced PEVs by HepG2 hepatoma cells was compared by fluorescence microscopy as a characterization of the PEVs’ functionality. Among the lipoproteins, OxLDL was indicated to be a much more potent inducer of PEVs than LDL or HDL, as shown by flow cytometry of CD61+ PEVs, nanoparticle tracking analysis and CD41 and Hsp70 levels in the isolates. However, OxLDL was not as strong a PEV inducer as the co-stimulation with thrombin and collagen (T&C), which induced the highest PEV formation. Size distribution analysis showed that PEVs smaller than 100 nm in size comprised a larger proportion of the total PEVs in OxLDL-induced PEVs compared to LDL- and T&C-induced PEVs. OxLDL combined with weak PEV inducers such as HDL and ATP had an amplifying effect on the generation of CD61+ PEVs, while the highest PEV formation was observed when OxLDL was combined with thrombin and collagen. When OxLDL-induced PEV formation was tested against a range of HDL concentrations, the extent of PEV formation and relative Hsp70 levels both decreased in a HDL concentration-dependent manner up to 50 µg/mL HDL. Both LDL- and OxLDL-induced PEVs were taken up by HepG2 cells, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two. The results indicated the potency of OxLDL in inducing PEV formation, thereby suggesting a novel mechanism by which OxLDL could contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Further studies on OxLDL-induced PEVs are needed, but if significant lipoprotein-specific changes in PEV numbers and properties could be observed, PEVs could then be used as a biomarker to diagnose atherosclerosis already at the early stages.
  • Miranto, Mari (2006)
    In all plant conservation, the priority is to maintain wild populations in situ (on site), which means that plants are conserved within their natural environment. Sometimes, as in the case of severely endangered Saintpaulia H. Wendl. (African violets), this is however, no sufficient. In that case, ex situ (off site) conservation in the form of live and in vitro collections and seed banks is necessary. In recent years, the role of botanic gardens in conservation and reintroduction of threatened plants, has been increasingly recognized. Botanic gardens throughout the world possess large living collections of species and accessions, but only vague assumptions of the utility of them in ex situ conservation have been made thus far. Whole plants, when kept ex situ, have advantages in education, research and display. On the other hand, living collections have the disadvantage of high maintenance costs, including high spatial requirements. Thus, usually only one or few genotypes are represented. The goal of this study is to evaluate botanic garden live collections as a means of ex situ conservation with the genus Saintpaulia as a case study. As a result, an ex situ conservation plan for Saintpaulia is outlined. Workability of a network ex situ conservation activity in botanic gardens is also evaluated. Four of the five most important European Saintpaulia holders were chosen as target botanic gardens: Helsinki University Botanic Garden (Finland), The National Botanic Garden of Belgium, The Botanic Garden of Uppsala University (Sweden) and the Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh (UK). The wild Saintpaulia collections of the gardens were reviewed and the identifications checked. Botanic garden databases were examined to trace clone accessions. Leaf cuttings from wild-collected accessions were planted in Helsinki University Botanic Garden. Of the total 183 Saintpaulia accessions of the four target gardens 155 (85 %) were unique, and 126 of these were of known wild origin. They were chosen to ex situ conservation collection. Due to the varying quality of the data of origin of the accessions, five classes for the different quality of origin data were developed. European botanic garden living collections of Saintpaulia proved to be a workable base of ex situ conservation for the genus. The amount of space needed to conserve the ideal of at least 50 unique accessions of each of the 26 Saintpaulia taxa is best possible to organize with the network ex situ conservation programme: each accession will be stored in at least two botanic gardens, but no garden will have all the accessions. Saintpaulia is an ideal genus for living ex situ collections: it is beautiful and well-known, small-sized and easy to grow and propagate. New ex situ accessions will be collected from the wild and finally reintroduced to their natural habitats. Further research needs to be carried out to find out the proper seed banking mechanisms for probably orthodox but dust-like seeds of Saintpaulia species. The lack of research on the basic biology and the population ecology of the genus hampers effective conservation work. Collaboration with amenity horticulture and the home countries of Saintpaulia is planned to utilize the genetic diversity of wild African violets in breeding new cultivars.
  • Elgert, Christina (2018)
    I takt med att den globala urbaniseringen fortskrider, påverkas och förändras allt fler av världens livsmiljöer av mänsklig aktivitet, och olika slags antropogena störningar blir allt vanligare. Till dessa hör bl.a. sådana välkända fenomen som oljud och utsläpp, men också de mer diffusa ljusföroreningarna. Dessa störningar och miljöförändringar ställer nya krav på organismerna, och kan påverka det adaptiva värdet på olika livshistorie-egenskaper bundna till överlevnad, tillväxt samt reproduktion, vilka reglerar organismernas fitness. Effekterna av miljöförändringarna kan variera stort från individ till individ, och kan inverka både positivt, negativt eller neutralt på individens fitness, beroende av dess förmåga att anpassa sig till de nya förhållandena. Även om de flesta organismer både utsatts för och anpassat sig till förändringar av olika slag under sin evolutionära historia, har de av människan förorsakade miljöförändringarna uppstått under en så evolutionärt kort tidsperiod, att anpassningen till dessa vanligen utgör en extra stor utmaning. Så är också de första responserna på antropogena förändringar vanliga plastiska och beteenderelaterade, som en följd av temporala och spatiala begränsningar. Mängden ljusföroreningar, d.v.s. användandet av artificiella ljuskällor nattetid, ökar ständigt och artificiellt ljus förekommer både som direkt upplysning i form av bl.a. väg-, reklam- och fordonsbelysning, och som himlasken; ljus som sprids ut i atmosfären, upp till hundratals kilometer från källan. Livet på jorden har utvecklats under konstanta växlingar mellan ljus och mörker, och har anpassat sig till dessa då det bl.a. gäller biologiska rytmer och tidpunkten för aktivitet samt vila. Således kan den förlust av det naturliga mörkret ljusföroreningarna innebär medföra allvarliga konsekvenser. Den stora lysmasken, Lampyris noctiluca utnyttjar sig av bioluminescens för sin sexuella kommunikation. Då den stora lysmaskens honor lockar till sig flygande hanar genom att lysa, kan ljusföroreningar potentiellt ha en stor effekt på den sexuella signaleringen. En ökad ljusmängd kan dränka honornas naturliga ljussignaler under sig, och således försämra hanarnas chanser att upptäcka och urskilja de lysande honorna. Det är också möjligt att artificiellt ljus påverkar huruvida honorna alls lyser, och hur länge och var de väljer att lysa, eftersom honorna har förmågan att avläsa omgivningens ljusnivå och vanligen börjar lysa först då ljusnivåerna sjunkit tillräckligt. Då den vuxna lysmaskens livstid är mycket kort, honorna har en begränsad förmåga att förflytta sig och varje natt som förflyter utan parning utgör en risk, kunde artificiellt ljus ha en stor effekt på dessa insekters fitness. Arbetets målsättningar var att reda ut, hur artificiellt ljus inverkar på attraktionen av hanar, hur honornas responser på artificiellt ljus ser ut samt hur dessa eventuella responser påverkar lysmaskarnas möjligheter till att finna en lämplig partner. Det artificiella ljusets inverkan på den stora lysmaskens sexuella signalering samt honans förmåga att attrahera hanar undersöktes med hjälp av ett fält- samt ett laboratorie-experiment. Artificiella ljuskällor samt fällor med gröna LED-lampor placerades ut i juni 2017 i omgivningen av Tvärminne zoologiska station och antalet gånger hanar fångades in i de upplysta vs. de kontrollfällor som befann sig i mörker undersöktes statistiskt med GLMM. Också vädrets inverkan på sannolikheten för att hanar fångas in undersöktes. Honor fångades in från fältet, och placerades i en arena med en vit LED-lampa i ena ändan. Honornas beteende samt rörelse undersöktes och analyserades med logistisk regression samt ANOVA i förhållande till de kontrollhonor som placerats i arenor där ljuskällan hölls avstängd. Artificiellt ljus inverkar signifikant på ifall hanar fångas in eller ej, samt på andelen lysande honor och andelen honor som väljer att söka skydd. Även vädret påverkar hanarna. Både beteendet samt den sexuella signaleringen påverkas: hanarna har svårare att finna honor under artificiellt ljus, färre honor lyser, och honorna verkar inte heller förflytta sig till mörkare områden då de utsätts för artificiellt ljus. Andelen flygande hanar är högst då vädret är fördelaktigt. Då mängden ljusföroreningar ständigt ökar, lysmaskpopulationerna anses vara på tillbakagång, klimatförändringen medför mer instabilt väder och ljusföroreningarnas vidare följder ännu är dåligt kända, är ytterligare forskning, utveckling av lagstiftningen samt upplysning av allmänheten av största vikt. Allt större delar av jorden omfattas av mänsklig verksamhet, och dessa resultat stöder dem som fåtts från tidigare forskning, där antropogena störningar påvisats påverka beteendemönster och försvåra kommunikationen mellan organismer. Oberoende av om organismerna klarar av att anpassa sig till de antropogena störningar den mänskliga verksamheten ge upphov till eller ej, kommer dessa sannolikt att orsaka förändringar i både beteende och kommunikation hos ett flertal organismer. Då långtidseffekterna och de kombinerade effekterna av olika slags antropogena störningar tills vidare är dåligt kända, är ytterligare forskning av yttersta vikt.
  • Päivinen, Pekka (2020)
    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) form a heterogenous stromal cell population of a solid tumor. They are known to promote tumor growth and survival through metabolic reprogramming and inflammation. It is unclear though whether CAF are crucial component of tumor initiation and whether CAFs are dispensable altogether from the fully developed neoplasm. Tumor suppressor LKB1 regulates AMPK and AMPK-related kinases (ARK), and its function is compromised in familial disorder Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). Fibroblast specific haploinsufficiency of LKB1 alone is sufficient of initiating gastrointestinal polyposis but the mechanism through which LKB1 mediates this is only partially understood. We provide evidence that LKB1 is downregulated in multiple human malignancies including high grave serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Human ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological disease, characterized by metastasis of omentum. Loss-of LKB1 in ovarian fibroblasts was accompanied with metabolic changes associated with CAF-transformation. We screened down critical LKB1 substrates through transcriptomic and functional assays revealing AMPKa1 and MARK3 as potential downstream effectors of oxidative phosphorylation. AMPKa1, MARK1 and SIK-family were the glycolytic counterparts. We also took an initiative of cataloguing published human cancer stroma data in order to gain more comprehensive look of tumor heterogeneity. Metabolic rewiring was also observable in published cancer-stroma datasets. Human cancer-stroma divided into metabolically active and highly inflamed subtypes. These results highlights LKB1’s role as a conserved metabolic caretaker in fibroblasts. Our data also support mechanistic model in which LKB1 and ARKs regulate mitochondrial metabolism, essential for CAF transformation.
  • Back, Meri (2023)
    Cities are novel and fragmented environments that offer a wide range of habitats and resources for urban dwellers, such as birds. Previous work shows that the size and vegetation structure of urban forest patches and parks play an important role in urban bird abundance and diversity. The aim of the thesis was to find out the role of major urban greenspaces and which local and landscape-scale drivers in the urban greenspace network are influencing bird species richness and composition in the city of Lahti. A breeding bird survey was conducted in Lahti, including 60 survey points and 15 urban greenspaces. A total of 41 bird species were observed, and the most common species were Fieldfare, Common Chaffinch, and Great Tit. On the local-scale, the size of trees was positively correlated with bird species richness, indicating that bigger and older trees support higher bird diversity in urban greenspaces. On the landscape-scale, I found that the size of the greenspace, its distance to the urban continuum border, and the amount of green neighbouring the greenspace were the significant drivers explaining bird species richness. The findings indicate that both local and landscape-scale drivers are significant for urban bird communities in Lahti. Furthermore, to better understand the resources that urban communities need, a comprehensive study of different urban dweller species is important – not just the few sensitive species – to achieve effective management. Urban greenspaces host most of the urban bird species in the city; thus, it is important to preserve these urban greeneries as well as protect the green areas around the city proactively to sustain them while the urban development continues sprawling.
  • Tirkkonen, Paulina (2022)
    Gravity has a modifying effect on plant architecture. The phytohormone auxin is known to transmit the signal of gravity perception from gravity-sensing cells to responsive tissues and cause an asymmetric growth response in the receiving organs. Intercellular auxin flux is mediated by many different transporter proteins, of which PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) is known to function as an auxin efflux carrier in gravitropic responses. The expression of PIN3 is known to locate in one cell layer of the shoot endodermis in herbaceous plant species and Populus hybrids. The objective of this study was to determine the location of PIN3 ortholog expression using silver birch (Betula pendula) as a model plant of a woody plant species. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 strain GV3101 (pMP90), harbouring binary vector pBpPIN3-erVEN-nosT2 containing erVenus (erVEN-YFP) as a marker gene under the BpPIN3 promoter and terminator nosT2, was used in the study to detect the gene expression. The expression vector was constructed by the Gateway® cloning method and transformed into in vitro shoot explants of silver birch by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT). In the study, transgenic lines were generated successfully, from which the fluorescence of erVEN was observed in the cross-section of the shoot with a fluorescence stereo microscope. The transgenicity of putative transgenic lines was confirmed by PCR of erVEN. BpPIN3 was likely to be expressed to endodermal tissue in the shoots of silver birch. This study can be considered as a screening step for the localization of BpPIN3 expression. The study facilitates the discovery of factors related to the regulation of PIN3 in tropic responses in woody plant species. This information can in the future be utilized in plant breeding to optimize plant architecture.
  • Saalismaa, Nina (2000)
    The study analyses the needs and expectations of different people and different interest groups affected by conservation schemes, and examines the possibilities of taking the local opinions into account in the management of protected areas. Theoretically, the study relies on those approaches that aim to link the issues of nature protection with the questions of social sustainability and the livelihood requirements of local people. The study explains how the concept of protected areas has changed during the history and how the discourses on protected areas are linked to North-South issues. Protected areas management was long based on the concepts of strict protection developed in the first protected areas. The amount of protected areas in the world has increased significantly during the past decades. Together with population growth this has led into a situation where the majority of protected areas are inhabited by humans. Consequently, the participation and rights of local people have become important topics in protected areas discourse. The issue is studied in detail through a case study of Miraflor protected area in Nicaragua. The study describes how the protection scheme of this particular area has been constructed and how the local attitudes toward protection have evolved from past to present. The research sets the case of Miraflor into the broader context of conservation and sustainability, in order to make suggestions on management in inhabited protected areas. The case study in based on qualitative research methods, such as thematic interviews, participant observation and written documentation. There are almost 5000 inhabitants in Miraflor, and the area is into a large extent under agricultural use. Land in Miraflor is in the hands of private landowners, as it is in most of the other protected areas in Nicaragua. The difficult economical and social situation of small-scale landowners and landless people has left them little choice between nature conservation and livelihood. While institutional attention to the zone has increased more local people have started to be in favour of the protection of the area. However, they expect support from the state and other institutions in bearing the costs of protection. Some of the important reasons for the acceptance of protection lie in the potential benefits associated to protection, such as new rural development projects, employment possibilities and tax exemptions. The protection of inhabited protected areas cannot be achieved with mere restrictions. Instead, local people have to be offered feasible and attractive possibilities to change their natural resource use practices so that both human needs and nature conservation objectives are fulfilled.
  • Kurkinen, Hilja (2023)
    Mining industry often encounters many environmental and social challenges, such as environmental degradation or negative impacts on other livelihoods. However, the opening of a mine can also enhance economic productivity and employment situation, especially in remote areas. This paper analyses the environmental and employment sustainability of mining in Northern Finland, utilizing Hannukainen iron ore mining plans based in Kolari as a case study. The sustainability framework of the research is UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) adopted by UN member states in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN, 2015d). The aim of this research is to assess Hannukainen mining plans’ capacity to fulfil environmental and employment SDG targets from the perceptions of relevant local stakeholders. The research questions of this study are: 1. How does the implementation of five environment and employment related SDGs actualise in Hannukainen mining plans from the perceptions of relevant local stakeholders? 2. What kind of synergies and conflicts occur between the mining plans and SDG targets? To answer the questions, ten interviews and media analysis of 15 online articles was conducted. The main method for analysis was Inductive Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). As a result, three themes are introduced: (1) The mine as an environmental hazard, (2) The mine as a threat to local livelihoods and culture, and (3) The mine as a potential job opportunity. Possible synergies and conflicts between the SDG targets and Hannukainen mining plans are identified separately in each theme. The results suggest that increasing economic growth and employment on one sector, while causing environmental hazards and diminishing the employment possibilities of other sectors is topical in Hannukainen mining plans. Several conflicts rise between SDG targets and Hannukainen mine, regarding mainly environmental issues and two local livelihoods: tourism and reindeer herding. However, synergies between mining plans and SDG targets occur as well since the mine could provide full-time jobs and enhance employment and economic situation of the municipality. Additionally, lack of trust in mining company and to some extent in public authorities is a key component contributing to the experience of mining plan’s unsuccessful SDG implementation.
  • Perkiö, Anna (2021)
    Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1 or L1) belongs to a class of retrotransposons. In other words, it is a DNA element that can copy and paste itself around the genome. There are approximately 500,000 copies present in humans, but only around 5,000 are expected to remain transcriptionally competent. The activity of L1s is generally strongly repressed in normal human tissues, but in many cancers, these elements are reactivated. Both L1 transposition and transcription can have significant effects on cellular function, making it an interesting topic of research from a pathological point-of-view. By studying and understanding more about this transposon, it could be possible to find novel screening methods or even therapeutics for different cancers. One of these cancer types is high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOG), which is known for exhibiting L1 upregulation. However, the quantification of L1 transcription has been proven to be very challenging, mostly due to alignment issues caused by the repetitive nature of the element. In addition, a large proportion of L1s reside within genes, meaning that L1 sequence -containing transcripts frequently do not originate from the L1’s own promoter. This thesis aimed to tackle these challenges; I quantified L1 expression at the single-locus level in 11 pre- and post-chemo HGSOC sample pairs, as well as in 5 samples from healthy women, based on single-cell RNA-sequencing. In addition to comparing L1 activity in different sample and cell types, I researched whether L1 activity was associated with any changes in gene expression. The poly(A) site of an L1 is relatively weak, meaning that L1 transcription frequently extends over it. Based on this fact, the utilized approach was to quantify L1 expression based on reads mapping to the 1 kilobase downstream window of each L1 locus, thus minimizing the alignment issues of repetitive elements. Thereafter, the features of the detected loci were carefully assessed to separate false-positive L1s from those with evidence supporting genuine activity, such as tumor sample enriched expression, lack of correlation to host gene, and detection with bulk RNA-sequencing. The activity of the latter loci was then further analyzed to search for differences in L1 expression between pre- and post-chemo samples. In addition, the association between L1-activity and gene expression was examined based on regression models both at the individual gene and molecular signature gene set-level. It was found that L1 expression data is filled with factitiously active loci, highlighting the importance of careful analysis and wet lab validations when studying transposon activity. However, regardless of the issues arising from a sparse and unreliable dataset, I showed that L1 activity was negatively associated with the expression of MYC target genes. MYC has been previously shown to be a transcriptional repressor of the L1, indicating that the obtained results are legitimate. Even though the results obtained from this study appear to be biologically justifiable, they would require further validation to ensure their authenticity. In addition, for the future it would be essential to enhance the sensitivity of the utilized workflow to minimize the sparsity of the data, so that statistical analyses performed would become more reliable. Nevertheless, it was shown that assessing L1 expression at the single-cell level using RNA-sequencing is executable.
  • Nykänen, Heidi (2022)
    Parkinsonin tauti on maailman yleisin hermorappeumaa aiheuttava liikehäiriösairaus. Taudin ilmaantuvuus- ja esiintyvyysluvut ovat jatkuvassa nousussa, mitä väestön ikääntyminen ei yksin selitä. Taudin patologisia löydöksiä ovat alfasynukleiinin kertyminen ja vääränlaisesta laskostumisesta johtuva aggregaatio, Lewy neuriittien ja kappaleiden kertyminen sekä dopaminergisten hermosolujen solukato mustatumakkeesta. Taudin pidemmälle edenneille vaiheille on tyypillistä vaikea toimintakyvyttömyys ja elinajanodotteen lasku. Nykyiset hoitomuodot niin Parkinsonin taudille, kuin muillekin hermorappeumasairauksille ovat ainoastaan oireita lievittäviä. Onnistuneeseen lääkekehitykseen vaaditaan parannusta eläinmallien validiteetin jokaisella alatasolla. Parkinsonin taudin käytössä olevissa prekliinisissä eläinmalleissa on huono ilmivaliditeetti monien potilailla tehtyjen patologisten löydösten puuttuessa. Tässä tutkielmassa esitän uudenlaisen SynFib rottamallin Parkinsonin tautiin. Eksogeenisesti valmistettuja ihmisen alfasynukleiinifibrillejä injisoitiin yhdessä alfasynukleiinia ekspressoivien virusvektoreiden kanssa mustatumakkeeseen. Injektio aiheutti intensiivisen ja etenevän alfasynukleiinista johtuvan patologian ja merkittävän dopaminergisen soluvaurion. Taudin etenemistä seurattiin pitkittäistutkimuksessa positroniemissiotomografialla ja toiminnallisia puutteita arvioitiin synapsitiheydessä, inflammaatiossa ja dopaminergisessa järjestelmässä 16 viikon ajan. Havaitsin aivokudoksen tulehduksen ja dopaminergisen ipsilateraalisen soluvaurion lisääntyneen merkittävästi. Kahden viikon kohdalla synapsitiheys oli merkittävästi vähentynyt ipsilateraalisesti ja taudin leviäminen kontralateraaliselle puolelle oli alkanut.
  • Madhav, Hema (2019)
    Abstract Antibiotics are used to prevent microbial diseases in both animals and humans. Because of the overuse of antibiotics, the microorganism now gained the ability to resist the drugs through genetic changes. Integrons are widely known for their role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. The class1 integrons are mostly studied in Gram-negative bacteria of clinical strain as they are reported mostly in the human and animals. The integrons having antibiotic resistance genes are linked with mobile genetic elements which help them to disseminate by the lateral gene transfer method. Previous research has proved that the class 1 integrons have sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance gene by using Long-Range PCR, Inverse PCR, and metagenomics. However, it is not clear what other possible combination of antibiotic resistance genes the class1 Integrons may carry. My thesis focuses on the class 1 integron from wastewater (both inflow and outflow water) by Long-range PCR, which can amplify fragments more than 15kb and PacBio RS long-read sequencing. Its a novel method of combining Long-range PCR and may illuminate what other possible resistance genes the class 1 integrons carry. The antibiotics resistance genes such as CatB8, -aadA2, blaOxA-1 0, IMP-38 were amplified using our designed primers from IntI1 to QacEdelta1, thus the designed primers and the optimization of Long-Range were successful. The combination of inverse PCR and Pac-Bio sequencing was successful to amplify the antibiotic resistance genes from Class 1 integrons. The Long-Range PCR saves time and gives DNA amplified products longer than 1500kb. The purified samples from long range PCR can be studied by direct sequencing using the Pac-Bio sequencer. Thus, the future implementations of the above combination of two techniques can be very useful to study the antibiotic resistance genes in the soil and polluted water. More in-depth information about antibiotic resistance genes in class 1 integrons will help to understand their dissemination.
  • Mickos, Kasper (2024)
    Itämeri ja Suomenlahti ovat voimakkaan ihmisvaikutuksen alaisena, mikä on aiheuttanut suuria muutoksia monissa kalapopulaatioissa. Tästä huolimatta tieto rantavyöhykkeen kalaston tilasta näissä olosuhteissa on vähäistä ja paikoittaista: tietoa niiden pitkän ajan kehityksestä 2000-luvun Itämeressä ei ole. Tutkin touko-syyskuussa 2023 rantavyöhykkeen kalastoa poikasnuottaamalla Hangon Tvärminnessä, läntisellä Suomenlahdella. Selvitin kalojen runsauden alueella laskemalla sekä kalojen määrän pyyntiponnistusta kohti että kalaston yksilötiheyden. Kartoitin kalaston lajikoostumuksen laskemalla lajien suhteelliset runsaudet, sekä laskemalla ajallisia ja alueellisia diversiteetti-indeksejä. Vuodenaikaisvaihtelua selvitin vertailemalla kuukausittaisia saaliita, sekä arvioimalla poikasten määrän ajallista vaihtelua. Vertailemalla tuloksiani tietoihin vuodelta 1992 tutkin kalastossa tapahtuneita pitkän ajan muutoksia. Kalojen runsaus romahti yli 90 % vuodesta 1992 vuoteen 2023. Yksilömäärän lasku koski lähes kaikkia lajeja, ollen rajoittumatta sellaisiin, jotka suosivat tiettyjä ympäristön olosuhteita. Vuoden 2023 saaliissa oli kolme uutta lajia, kun taas kymmentä vuonna 1992 esiintynyttä taksonia ei havaittu. Runsaimmat lajit 2023 olivat kolmipiikki (Gasterosteus aculeatus L., 1758), salakka (Alburnus alburnus L., 1758), liejutokko (Pomatoschistus microps Krøyer, 1838) ja hietatokko (Pomatoschistus minutus Pallas, 1770), jotka muodostivat yli 90 % saaliista. Silakka (Clupea harengus membras L., 1761), kilohaili (Sprattus sprattus L., 1758) ja ahven (Perca fluviatilis L., 1758) olivat erittäin runsaita 1992 mutta erittäin harvassa 2023, kun salakan määrä taas kasvoi yli kaksikymmenkertaisesti. Poikasten ilmaantuminen runsaissa määrin tapahtui kuukautta myöhemmin vuonna 2023, todennäköisesti johtuen kylmemmistä alkukesän lämpötiloista. Kalamäärän romahdus on todennäköisesti seurausta sekä vuosittaisesta poikasmäärän vaihtelusta että kalojen vähenemisestä pitkällä aikavälillä. Silakan, kilohailin ja ahvenen vähäiset määrät johtuvat todennäköisesti poikasmäärän vuosittaisvaihtelusta, joskin tämän varmistaminen vaatii vuosittaisia mittauksia. Salakan määrän runsas kasvu viittaa rehevöitymisen ja vesien lämpenemisen vaikutukseen. Tulokseni korostavat tähän mennessä huonosti tunnettujen pitkän ajan muutosten laajuutta Itämeren rantavyöhykkeen kalastossa.