Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by Subject "obesity"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Mörtengren, Ariel (2016)
    The field of stem cell research is hotter than ever, because still today, the goal for easily achievable stem cells for the use of tissue engineering and stem cell therapies, is yet to be achieved. Also, human stem cell based test systems are potential replacements of present animal test models. The ongoing obesity epidemic creates pressure for scientists to resolve the causes behind it. One way of approaching the problem, is the study of adipogenesis with the use of a in-vitro cell model. This have already been done for a while, with rodent based cell models, but the present study took the human obesity research a bit closer to its subject by using humane adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC). Also, the adipogenic induction is executed with a human adipose tissue extract (ATE). Epidemiologically, the rise in obesity rates correlates at some level, with the occurrence of known endocrine disrupting chemicals in our environment. These include e.g. some pesticides and plasticizers, such as tributyltin (TBT), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and bisphenol A (BPA). In the present study, the effects of a variety of concentrations, ranging from 50nM to 100µM of BPA, on ATE induced adipogenesis of hASCs, was studied. The accumulation of triglycerides - a key parameter for adipogenesis - is evaluated with the use of oil-red-o (ORO) staining and photometric measurements. A set of tests was executed to find out if BPA possesses adipogenic, synergistic or antiadipogenic properties in this particular test system. No significant antiadipogenic, nor synergistic effects were seen. Some antiadipogenic effects were seen throughout the study, but without any dose-dependence. This study also showed need for further development of the test. ORO staining needs to be further standardized to increase accuracy, different batches of ATE may cause variation in the results. All and all the test system is relatively easily modified and when fully functional, it is a great tool for screening for substances affecting our adipose tissue, and also for enhancing our knowledge on human adipogenesis in whole.
  • Siltakorpi, Matleena (2021)
    Obesity is a growing health challenge in Finland. Despite the fact, that obesity is recognized as a chronic disease, it remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In the past few years, two new anti-obesity drugs have entered the market to support the lifestyle changes Anti-obesity medication would be a natural option to support lifestyle changes, but physicians have not widely adopted the medication in their treatment patterns. The aim of this study was to understand, what are the abilities of primary care physician (PCP) to treat obesity, considering their knowledge, resources and, local care pathways. In addition, the study sought to determine the most important factors, that are involved in the initiation of anti-obesity medication. The study was conducted as a semi-structured thematic interview. A total of nine PCPs from all over Finland were interviewed for the study. Of these, three worked on the private sector and six on the public sector. The interviews were conducted during October-November 2020. The framework of the interviews was built based on the previous studies and information within a pharmaceutical company specializing in the treatment of obesity. The content was analysed with inductive content analysis. PCPs interested in the treatment of obesity raised the topic of weight quite easily in various situations and some of them mentioned that they even find it easy to bring up the subject. However, the subject is mainly brought up when the patient already has some weight-related comorbidities. Preventively, weight is less often talked about, especially because of a lack of human and time resources. Currently the most comprehensive care pathways and interdisciplinary teams are in occupational healthcare. In occupational healthcare, resources are perceived as adequate and the interdisciplinary teams works well. In most healthcare centers, a separate care pathway for the treatment of obesity had not been built. In general, knowledge of the obesity treatment was considered adequate, but education on the biological basis of obesity is needed. Most of the PCPs knew about the new anti-obesity drugs and had positive attitude towards them, but they did not prescribe the drugs themselves. The most significant barrier to prescribe the anti-obesity drugs, was the price of the products and the lack of reimbursement. In addition, experience with anti-obesity drugs is limited and the need for education is high. Currently, occupational health physicians have better abilities to treat obesity in terms of care pathways, interdisciplinary teams and, resources than PCPs in public healthcare. The conditions are also better for the implementation of pharmacotherapy as resources and care pathways enables proper lifestyle guidance alongside pharmacotherapy. Prior to reimbursement, pharmacotherapy may not be a realistic option in the public sector, and the conditions for proper lifestyle guidance alongside pharmacotherapy are not sufficient in all locations.
  • Helminen, Heidi (2017)
    Obesity is considered one of the major public health challenges. One way to control obesity is to regulate appetite. Because brain is the primary regulative unit responsible for food intake, the research in this field has now been allocated especially to the central nervous system. The aim of this thesis was to clarify the role of cholinergic projections from pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) to lateral hypothalamus (LH) in food intake. In this study, DREADD-technology (designed receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) based on chemogenetics was utilized with a gene manipulated mouse strain. For the experimental part of this work the mice were divided in three separate groups: one transducted with an activating DREADD-receptor (hM3Dq), one transducted with an inhibiting DREADD-receptor (hM4Di) and one transducted only with a fluorescent protein called m-Cherry. The last group was also defined as a control group of this study. In addition, the gene which coded m-Cherry fluorescent protein was transducted together with hM3Dq- and hM4Di-receptor genes for the first two groups to be able to examine the receptor expression later. At the baseline level, no differences were observed in food intake between the three study groups. The food intake did not differ between the groups while clozapine-N-oxide (CNO), a selective DREADD-receptor ligand, was administered straight into the LH area (0,03 µg/injection) with or without fasting of the animals. While administrating CNO to the mice intraperitoneally (1 mg/kg), the hM3Dq-group mice were observed to consume more food compared to the hM4Di-group or the control group. This difference was detected while food consumption was examined cumulatively during total four measuring hours. When the animals were fasted before the intraperitoneal administration test, however no differences were found between the study groups regarding food intake. As a conclusion of this study, cholinergic projections from pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) to lateral hypothalamus (LH) were not regulating food intake in mice. However, the cholinergic cells in PPT and some of their axons might be involved in the regulation of food intake while the food consumption is studied continuously and long-term. More studies are required to better define the role of the cholinergic projections from pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) to lateral hypothalamus (LH) in food intake.
  • Heine, Sari (2014)
    Obesity is a significant problem for public health. Obesity develops when systems controlling food intake and consumption are imbalanced. Many different brain areas and transmitters contribute to maintain energy balance. Signals that are secreted proportional to body's fat storage (leptin and insulin) regulate energy balance in a long run. Hormones that are secreted from gastrointestinal tract control food intake in a short run. These hormones are for example cholecystokinin, peptide YY and ghrelin. Drug treatment for obesity is limited because effective drugs are lacking. The only drug to treat obesity in Europe is orlistat but it's effectiveness is modest. The development for new antiobesity drugs has been busy. Problems in drug development have however delayed drugs in the market. The aim of this study was to develop a method with which we could measure how much food zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been eaten and to study how different drugs affect feeding behavior of the zebrafish. The purpose was also to do high throughput screening of antiobesity drug with this method and to study how genes affect feeding. The amount of food that zebrafish ate was able to be measured by utilizing fluorescent rotifers as fish's food. Drugs that are known to affect feeding (fluoxetine and rimonabant) reduced the amount of food zebrafish ate when measurement was done in 6-well plate and with two hours feeding. Sibutramine did not affect food intake, although it has been shown to reduce food intake in zebrafish in another study. The effect of gene knock down was also studied with morpholino oligonucleotides. MANF, th2 or galanin gene knock down did not affect food intake in zebrafish. The conclusion is that the new method is well suited for food intake measurements and drug effectiveness studies. The method can not be used in high throughput screening because results can not be analyzed by a plate reader and the feeding can not be done in 96-well plate.