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CHARACTERIZATION OF NEUROTOXIN GENE LOCATION, TOXIGENESIS AND COLD TOLERANCE IN CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM

Zhen Zhang

Clostridium botulinum is an infamous pathogen that produces botulinum neurotoxin, the causative agent of potentially fatal, neuroparalytic disease in humans and animals called botulism. Despite decades of research, much remains unknown regarding neurotoxin gene location, toxigenesis, and physiology of C. botulinum. First, it is unclear whether mobile genetic elements can mediate transmis...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

Psychiatric symptoms in vertigo patients

Sirpa Ketola

Vertigo and dizziness are among the most frequent complaints in primary care. The symptoms are usually self-limited, and the clinical course is benign, with full recovery. In many cases, however, vertigo and dizzy spells recur, leading to impairment and chronic outcome. A number of studies have documented a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in vertiginous patients. Vertigo and d...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

The healthy Nordic diet, obesity and obesity-related metabolic risk factors

Noora Kanerva

Obesity causes metabolic dysregulations that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diet is known to play a key role in preventing obesity. In epidemiological studies, because single food and nutrient studies focusing on obesity have produced generally inconsistent results, nutrition researchers have shifted to exploring the health related effects of...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

Tall oil fatty acid-based alkyd-acrylic copolymers: Synthesis, characterization, and utilization in surface coating applications

Pirita Rämänen

Due to increased awareness of environmental issues and tightened legislation, bio-based substitutes for traditional petroleum-based polymers are being increasingly sought. Tall oil fatty acid (TOFA) is an attractive material for that purpose being a by-product of kraft pulping. Thus, it is abundant year-round, the price is reasonable, and it does not compete with foodstuff materials. In ...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

Neuro-cognitive factors contributing to paranormal beliefs: core knowledge violations, cognitive inhibition, and the social brain

Tapani Riekki

The present thesis consists of six studies that investigate different cognitive factors that contribute to believing and unbelieving in paranormal, superstitious, magical, and supernatural (commonly referred to as paranormal beliefs). Earlier studies have found several factors reaching from personality factors to cognitive factors to cultural factors that contribute to believing. However...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

VALUES, FAIRNESS AND LEGITIMACY : IN THE CONTEXT OF FINNISH FOREST AND NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY

Annukka Valkeapää

This study focuses on the values, fairness, and legitimacy of forest-related decision-making in Finland. This context can be described with the opposing values of the intensive use of forests and biodiversity conservation. Further, the legitimacy of decision-making processes in the field has been questioned by various stakeholder groups. The purpose of forest policy in Finland is to enha...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

Antiangiogenic and proteolytic activities of prostate-specific antigen

Johanna Mattsson

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a very useful biomarker for prostate cancer. The PSA concentration in circulation increases due to leakage of PSA from cancerous tissue. Normally PSA, a serine protease with chymotrypsin-like enzymatic activity, is secreted into seminal fluid by the epithelial cells of the prostate. The major physiological function of PSA in seminal fluid is to digest s...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

Epidemiology and clinical associations of human parechovirus and Ljungan virus

Pekka Kolehmainen

Human parechovirus (HPeV) and Ljungan virus (LV) are non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that form the genus Parechovirus in the family Picornaviridae. The interest in these viruses has notably increased over the past 15 years because of their strengthened associations to human and animal diseases. HPeV types 1 and 3 have been associated with more severe infections in young childr...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

Adhesion and Survival Tools of the Bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis

Christina Liedert

The known natural habitats of Deinococcus geothermalis are geothermal springs and deep ocean subsurfaces. The bacterium has also found its way to manmade environments, including paper machines and drinking water distribution systems, from which it is very difficult to remove due to its resistance towards industrial washing procedures, dehydration and even high doses of ionizing radiation...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

Molecular mechanisms regulating glucose uptake into podocytes: Role of ezrin, septin 7 and nonmuscle myosin IIA

Anita Wasik

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major microvascular complication of diabetes and a common cause of end-stage renal disease. Mechanisms leading to the development of DN are not fully understood, but podocyte injury is involved. Interestingly, in respect to glucose uptake podocytes are uniquely insulin sensitive cells. Insulin rapidly induces remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and leads t...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

Proportionality and Best Interests:Calibrating the Twin Pillars of Child Justice in Nigeria

Uchenna Emelonye

This thesis adopted the law in context methodology after due consideration of other legal research methodologies. To situate child justice within the parameters of child rights, this thesis analyzed the normative underpinning of child rights and found that its foundation is traceable to the International Bill of Human Rights. It also examined the philosophical foundations of child rights...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

Perspectives on Mobility and Travelling : A study of references to functionally-bound forms of individual movement in non-literary texts from New Kingdom Deir el-Medina

Patricia Berg

Throughout history, people have moved between places. One approach of studying the relationship between people and the environment they live within is called a phenomenology of landscape. According to this approach, all landscapes are embedded in the social and individual times of memory and there is a right way to move around in the familiar landscape. In this dissertation I present tex...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

On spectrum of the linear water-wave problem in cuspidal domains

Jussi Martin

In this thesis we study the spectrum of a certain boundary value problem in cuspidal domains. This boundary value problem originates from the linear theory of water-waves. One particular motivation for studying the problem in cuspidal domains, is that in some cases the cuspidal shape could act as a wave absorbing structure. Furthermore, the problem itself has also mathematical interest o...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

New insights into enhancing morphine analgesia: from glia to pharmacokinetics

Tuomas Lilius

Opioid analgesics are effective in relieving acute and chronic pain. However, adverse effects and the development of opioid dependence and tolerance may restrict the use of opioids and result in inadequate pain relief. The effects of four structurally and functionally different drugs already on the market, ibudilast, atipamezole, spironolactone, and ketamine, were studied in coadministra...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 28.11.2014

”Uinuvat metsävaramme käytön piiriin” : Valtionmetsien käytön suuri murros 1939-1970

Antti Parpola

The use of Finland s national forests changed with World War II. During the 1940s and 1950s, the total cut tripled in relation to the area managed for timber production, and the area clear-cut increased six-fold. These new intensive logging practices became standard in the remote forests of eastern and northern Finland. This study explains how and why the agency governing the Finnish nat...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 29.11.2014

Pragmatische Phraseologismen und ihre lexikografische Darstellung : Am Beispiel eines mehrsprachigen elektronischen Spezialwörterbuches für Übersetzer

Anna Ruusila

This work integrates the research of phraseology, lexicography, and translation. The study is primarily concerned with a specific type of phraseologisms called pragmatic phraseologisms that are first and foremost pragmatically fixed. Pragmatic phraseologisms can be divided into two groups: routine formulae and conversational formulae. Both of them have numerous functions in different com...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 29.11.2014

How do teachers benefit from training on social interaction skills? : Developing and utilising an instrument for the evaluation of teachers social and emotional learning

Markus Talvio

By using their social interaction skills, teachers create an autonomous and supportive climate in the classroom. Research, however, is scarce on how teachers can develop these skills despite being emphasised as key tools in modern learning psychology. This intervention study explored the development of teachers social and emotional learning (SEL) skills during Gordon s Teacher Effectiven...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 29.11.2014

Maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and the mental health and cognitive functioning of the adult offspring: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

Soile Tuovinen

Hypertensive pregnancy disorders complicate approximately 10% of all pregnancies. They may compromise placental functioning and, thus, affect the fetal developmental milieu. It is therefore highly plausible that they have consequences for the developmental outcomes of the offspring. However, their role in the developmental plasticity phenomenon dubbed programming remains relatively unexp...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 29.11.2014

Työn mieltä etsimässä : Työhyvinvoinnin edistäminen ammatinopettajien työssä

Annarita Koli

This dissertation concerns work-related well-being of vocational teachers and the possibilities for well-being promotion in changing work activity. Previous studies concerning teachers’ occupational well-being and change have focused either on individual teachers as recipients of change, or on the characteristics and reforms of teaching work on a general level. Only rarely has work-relat...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 29.11.2014

The Artifact Project. Promoting Design Learning in the Elementary Classroom

Kaiju Kangas

Designing, from its very premise, aims to create something new. Therefore, it can be seen as a form of object-oriented process of knowledge-creation, which, in turn, is considered a fundamental future competence. In order to productively participate in the future society, students need experience of creative knowledge work practices from an early stage of their education. Since the objec...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 29.11.2014

Characterization of Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy Adults and the Effect of Perturbations

Jonna Jalanka

The human gastrointestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem harbouring trillions of bacteria from hundreds of species. Co-evolution has resulted in a mutually beneficial relationship in which gut bacteria make essential contributions to human health, moreover alterations in the microbiota composition and function have been associated to several disease states. In order to identify such ...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 5.12.2014

On Explaining Cognitive Phenomena - The Limits of Mechanistic Explanation

Anna-Mari Rusanen

One task of cognitive science is to explain the information processing capacities of cognitive systems, and to provide a scientific account of how cognitive systems produce the adaptive and systematic intelligent behavior that they do. However, there are several disputes and controversies among cognitive scientists about almost every aspect of the question of how to fulfill this task. So...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 5.12.2014

Feature extraction and selection in remote sensing-aided forest inventory

Reija Haapanen

his dissertation explored the potential of image features derived from remotely sensed data in the context of large-area forest inventory. The study areas were located in Finnish boreal forests, with one exception in Northern Minnesota, USA. Estimation of forest variables was carried out at pixel (or an equidistant grid) level. The non-parametric k nearest neighbour estimation method was...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 5.12.2014

Novel Regulators of Vascular Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

Robertas Ursache

Plant vascular tissues are supporting and conductive tissues composed of two major components, xylem and phloem. These tissues transport water, food, hormones and minerals within the plant. In my thesis work, I used the Arabidopsis root as a model system to study vascular tissue formation. The first part of my thesis work is focused on the formation of xylem, the water transporting tissu...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 5.12.2014

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland White Terriers: Natural history and TGF-β related molecular pathways

Liisa Lilja-Maula

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is an incurable fibrosing lung disease occurring mainly in West Highland White Terriers (WHWTs). The clinical picture of CIPF has many similarities with human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Signs include dry cough, exercise intolerance, and respiratory difficulties. Prognosis for CIPF and human IPF is poor, and only limited treatment opti...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 5.12.2014

Computational Study of Proton Ordering in Ice and Icelike Systems

Pauli Parkkinen

Recently, there has been a lot of interest to computationally study ice and icelike systems. Simulating such structures, using ab initio methods require atomic level models. However, creating adequate models for ice is challenging, as there are a huge number of isomers for any ice formation. Two factors contribute to the number of isomers: (i) the positions of oxygens that give rise to v...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 5.12.2014

Studies on the neurotrophic factor Manf and the pleiotropic factor Lin-28 during Drosophila development

Vassilis Stratoulias

Developmental biology studies how a single cell will give rise to a fully developed, highly ordered and reproducible living organism. In order for this to occur, the fertilized egg needs to grow, divide and differentiate to produce different cell types. Subsequently, these different cell types need to organize into predefined arrays of committed cell groups to produce specialized tissues...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 5.12.2014

Sleep, physical activity, and health in children – a developmental perspective

Silja Martikainen

Adequate rest and periods of activity are important for maintaining physiological homeostasis, for the adaptive functioning of the stress-response systems, and they promote psychological well-being. However, knowledge on the associations of sleep and physical activity with stress system functioning, and of physical activity with psychiatric problems is limited especially in children and ...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 5.12.2014

Remote Sensing of Aerosols: Applications for Air Quality and Climate Studies

Anu-Maija Sundström

Atmospheric aerosol particles affect public health, environment, weather and climate in various ways, and therefore the importance on obtaining information about their spatial and temporal variation is evident. Remote sensing measurements have particular capability to provide broad horizontal and/or vertical view on the ambient aerosol field from local to global scales. They also can pro...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 10.12.2014

Livet mellan raderna - Revolt, tomrum och språkbrist i Agneta Enckells och Ann Jäderlunds tidiga poesi

Tatjana Brandt

Min avhandling är en sammanläggningsavhandling som består av fem artiklar och en inledande sammanfattning. Hypotesen i avhandlingen är att Jäderlund och Enckell i sin tidiga poesi iscensätter, lever ut och därför också prövar centrala teoretiska frågeställningar som var i omlopp när diktsamlingarna skrevs. Båda poeterna är starkt präglade av ett visst post-modernt filosofiskt paradigm, s...

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Väitöstilaisuus: 10.12.2014

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Tyvitumakkeiden GABAergisen neurotransmission adaptiiviset muutokset Parkinsonin taudissa

Kontti, Arttu / 27.11.2014

Tyvitumakkeiden GABAergisen neurotransmission adaptiiviset muutokset Parkinsonin taudissa Kontti, Arttu Parkinson's disease causes changes in the basal ganglia GABAergic neurotransmission in addition to the well-known dopaminergic changes. These GABAergic modulations may cause somed of the symptoms not responding well to the standard dopaminergic medication. Neurotrophic factors are a g...

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Kirjallisuuskatsaus: Konventionaalinen Raman-spektroskopia ja aika-erotteinen Raman-spektroskopia lääkeaineiden ja biomolekyylien tutkimuksessa / Kokeellinen osuus: Konventionaalinen Raman-spektroskopia ja aika-erotteinen Raman-spektroskopia ei-fluoresoivien ja fluoresoivien lääkeaineiden tutkimuksessa

Rojalin, Tatu / 27.11.2014

Kirjallisuuskatsaus: Konventionaalinen Raman-spektroskopia ja aika-erotteinen Raman-spektroskopia lääkeaineiden ja biomolekyylien tutkimuksessa / Kokeellinen osuus: Konventionaalinen Raman-spektroskopia ja aika-erotteinen Raman-spektroskopia ei-fluoresoivien ja fluoresoivien lääkeaineiden tutkimuksessa Rojalin, Tatu Raman-spektroskopiassa käytetään yleensä näkyvän valon ja lähi-infrapuna...

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Protein aggregation / Soluble expression of human Ciliary neurotrophic factor in Escherichia coli

Itkonen, Jaakko / 27.11.2014

Protein aggregation / Soluble expression of human Ciliary neurotrophic factor in Escherichia coli Itkonen, Jaakko Proteins are endogenous molecules that carry out most biological functions in vivo. They are called as the biological workhorses. Proteins are made up of polypeptide chains that usually fold in the three dimensional space to adopt a native stable conformation. Stability of pr...

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Kielen pinnalliset muutokset: Karttakieli, uurrekieli ja karvakieli

Tuominen, Kristiina / 25.11.2014

Kielen pinnalliset muutokset: Karttakieli, uurrekieli ja karvakieli Tuominen, Kristiina HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO − HELSINGFORS UNIVERSITET Tiedekunta/Osasto − Fakultet/Sektion – Faculty Lääketieteellinen tiedekunta Laitos − Institution – Department Hammaslääketieteen laitos Tekijä − Författare – Author Kristiina Tuominen Työn nimi − Arbetets titel – Title Kielen pinnalliset muutokset: Kar...

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