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Browsing by Subject "cardiomyocytes"

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  • Mankila, Anja; Mankila, Anja (2022)
    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of mortality worldwide. More adequate human-based models would be needed for the purposes of disease modeling and drug development. One of the most promising fields of in vitro modeling is the use of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs). A central problem of hPSC-CMs is their immature or fetal-like phenotype compared to adult human cardiomyocytes regarding many structural, functional, and metabolic properties. The development of metabolic properties is considered to be a central driver of cardiomyocyte maturation. One practicable way to promote the metabolic maturation of hPSC-CMs in vitro is the use of various biochemical cues in the cell culturing media. The topic of this study was the metabolic maturation of hPSC-CMs. The research questions were: What biochemical cues have been suggested to be involved in the hPSC-CM maturation in vitro? What signaling pathways connected to the biochemical cues have been explored in the context of the maturation of hPSC-CM? What experimental results have been achieved on the effects of the biochemical cues and the involvement of the signaling pathways? The study was conducted as a systematic review with the database Scopus (Elsevier). The final set of materials consisted of 46 original research articles published in peer-reviewed journals in English in the years 2013–2022. Out of the materials, 11 articles (24%) were characteristically longitudinal studies. They indicated that the pathways leading to metabolic changes such as PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors) and PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α) are activated already in early stages. In 12 articles (26%), pharmacological agents were used to target the metabolic pathways, and in 8 articles (17%) techniques affecting the gene expression were utilized. The most recent studies involved ever more frequently combinations of different techniques. Considering the use of biochemical cues, the trend has been to favor fatty acids, thyroid hormone and dexamethasone over glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor. Some cues such as retinoic acid and neuregulin 1 have been tested only in single experiments. In addition to the nuclear receptor mediated pathways, the energy sensors AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), the oxygen sensor HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α), and the microRNAs turned out to be central.