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Browsing by discipline "Sosiaali- ja kulttuuriantropologia"

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  • Sydänmaa, Birgitta Nicola (2020)
    Previous research has shown that colonization had profound impacts on precolonial Indigenous communities in North America. From the first contact, the explorers’ perception was colored by Eurocentric ideas rooted in European social systems, religion, cultures, and values, which called into question the moral worth and very humanity of Indigenous peoples. In Canada, colonialism introduced Indigenous peoples with a new social order, including new political, social, cultural, and economic structures, as well as a new stigmatized Indigenous identity, which became foundational for subsequent laws, policies, and institutional practices that aimed to erase those very elements deemed problematic. In Canada, Indigenous people have since colonization persistently suffered from poorer health compared to settler and more recent immigrant populations. Research points to both proximal and distal determinants behind the disparities documented in Indigenous health, and suggests that along with contemporary socioeconomic conditions, the distal factors of colonialism, virgin soil epidemics, and policies of subjugation and assimilation have been traumatic and have contributed negatively to the contemporary Indigenous population’s health. This research thesis is located in the field of medical anthropology and examines health, illness, and healing as culturally shaped, personal, embodied, and shared experiences, meanings, and illness realities. The theory used this thesis rests on an embodied meaning-centered approach of illness, which suggests that elements from the psychobiological, sociocultural, symbolic, political, and historical experiential realms blend to form a network of meanings for a sufferer, an embodied experience of an illness world that is shared as part of a community. Situated in the context of colonial history and present health disparities, the research questions of this thesis center on discovering major themes of embodied experiences and meanings of health, illness, and healing in an urban Indigenous community. Altogether eight weeks of daily ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in an Indigenous urban community in Vancouver, Canada, in the spring of 2017. The data for this thesis consisted of fieldnotes, ten individual interviews and one group interview, taped public speeches, photographs, and videos. A thematic analysis identified six significant categories of embodied meanings and experiences of health, illness, and healing in community narratives: colonization and colonialisms, colonization traumas, structural violence, survivance and resilience, reconciliation, and healing with culture. This thesis establishes that colonization and various colonialisms with policies of subjugation and assimilation are seen by community members as profoundly traumatic events with negative impacts on health that persist intergenerationally to this day. Collective memories of colonization and colonialisms inform what it once meant to be healthy, how communities became sick, and how they can become healthy again. Due to contemporary experiences of structural violence and racism, Indigenous community members continue to experience Canada as an enduring colonial space. Healing for community members is achieved by decolonizing minds from the once stigmatized identities introduced by colonization and by reindigenizing their world through reintroducing the original cultures and cultural identities back into their daily practices and healing their perceptions of the self.
  • Saviniemi, Johanna (2019)
    The thesis concentrates on the visibility and the political recognition of transgender women (mak nyah) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Through the theories of recognition, concentrating on the questions of gender and recognition, the thesis looks into how the institutionalized transphobia, the criminalization of transgendered practices and the lack of gender recognition affect the transgender women/mak nyah, often referred to as the most visible part of the LGBT community in Malaysia. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Kuala Lumpur between April and August 2017. The study rests on participant observation – carried out in various LGBT spaces, events, and the facilities of a Non-Governmental Organization – and on semi-structured interviews with a core group of 17 participants, including 14 members of the mak nyah community and three current and former workers of three key organizations working with the issues of sexual and gender rights. Participants come from multi-ethnic and multi-religious backgrounds, of which the majority are Malay Muslims. Since the 1990s, emerging from Hegelian legacy, there has been a resurgent interest in the notion of recognition. Recently in the field of political recognition, after the recognition theorists Charles Taylor’s (1994) and Axel Honneth’s (1995) publications, the new questions concerning the relationship of identity, politics, and gender recognition have been studied by social theorists and scholars such as Paddy McQueen (2015) and Eric Plemons (2017). These scholars discuss how gender is recognized in various surroundings and fields, including legal. Furthermore, they pose important questions, such as what happens when an individual’s lived experience falls outside of society’s 'normative' gender ideal. Taken further, it permits a closer examination of the relationship between individual and society, enables the observation of gendered spaces and their meanings, and allows the scrutiny of the public discourse. Furthermore, like Nancy Fraser (1990) and Michael Warner (2002) have demonstrated, in environments where such subjectivities are oppressed or excluded from the public sphere and the institutional world, alternative discourses and discursive spaces are created, known as counterpublics, serving as social and political areas for the marginalized groups. In the past decades in Malaysia, there have been legal and political constructions toward the non-heteronormative subjectivities and groups. In Malaysia’s two-court system, ‘transgendered practices’ are criminalized by the section of religious (Syariah) law criminalizing “cross-dressing” of Malay-Muslim backgrounded citizens and by a section of the national law that has been used for the arbitrary arrests and raids of transgender-identified persons based on “indecent behavior.” Malaysia that was formerly known as a site of “considerable fluidity and permeability in gender roles” (Peletz 2009), has now taken a completely different political approach to its sexual and gender minorities. This is partly a result of nationalist “Asian values” discourse that took root in the 1990s in various Southeast Asian countries and that views the non-heteronormative genders and sexualities as un-Asian. The political identity struggles that are characteristic of the post-independent Malaysia have had an enormous impact on the gender and sexual minorities of Malaysia and manifested in stigma, discrimination, criminalization, and violence. The thesis demonstrates that while the moral policing has shown signs of acceleration, it has also opened up new channels for the marginalized groups to speak up for themselves and about their issues; thus, the public visibility of their issues has increased. As the term 'transgender' is neither ahistorical nor acultural, it requires closer examination. Through the theories of sex and gender, the thesis looks into how Malaysian mak nyah have absorbed the global word transgender. The thesis also examines the topic of institutionalized ‘erasure’ by emphasizing the interlocutor’s experiences of health care. Moreover, by conjoining the theories of recognition with the concept of gendered spaces, the thesis shows how the interlocutors are altering their subject positions and gendered performances according to the spaces of interaction. Furthermore, the thesis suggests that the lack of institutional care has created self-organizing forms of agency, where the members of the mak nyah community are answering their own needs, because the current institutional services do not. Moreover, access to the 'safe spaces,’ and other communal spaces offer vital breathing spaces for the members of the community and within these spaces, they negotiate their identities and self-organize their institutional needs. More general level, the thesis shows that in spite of the strained social change, the public visibility of the issues of transwomen has created new opportunities for trans-identified individuals, such as opportunities to alter their public image.
  • Raekallio, Eveliina (2016)
    This master’s thesis examines the meanings female participants in the sport CrossFit give to their practices. The study focuses on how the female CrossFitters construct their bodies and selves through negotiation of, and taking part in different practices and discourses. The thesis contributes to an ethnographic study on female experiences of sport. The study offers a feminist anthropological perspective on the study of the CrossFit phenomenon. As a theoretical starting point the body is seen as a combination of a lived embodied body, a political disciplined body, and a social symbolic body. The primary methodologies used in the study are participant observation and interviews. Photo elicitation is used to deepen the understanding of discourses related to the visual representations of the feminine sporting body. The fieldwork took place in Portland, Oregon for one month in August, 2014. Additional background information was acquired by the researcher’s own bodily experiences of the exercises through the continued practice of CrossFit after the initial fieldwork period, and through numerous informal conversations with other CrossFit participants and non-participants. The study of sport has been established as an interdisciplinary field and in that vein this thesis draws from sociology of sport and other social sciences in addition to anthropological theory. In traditional anthropological fashion sport is examined as a ritual, and CrossFit is seen, using Victor Turner’s ideas, as a phenomenon that has liminal qualities in that it renews the values and structures of a society through anti-structural performative acts. The study shows how in CrossFit value is attained through taking part in transformational liminal practices where athletic skills and abilities are acquired through gruelling workouts. Victor Turner’s ideas are then extended in combining his concepts of liminal and liminoid phenomena, as a real life experience of the phenomenon is in a continuum where traditional and modern qualities get blended. The aim of the thesis is to emphasize the importance of the lived experiences of the women and listen to the way they talk about their practice. The analysis is based around the three main themes that come forth from the interviews; strength, health, and community. CrossFit is taken up in the name of good health, which reflects the contemporary ideology of health as a super-value. What is shown is that CrossFit practice gives women empowering experiences of embodied strength. CrossFit appears as a subversive space which serves to assist people on redefining their identities, as the selves are constructed in creatively negotiating the experiences to fit each individual’s life situation. The significance of CrossFit practice for its’ female participants is found in the empowerment they feel from the change that happens in their bodies, strength and gender identities, but also in the family-like quality of the CrossFit community and the experiences of flow that give practice meaning in itself, through the ritual doing.
  • Kettunen, Sara (2019)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee suomalaisten naisten kokemuksia synnyttämisestä doulan eli synnytystukihenkilön tukemana. Suomessa synnytys tapahtuu yleensä sairaalassa kätilön avustamana. Nykyään yhä useampi synnyttäjä haluaa tuekseen myös doulan mahdollisen puolisonsa tai muun tukihenkilön lisäksi. Doulatoiminta on kasvattanut suosiotaan Suomessa erityisesti 2010-luvulla. Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, mikä merkitys doulalla on synnyttäjälle ja onnistuneen synnytyskokemuksen muodostumiselle sekä tarkastella, kuinka doula vaikuttaa synnytyksen sosiaaliseen kenttään ja laajemmin suomalaiseen synnytyskulttuuriin. Tutkielma osallistuu syntymän ja lääketieteellisen antropologian keskusteluihin tiedon ja vallan kytköksistä teknologisoituneissa sairaalasynnytyksissä tarkastelemalla, kuinka doulat sijoittuvat osaksi synnytyksen sosiaalista kenttää. Lisäksi tutkielma pohtii synnytyksen eettistä ulottuvuutta tarkastelemalla doulan merkitystä synnyttäjälle Michel Foucault’n moraalifilosofian kautta. Synnyttäjän toimijuus ja sen muodostumista vahvistavat sekä rajoittavat tekijät ovat myös tutkielmassa keskeisessä osassa. Lisäksi tutkielmassa tarkastellaan laajemmin doulan vaikutusta suomalaiseen synnytyskulttuuriin performatiivisuuden käsitteen kautta. Tutkielman tarkoitus on laajentaa doulien antropologinen tutkimus myös Suomen kontekstiin sekä laajentaa tällä hetkellä varsin niukkaa syntymän yhteiskuntatieteellistä tutkimusta Suomessa. Tutkimus on toteutettu pääosin eteläisessä Suomessa lokakuun 2017 ja helmikuun 2018 välillä. Tutkimuksen aineisto koostuu neljän doulan ja kolmentoista doulan tukemana synnyttäneen naisen stukturoimattomista keskustelunomaisista haastatteluista sekä havainnoinnista doulaillassa pääkaupunkiseudulla. Tämän lisäksi tutkimusta varten on seurattu sosiaalista mediaa, erilaisia nettisivuja sekä uutisointia synnytyksestä ja doulista. Tutkimus toteutettiin antropologiselle tutkimukselle ominaisen grounded theory -menetelmän avulla, joka tarkoittaa, että tutkielman teoreettinen viitekehys valittiin aineiston ohjaamana. Tutkielmassa analysoidaan synnytystä etiikan linssin kautta. Tällöin doula näyttäytyy synnyttäjän itseen kohdistuvana käytäntönä, eli minäteknologiana, jonka avulla tämä pyrkii saavuttamaan aktiivisen asenteen synnytystä kohtaan raskauden ja synnytyksen aikana. Doula myös auttaa synnyttäjää saavuttamaan vahvemman toimijuuden tunteen ja parantaa näin tämän synnytyskokemusta. Toimijuus ilmenee aina yksilösubjektin suhteessa yhteiskuntarakenteeseen, joten tutkielmassa tarkastellaan myös sosiaalista todellisuutta, jossa synnytys tapahtuu. Synnytys tapahtuu useimmiten sairaalassa, ja siihen liittyy tiedon ja vallan aspekteja. Doula vaikuttaa myös tähän sosiaaliseen kenttään haastamalla biolääketieteellistä tietoa ja siitä johdettuja käytäntöjä ainoana auktoritatiivisena tietona synnytyksessä. Doula vahvistaa diskurssillaan ja toiminnallaan synnyttäjän asiantuntijuutta ja tämän kehollisen tiedon merkitystä yhtä tärkeänä tiedon tapana biolääketieteellisen tiedon rinnalla. Näin doula voi joissakin tapauksissa toimia myös resistanssin muotona. Doulat myös muokkaavat ajatuksia synnytyksestä ja synnyttäjästä. Erityisesti doulaillat toimivat areenana edistää vaihtoehtoista synnytyskulttuuria performatiivisen diskurssin kautta. Doula sijoittuu vaihtoehtoisen tai perhelähtöisen synnytysmallin ja sairaalan biolääketieteellisen synnytysmallin välimaastoon. Tämä antaa tilaisuuden toimia välittäjänä synnyttäjän toiveiden ja tarpeiden sekä sairaalamaailman välillä, mikä vaikuttaisi parantavan synnytyskokemusta. Kyseinen positio tarjoaa myös mahdollisuuden muokata suomalaista synnytyskulttuuria tuomalla vaihtoehtoista synnytysmallia sairaalan seinien sisäpuolelle. Tutkielma toteaa, että doula vaikuttaa synnytyksen sosiaaliseen kenttään ja laajemmin suomalaiseen synnytyskulttuuriin. Lisäksi se esittää, että syntymää tutkittaessa olisi syytä tarkastella myös sen eettisiä ulottuvuuksia. Tarkastelemalla synnytystä eettisenä toimintana ja doulaa synnyttäjän itseen kohdistuvana käytäntönä, eli minäteknologiana, voidaan ymmärtää paremmin sitä, miksi monet synnyttäjät kokevat doulan palkkaamisen merkityksellisenä. Tutkielma väittää, että yksi osa onnistunutta synnytyskokemusta on synnyttäjän tunne aktiivisesta toimijuudesta, ja tämän muotoutumisessa ja vahvistamisessa doulalla on keskeinen rooli.
  • Schneider, Selina (2017)
    This thesis examines female 2nd generation Somali immigrants’ life challenges experienced in Finland and Switzerland. More precisely, the present study is based on a combination of narrative and semi-structured interviews which provide phenomenological insights in the young Somali women’s own understanding of the difficulties they witness and their personal responses to identified challenges. Against the background of raising Islamophobic atmosphere in the West, the study lays special importance on challenges which arise for the Somali women based on their Islamic belief. By focusing on the women’s interpretation of Islam and their Islamic everyday practices in Switzerland and Finland the project examines in reference to the theoretical framework of everyday Islam outlined by Schielke and Debevec (2012), Dahlgren and Schielke (2013) and Marsden and Restikas (2013) how the Somali women evaluate the impact of their belief on challenges they face. Additionally, the project contributes to the limited literature on 2nd generations’ transnational practices. Hence, it answers the question of what role possible connections to and their feelings towards their heritage play in the Somali women’s lives. Finally, the thesis provides insights in differences between experiences of young Somali women in Switzerland and Finland. The thesis argues that the young Somali women’s experienced challenges can be best understood and explained by the application of the anthropological concept of belonging as for instance described by Pfaff-Czarnecka (2011), Tošic (2012), Rogozen-Soltar (2012) and Gammeltoft (2014). More precisely, the study illustrates how the unique position of 2nd generation Somali immigrant women in-between the three very different groups of “Swiss/Finns”, “Somalis” and “Muslims” asks them to find a balance between often conflicting value systems and how these negotiations lead at times to tensions, uncertainties and ambiguities in their lives. Further, the present project suggests that Islam is not the only way the participants explain hardships they face. Moreover, by applying the theoretical framework of social fields, transnational ways of being and transnational ways of belonging (Levitt & Glick Schiller 2004) the thesis found that the young Somali women are actively involved in transnationalism even though their transnational approaches differ from the ones of their parents. Hence, especially the wish to get to know more about their roots, the pride they displayed to be Somali, and the need they feel to help other Somalis in future illustrates the Somali women’s active way of belonging. Finally, the project implies that Swiss Somalis feel stronger impeded by the Swiss state structure and experience more often mistreatment based on the veil than Finnish Somalis. Moreover, individual understandings of piety and religiosity differ between participants in Switzerland and Finland. The thesis concludes that further research would be highly valuable in order to explain these differences.
  • Holm, Emmi (2014)
    This is a study of the Nigerian video-film industry called Nollywood. The twenty-year-old film industry is estimated to be the second largest film industry in the world in terms of production. Nollywood productions are based on shooting with video cameras, quick releases, small budgets and informal distribution networks. The contents of Nollywood films are mostly a mixture of 'from rags to riches'-kind of stories, occultism and melodrama. Through the study of film production I approached my other subject-matters: modernity, globality, popular culture and the different standards of living in Lagos. The data was gathered in Lagos, the natal home of Nollywood, during a three-month fieldwork. The methods used in the field were participant observation, interviews and free-flowing discussions. The data consists of field notes, diaries, photographs, films and daily blog/gossip writings in the Nigerian media. The main informants were film practitioners in various fields of film production and distribution, and a group of young and wealthy Lagosians to whom I refer with the term 'friends' throughout the study. The main topic for my research is film production in the Lagosian context. However, the film production is very much related to the broader cultural and societal way of being in Nigeria: the anxieties and the aspirations of the Nigerian people are mediated in Nollywood films. Nollywood is a product of the global and the local. In this case ‘global’ means the technicalities of filmmaking and the global ‘messages’, a stream of global information, of the globalized world. Nollywood is an apt example of a local media’s wellbeing in the globalized world of today. Nollywood also functions as a mediative power in the Nigerian society. On the one hand Nollywood makes the global more intelligible locally and on the other hand it reflects and represents the local cultural and societal entities. The film industry and the surrounding Nigerian society are not separate entities. It is important to study cultural producers in order to understand how the media takes part in constituting a society. Similar to its surrounding society, Nollywood is going through a fundamental change. Nigeria is on the road of becoming Africa’s biggest economy while Nollywood is promoting itself in the global film scene: filmmakers now look to better quality films and cinema distribution. The storylines of Nollywood remodel the collective sphere of Nigerian aspirations and hope: the films and the real-life stories of the celebrities show Nigerians a possibility of improving one’s life. Nollywood tries to make sense of what it means to be Nigerian today by intertwining traditional and modern, global and local forces together, creating its own style of storytelling and a way of being in the global world.
  • Laivo, Soila Pauliina (2018)
    This thesis answers to a question “Why adolescent girls drop out of school in Northern Uganda?” In Uganda, approximately 70% of the children drop out of public school before 7th grade, the final year of primary school. In northern Uganda, girls drop out of school in more significant numbers than boys, and it happens around the age when girls reach puberty. Northern Uganda is also a particular location because it is recovering from long conflict, affecting strongly the whole population living in the area. The thesis is based on two-month ethnographic fieldwork in northern Uganda during the spring of 2015. To answer the main research question this study seeks to analyse it through taking a look how the school, the community and the girls themselves experience and talk about dropping out, education and growing up in the current post-conflict state of the social life. The thesis argues that the dropout rate is linked to the adolescence as life-stage of becoming an adult that is making the girls to make decisions about the future. The analysis is done through three different perspectives – the educational, societal and personal narratives of the youth. The first perspective is the education and schooling in northern Uganda. It explores the concept of ’educated person’ by Levinson and Holland through sexual education and gender in education. The study shows that Ugandan public primary and secondary education is deriving its ideas and understanding of educated person from the national curriculum, which often conflict with the local concepts of the educated person in the Acholi community, influencing the blamed and real reasons for dropping out. The second perspective looks into the community and the societal pressures the girls are facing when growing up. It will describe family, kinship, marriage and gender in post-conflict context and show how in these areas of life, the past conflict, “loss of culture”, generational conflicts and subsequent disobedience are presented as reasons behind the challenges to stay in school. The third perspective tells the stories of the girls met and talked to during the ethnographic fieldwork in Northern Uganda. It answers the question “What is happening in the life of a girl when she drops out of school?”. It is argued that the girls take actions of a gendered agency to further their lives and become adults. Thus, dropping out of school cannot just be explained as a simple event just suddenly happening without their own will. It will further answer the question “What makes some girls stay in school?” to show how those girls still in school manage the crosscurrents of growing up in Acholiland. The thesis argues that the girls in northern Uganda are active appropriators and social agents who through their own actions contest, struggle and penetrate the structures in their society while also at the same time reproduce them. In Northern Uganda, both the community and the state together with different international agencies will have plans and expectations for the girls’ future. The study shows how the girls navigate the school, community and peer expectations and sociocultural and economic structures to stay or finally drop out of school. These structures are state organised and aid-infused formal schooling and society in amidst of post-conflict recovery which creates a framework where the girls are acting. The school presents the modern and globally orientated educated person, and in contrast to it, the community is looking for to restore ‘traditional’ way of life. It is argued that these two sides are often in conflict and in the middle of this conflict the girls act and solve their way out of it, looking for adulthood and gaining respectable status in the society. The schools, the community and even sometimes the development actors see the girls as passively following the things they will encounter. The thesis will show that they are not. The girls either stay in school or drop out of it, but more often as a consequence of their own decisions and actions than passively because the school or the community could not support them. It is demonstrated that dropping out of school looks more of line a tactic for the future as a respectable grown-up than mere problem to be solved.
  • Vellava, Sanna (2016)
    Tutkielman aiheena on biohakkerointi (biohacking) ja itsen mittaaminen (Quantified Self) kulttuurisena ilmiönä, joka ylittää maantieteelliset rajat. Biohakkeroinnilla voidaan viitata monenlaisiin käytäntöihin. Tässä työssä biohakkeroinnilla tarkoitetaan ilmiötä, jossa omaa biologista ruumista (ja omaa elämää) manipuloidaan biologisilla ja teknologisilla keinoilla ja välineillä. Käsitteenä biohakkerointi muodostuu sanoista biologia ja hakkerointi. Metaforana se käsittää ihmisen tietokonejärjestelmään verrattavissa olevana organismina, jonka toimintaa pyritään säätelemään, muokkaamaan ja parantamaan. Itsen mittaamista tarkastellaan yhtenä mahdollisena osa-alueena ja työkaluna biohakkeroinnissa. Purkamalla biohakkerointia metaforana sekä tarkastelemalla sitä operatiivisena filosofiana tutkimus jäljittää joitain niistä ideoista ja ajattelun tyyleistä, joista ilmiö saa voimavaransa. Tutkimus pyrkii erottamaan toisistaan median ja yritysten luoman julkisuuskuvan sekä ruohonjuuritasolla tapahtuvat merkityksenannot. Tarkoituksena on kartoittaa ja pyrkiä selittämään, mitä merkityksellistä ja arvokasta biohakkeroinnista innostuneet ihmiset siinä näkevät. Mistä ja millaisten elementtien avulla tällaisen käsitteen ympärille kietoutuva ilmiö saa kulttuurisen vetovoimansa? Samalla pohditaan, millaisena tutkimuskohteena biohakkerointia voisi tarkastella ja millaisia teoreettisia mahdollisuuksia siihen tällöin sisältyisi. Tutkimus on toteutettu Suomessa, pääkaupunkiseudulla, marraskuun 2014 ja huhtikuun 2016 välisenä aikana. Aineisto koostuu 17 puolistrukturoidusta haastattelusta biohakkeroinnista kiinnostuneiden ihmisten kanssa, biohakkerointiin liittyvien tapahtumien havainnoinnista, aiheesta julkaistusta kirjallisuudesta ja internetin onlinetilojen kautta kerätystä materiaalista, kuten nettisivuista, blogeista sekä keskusteluryhmien seuraamisesta. Aktiivisin aineistonkeruu tapahtui keväällä ja kesällä 2015. Työssä tarkastellaan biohakkerointia kolmesta toisiaan täydentävästä näkökulmasta. Biohakkerointia analysoidaan diskursiivisesti rakentuvana yhteisönä sekä löyhänä verkostona, joka saa voimansa arvojen ja tavoitteiden moninaisuudesta ja jännitteisyydestä. Biohakkeroinnin diskurssin kautta ihmiset voivat ottaa kantaa myös laajemmin yhteiskunnassa meneillään oleviin haasteisiin ja muutoksiin. Tieteellisen tiedon soveltamista sekä tiedon tuottamista itsen mittaamisen teknologioiden avulla tarkastellaan osana itsen kehittämiseen ja transformaatioon tähtääviä projekteja. Itsenmittaamisteknologiat tähtäävät mekaaniseen objektiivisuuteen, jonka avulla itsestä tuotetaan ns. datakaksosia. Ne toimivat välineinä oppimisprosessissa, jossa tähdätään esimerkiksi käyttäytymisen muuttamiseen. Biohakkerointi on erään määritelmän mukaan superihmiseksi tulemisen tiedettä ja taidetta . Tiede ja taide nähdään toisilleen rinnakkaisina kenttinä, mikä mahdollistaa joidenkin teoreettisten mahdollisuuksien kehittämisen ilmiön tarkastelemiseksi. Vaikka biohakkerit eivät edusta näitä yhteisöjä välttämättä itse, heidän kauttaan voidaan havainnoida mahdollisia muutoksia tieteen tekemisen ja tieteellisten representaatioiden tuottamisen tavoissa. Biohakkerointi näyttäytyy hyvinvointitrendinä, mutta se kytkeytyy myös laajempiin trendeihin länsimaisessa tieteellisessä ajattelussa, josta se saa käyttövoimaa niin taloudellisen, sosiaalisen kuin symbolisen pääoman muodossa. On myös nähtävissä, että sen ilmaisemat ajatukset ja näkemykset eivät rajoitu vain ilmiön sisälle, vaan samoja keskusteluja käydään sekä tiedeyhteisön että muiden kansalaisten keskuudessa. Tiedeyhteisössä käytävissä keskusteluissa on esitetty, että biologia ei enää edusta vain determinististä kohtaloa, vaan jopa mahdollisuutta. Biohakkerit näyttävät olevan osa tätä keskustelua, vaikkakaan eivät toimi tiedeyhteisön sisällä. Biohakkeroinnin kautta esitetään myös (bio)poliittisia kysymyksiä, joihin edelläkävijät ottavat jo kantaa vaikka eivät välttämättä tiedosta tekevänsä niin, tai ainakaan se ei ole merkittävä toimintaa ohjaava motivaatio. Instituutioiden ja auktoriteettien kyseenalaistaminen voidaan nähdä osana laajempaa poliittista liikehdintää, jossa yhteisöjen rajoja ja vallanjakoja ajatellaan uusiksi. Biohakkerointi on käytännöllisesti suuntautunut ajattelun tyyli, jossa ruumiillinen, teknologinen ja sosiaalinen kietoutuvat yhteen. Se tuntuu vetoavan niihin, joilla on jo valmiiksi taitoa ja resursseja ja mahdollisuus panostaa aikaa ja energiaa vaadittavaan tietotaitoon. Median esittämän kuvan ja tapahtumien markkinointimateriaalin perusteella voi vaikuttaa siltä, että kyseessä on lähinnä teknologiaan ja suorituskyvyn pakkomielteiseen parantamiseen redusoituva neoliberaalin subjektin rakennusprojekti. Haastattelujen valossa biohakkerointi näyttää kuitenkin myös toimivan erityisesti miehille keinona puhua julkisesti tavoilla, jotka eivät ole ehkä aiemmin olleet hyväksyttyjä. Teknotieteeseen nojaava biohakkerointidiskurssi tuntuu tarjoavan hyväksyttävän kontekstin ja keinot tuoda esiin henkilökohtaisiakin asioita, vaikeuksia ja intiimejäkin aiheita, kuten itsetunto ja sosiaaliset taidot tai niiden koettu puute. Todellisuuden ns. paljastaminen tieteellisesti on yksi osa biohakkeroinnin viehätystä, mutta siihen sekoittuu myös esteettisiä ja viihteellisiä elementtejä. Biohakkerointidiskurssi vetoaa liikkuessaan monilla kentillä ja sekoittamalla luovasti erilaisia elementtejä toisiinsa. Näihin kuuluvat niin tieteellinen tieto, henkilökohtaiset narratiivit, refleksiivisyys kuin mielikuvituksen voima, jotka yhdessä lupaavat tuoda muutoksen niin henkilökohtaisella kuin yhteiskunnallisella tasolla. Se myös herättää kysymyksen, kuinka tiedon tuotannon käytäntöjä ja esittämisen tapoja voisi pohtia uusista näkökulmista ja näin osallistua ajankohtaisiin yhteiskunnallisiin keskusteluihin sekä olla mukana muutoksissa mielekkäillä tavoilla.
  • Vehkasalo, Veera Kaisa (2011)
    In this thesis I study the Neo-Eurasianist movement in Russia and the ways the activists of the movement construct Eurasia as a unified entity and an empire. The central research questions of this work are: What is the empire and what are its central motivations and themes? How is the idea of empire constructed or understood, and how can this be interpreted? What could be seen to be the effects of their ways of imagining Eurasia? My material consists of interviews that were collected during the spring of 2008, and written materials produced by the movement (various printed publications and internet sites). By the Neo-Eurasianist movement I here mean the activists of the International Eurasianist Movement (Meždunarodnoe Evrazijskoe Dviženie) and its youth section the Eurasian Youth Union (Evrazijskij Sojuz Molodëži). The movement has been officially founded in 2003, but it draws a strong historical continuity from a movement in the 1930s called classic Eurasianism. Apart from this its discourse has a lot of on Soviet, fascist, neo-conservative and nationalist characteristics, among others. Its leader is the philosopher-geopolitician Alexander Dugin. In the background to this work I am interested in the ways the so called intelligentsia or intellectuals affect nationalism, or discourses that define the change and development of social groups. I look at my material from a discourse analytical point of view. I see discourse analysis as the research of the ways of producing social reality in different social practices. At the same the research of these discourses, following a Foucauldian tradition, critically examines the (actualized or potential) power relations that they produce. I also use the concept of 'imagined communities' of Benedict Anderson, which contributes to understanding the way my subjects build the empire as a community. In the speech of the activists the empire (imperiâ) comes out mostly as a positive thing, and as 'their own,' whereas the term imperialism (imperialism) mostly has a negative connotation, and is related to the main enemy, the USA. I separate the various themes that arise in to five main themes. Out of these I examine more closely the theme of empire as the benefactor of all peoples (political side), the source of external power (historical-geopolitical side) and as the creator of the collective subject (imperial-nationalist side). Throughout the work I try to contextualize the discourse and examine the ways it draws motives also from the historical-cultural ways of perceiving the area and its inhabitants. I also discuss the concepts of people, nation, ethnos and nationalism and how they are used in the Neo-Eurasianist discourse. The concept of imperial nationalism (imperskij nacionalizm) helps in understanding the ways the movement is trying to distance itself from nationalism and at the same time use some of the basic themes of the nationalist discourse. One of the main differences to the so called mainstream of nationalism is that the word 'nation (naciâ)' has a strong negative connotation. In opposition to nation, the concept of people (narod) is highlighted. However, at the same time the concept russkij (more an ethnic Russia) is used in a wider and more all-encompassing way than usually, and first and foremost Russia is the main referent of the empire. Of the positive images attached to the Eurasian empire, I look more closely in to the idea of multinationalism and the empire as the house of peoples, which I see to be a considerable rhetoric theme in all the material. Closely related to this there is also the 'liberating' role of empire, which I see as a branch of the same discussion. I interpret that their empire -discourse has an instrumentalist character: it legitimizes Russian claims to influence especially over the area of the former Soviet Union. The 'Eurasian people' works as a possible unifying factor instead of the 'Soviet people' for Eurasia. On the basis of my material I interpret that on the background of this 'people' is Russia and Russian -specific claims more than others. I also shortly discuss the reasons for the criticism of nation in Russia and the suitability of the term to Russia, and the stratification of concepts of Russianness. All in all, the empire is presented as an abstract, utopian and a 'total' entity.
  • Alitalo, Erna (2012)
    Viime vuosina Suomessa on puhuttu yhä painokkaammin laadusta julkisella sektorilla. Ajan henkeen kuuluu tarkkailla panosten ja tuotosten suhdetta ja vaatia mitattavia tuloksia. Myös Suomen kehitysyhteistyöhallintoa ohjaavat tuottavuusohjelmat. Kehitysavun tavoite on ollut tehdä itsensä tarpeettomaksi, mutta koska näin ei ole käynyt, on kritiikki kehitysapua kohtaan lisääntynyt. Tämä Pro Gradu -tutkielma käsittelee kysymystä, miksei kehitysyhteistyö näytä toimivan. Tutkielman tutkimuskohteena on Suomen Ulkoasiainministeriön kansalaisjärjestöhankkeiden hanketukijärjestelmä. Esimerkkitapauksena tutkielmassa käytetään Suomen ja Indonesian WWF:n yhteistyönä toteuttamaa Borneon sydän -hanketta, jonka ensimmäinen tukikausi oli 2008–2010. Tutkielman ote on diskursiivinen ja siinä analysoidaan ensisijaisesti Borneon sydän -hankkeen hankehakemusta ja Suomen kehityspoliittista linjausta vuodelta 2007. Lisäksi aineistona käytetään haastatteluja ja nauhoituksia eri tilaisuuksista vuodelta 2011. Teoreettisen pohjan tutkielmaan luo Arturo Escobarin ajatus, jonka mukaan kehitys tulisi ymmärtää historiallisesti tuotettuna diskurssina. Tutkielmassa tuodaankin esille, että Antropologia voi korostaa kehitysdiskurssin tutkimisessa kulttuurin merkitystä. Tutkielmassa tuodaan esille, että Suomen kehityspolitiikassa kansalaisjärjestöhankkeilla nähdään olevan tärkeä rooli kehitysavun kokonaisuudessa ja niiden ensisijaiseksi tavoitteeksi asetetaan kehitysmaan kansalaisyhteiskunnan vahvistaminen. Hankkeiden laadun takaamiseksi korostetaan suunnittelun tärkeyttä. Tutkielmassa otetaan kuitenkin esille, että Ulkoasiainministeriö tarjoaa suunnittelutukea minimaalisesti. Tästä syystä on mahdollista, että paikallista ongelmakenttää ei huomioida hankkeissa tarpeeksi hyvin. Tutkielmassa myös kyseenalaistetaan, kuinka on mahdollista vahvistaa kehitysmaan kansalaisyhteiskuntaa järjestelmän, joka rajoittaa yhteistyön kolmeen vuoteen, puitteissa. Tutkielmassa esitetäänkin että paljolti rahoitusjärjestelmän takia, voidaan pikemminkin puhua suomalaisten järjestöjen työstä kehitysmaissa kuin kehitysyhteistyöstä. Tutkielmassa tulee myös esille, että sekä Ulkoasiainministeriössä että kansalaisjärjestökentällä on huomioitu riskit, jotka liittyvät tuottavuusnäkökulmaan. Ensinnäkin, jos mitattavuudesta puhutaan liikaa, voi toiminta suuntautua pelkästään sinne, mistä saadaan mitattavia tuloksia. Toiseksi, kun Suomessa puhutaan laadusta, vedetään usein suoraan yhtäläisyysmerkit laadun ja hyvin hoidetun hallinnon välille, mikä suosii suuria järjestöjä. Kolmanneksi yksittäisten kehitystoimien vaikutusten osoittaminen on vaikeaa koska toimintakenttä on hyvin monimutkainen. Tutkielmassa esitetäänkin, että on aiheellista kysyä, onko koko panos-tuotos -ketjun mielekkyys kehitysyhteistyössä kyseenalaista. Historia on osoittanut, että ei voida tietää, onko kulloinenkin kehitysinterventio toimiva vai ei. Pääväitteenä tutkielmassa onkin, että pohja kehitysajattelulle on syvällä eurooppalaisessa ajatteluperinteessä. Näin ollen kehitys ei tarkoita vain arvoa, vaan tavallaan ruudukkoa, jonka kautta tieto maailmasta jäsennetään. Ruudukko ohjaa myös sitä, mikä määritellään kehityksen tavoitteeksi ja mitkä keinoiksi. Kehitysyhteistyön keinot näyttävätkin toimivilta vain niin kauan kuin niiden suhteesta tavoitteeseen ollaan yksimielisiä. Tutkielmassa esitetäänkin, että kehitysyhteistyö ei näytä toimivan koska tavoitteiden, keinojen ja tulosten mitattavuuden välillä vallitsee jatkuva ristiriita. Lopulta tutkielmassa kysytäänkin, tulisiko kehitykseen suhtautua uudella tavalla, ja kansalaisjärjestöhankkeiden kohdalla korostaa tavoitteena kehitysyhteistyön jälkimmäistä sanaa: yhteistyötä. Näin myös siinä mielessä, että motiivi kansalaisjärjestöjen kehitysyhteistyöhankkeisiin on tutkielman mukaan usein vaikuttamishalu virallisista tavoitteista riippumatta.
  • Jokinen, Päivi (2014)
    Työssä tarkastellaan maahanmuutosta käytävää moraalista keskustelua sekä lapsiin liittyviä moraalisia kysymyksiä Kanadassa Quebecin provinsissa. Työn lähtökohtana on Kanadan maahanmuuttopolitiikassa vuodesta 2012 lähtien tapahtuneet muutokset sekä erityisesti Quebecin provinssissa maahanmuuttoon liittyvä keskustelu. Työn tavoitteena on nostaa esiin moraaliset painotukset maahanmuuttoon ja lapsuuteen liittyen. Tutkimus on samalla etnografinen kuvaus siitä, kuinka maahanmuuttokäytänteiden kautta vaalitaan tiettyjä arvoja. Tutkielman aineisto on kerätty kahden kuukauden kenttätyön aikana marras-joulukuussa 2013 Kanadassa Quebecin provinssissa Montrealin kaupungissa. Aineisto muodostuu kenttätyön aikana tehdyistä järjestötyöntekijöiden haastatteluista ja keskusteluista sekä erilaisissa tapahtumissa tehdystä osallistuvasta havainnoinnista. Aineistona käytetään myös uutisia ja internetissä käytyjä keskusteluja. Tämän lisäksi erilaiset lait ja säädökset ovat keskeinen osa tutkimuksen aineistoa. Työssä kuvataan kahta eri lähestymistapaa maahanmuuttoon liittyvissä kysymyksissä. Työ osoittaa, kuinka ihmiset paikantavat moraalinsa eri tavoin, joko inhimillisyyttä tai oman yhteisön suojelua korostaen. Moraalisen keskustelun avulla osoitetaan, kuka on oikeutettu olemaan yhteisön jäsen. Lisäksi analyysissa tarkastellaan lasten asemaa ja heihin liittyviä moraalisia kysymyksiä. Analyysi nostaa esiin erityisesti yhteisön arvojen suojelun sekä paikan merkityksen osoittaen, kuinka olennaista maahanmuutosta käytävässä keskustelussa on ihmisten alueella viettämä aika ja siten heidän juurtuneisuus alueeseen. Aineiston ja teorian avulla työssä analysoidaan myös lapsiin liittyviä moraalisia painotuksia ja niiden merkitystä lasten omaan elämään. Lasten aseman tarkastelu erityisesti maahanmuuttoon liittyvissä kysymyksissä osoittaa, kuinka käsitys lapsuudesta ei ole luonnollinen. Aineiston analyysin avulla osoitetaan myös, kuinka quebeciläisten asema vähemmistönä selittää sitä, että maahanmuuton edustama uhka ohjaa provinssin maahanmuuttokäytänteitä. Tutkielman johtopäätös on, että lait ja säädökset luovat eriarvoisia ja erilaisia lapsia, kyseenalaistaen siten vallalla olevan käsityksen lapsuudesta. Lisäksi tutkielma tuo esiin, kuinka vähemmistön ollessa kyseessä kysymykset maahanmuutosta luovat aina moraalisen paradoksin inhimillisyyden arvostuksen ja omien arvojen suojelun välille. Maahanmuutto edustaa aina uhkaa vähemmistön omalle selviytymiselle. Siten maahanmuutto luo erityisen moraalisen ongelman vähemmistöjen ollessa kyseessä.
  • Väisänen, Sanna (2014)
    Tutkielma käsittelee säästö- ja lainaryhmiä Emuhayassa Länsi-Kenian maaseudulla. Tutkielman ensisijaisena tarkoituksena on tutustuttaa lukija toistaiseksi etnografisesti vähän tutkittuun mikrorahoituksen muotoon, säästö- ja lainaryhmätoimintaan. Tutkielma pohjautuu Emuhayassa syksyllä 2012 etnografisin menetelmin kerättyyn aineistoon. Säästö- ja lainaryhmät ovat yhteisölähtöisiä mikrorahoitusryhmiä ja painottavat säästämistä ensisijaisena rahoituskäytäntönä. Säästö- ja lainaryhmissä yhdistyvät periaatteet kansalaisjärjestöjen hallinnoimasta mikrorahoituksesta ja perinteisten taloudellisten yhteisapuryhmien käytännöistä. Ne perustuvat CARE-järjestön uusliberalistiseen malliin, jonka virallisen agendan mukaan säästö- ja lainatoiminnan tulisi johtaa osallistujien taloudelliseen riippumattomuuteen. Tutkielman teoreettinen viitekehys muodostuu aiemmasta antropologisesta taloudellisten tukiryhmien ja mikrorahoituksen tutkimuksesta sekä tieteenalan velallisuutta käsittelevästä keskustelusta. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on säästö- ja lainaryhmien jäsenten välisiä sosiaalisia suhteita tarkastelemalla kiinnittää lukijan huomio taloudellisen toiminnan sijasta rahoitusryhmän sisäisen dynamiikan merkitykseen, virallisen rahoitusmallin ja ruohonjuuritason käytäntöjen ristiriitaisuuteen sekä klassisen 'hyödykevelka vs. lahjavelka' -erottelun keinotekoisuuteen. Aineiston analyysin perusteella päädytään tulokseen, että Emuhayan säästö- ja lainaryhmillä on taloudellinen, sosiaalinen ja kulttuurinen ulottuvuus. Taloudellinen ulottuvuus on köyhällä maaseudulla tärkeä. Päivittäiset ja äkilliset tarpeet sanelevat usein rahan käyttötarkoitukset. Tästä huolimatta sosiaaliset ja kulttuuriset syyt ovat kuitenkin monelle päällimmäisiä syitä osallistua toimintaan. Ryhmät toimivat esimerkiksi keskustelufoorumeina ja paikkoina solmia ja vahvistaa ystävyyssuhteita. Merkitys on erityisen tärkeä yhteiskunnan marginaalissa eläville ihmisryhmille, joilta puuttui perheen ja suvun muodostama tukiverkko. Kulttuurinen ulottuvuus näkyy paikallisten markkinoiden suojelemisessa ja siinä, että lainarahalla tuetaan yhteisöllisiä seremonioita, jotka vahvistavat koko yhteisön jäsenten välisiä suhteita. Johtopäätöksenä esitetään, että taloudellinen ja sosiaalinen eivät koskaan ole erotettavissa toisistaan. Säästö- ja lainatoiminta on moniulotteista toimintaa ja pitää sisällään sekä hyödyke- että lahjavelallisuuden piirteitä. Ryhmien rahoituksellisessa toiminnassa esiintyvät lyhytkestoiset vaihtosuhteet ja sosiaalisessa toiminnassa jäsenten väliset pitkäkestoiset suhteet. Eri tilanteissa korostuvat eri ulottuvuudet. Sen sijaan, että sosiaaliset suhteet olisivat välineellisessä asemassa taloudellisten päämäärien saavuttamisessa, luo rahoitustoiminnan säännöllisyys alustan sosiaalisten ja kulttuuristen päämäärien tavoittelemiselle. Mikrorahoitusvelalla ylläpidetään osallistujien välisiä suhteita sen sijaan, että niitä pyrittäisi katkaisemaan. Uusliberalistisen mikrorahoitusmallin omaksuminen ei ole tehnyt maaseudun asukkaista kapitalisteja, kuten monet mikrorahoituksen kriitikot ovat pelänneet. Yhteistyön ja yhteisavun kulttuuri on maaseudulla vahva ja vaikuttaa tapoihin, joilla lainarahaa käytetään ja merkityksellistetään. Yksilölliset tavoitteet ovat lopulta aina alisteisia yhteisön hyvinvoinnille.
  • Lähteenaho, Samuli (2016)
    This is a study on sense of location and relative location. It examines how a group of young middle-class adults in the Lebanese capital Beirut form a sense of their relative location in the world. The study is located in Beirut, a Mediterranean city with a distinct history of connections to places including Europe and the Arab world. The study focuses on how research participants are located through different regimes such as border bureaucracies and their own connections and disconnections to different places in the world, and how they make sense of their location through a process of social poetics. The study analyses how the participants use stereotyping in comparison of places to form a sense of their own location. This study is a contribution to understanding youth in todays Middle East and to the anthropological examination of Beirut, Lebanon, and the Levant. It also contributes to the growing literature on anthropology of movement and transnationalism, discussed also under such names as globalization and cosmopolitanism. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Beirut between August and December 2015. The study is based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews with a core group of middle class anglophone research participants. Participant observation and interviews were supplemented by media follow-up including both Lebanese traditional and social media, and attending academic events in Beirut. The research participants were all educated, between 20 and 35 years of age, and had experience of travel or life outside of Lebanon, but otherwise their life histories were divergent. There were a total of 14 core research participants (6 male, 8 female). This thesis analyses relative location and sense of location utilizing multiple theoretical discussions, including anthropological discussions on location, social poetics, value, state, the affective turn, and cosmopolitanism. The analysis suggests that the research participants use stereotypes of places that serve as examples of values, in a process that serves to configure the participants sense of location. It further suggests that encounters with state, political mobilization, and border bureaucracies serve as important nodes in forming ones sense of location. The analysis also points out that encounters with borders and travel are affective experiences, and that therefore the formation of a sense of location is not only cognitive and conceptual, but also bodily and emotional process. Finally, this thesis suggests that the sense of location of the research participants is not a question of identity, and that even crossing borders does not necessarily imply shifts in identities of the research participants. The thesis concludes by claiming that while cosmopolitanism works as an emic political category in Beirut, it also has analytical weight in understanding how the research participants form as sense of their location in a complex situation where national borders are only one of many mechanisms at work.
  • Salonranta, Minna (2015)
    The topic of my thesis is the learning process of wind tunnel flying skills from master to novice, and the simultaneous novice’s integration into community of practice. Learning the flying skills is not just mechanical repetition in the guidance of a flying instructor, although especially the early stages of learning occur by following a rather structured program. On the contrary, especially those who have proceeded to become skilled flyers themselves are encouraged to become innovative and develop the discipline into new levels. What characterizes the learning process in itself is the environment in which the flying and learning takes place: a cylinder shaped wind chamber, which has a turbine generated strong wind stream that in turn is loud enough to make speaking or listening in the wind chamber impossible. For this reason the language used for teaching and learning has developed into making use of the senses that are most conveniently used in the wind chamber, namely sense of touch and vision. In addition to this, the important aspects in the learning process are the sense of space, time and feeling the air, and the ability of body to remember the correct movements and how the air stream should feel in different flying positions and transitions. Learning to become a member of a community of practice happens side by side with gaining the flying skills: connecting with the other wind tunnel flyers takes place effortlessly, and especially through social media the availability of video narratives that take a form of a visual story, bring the members of social community close to one another regardless where they are physically located. There were three distinctive phases in the process of gathering the material for my thesis. The first one was integrating myself into the world of skydivers and after that into community of wind tunnel flyers – without this phase I would not have been able to ask the relevant questions concerning the learning of skills nor could I have understood the answers I received. The second was the actual filed work that was a combination of eight visits to Freezone wind tunnel near Moscow during the years 2009-2012 and shorter visits to other wind tunnels. My material from the field consists mostly of participant observation, videos of learning the flying skills, photographs, and conversations with both skilled coaches and their students. Interviews, the third phase, took place after I had finished gathering material from the field; in the interviews I concentrated into questions that still needed more detailed answers from informants. My thesis can be placed as a part of a more general discussion of anthropology of learning, especially as it pertains to learning in communities of practice, in which it is essential for members to show both commitment to a common goal and taking the responsibility of reaching the ambition while sharing the existing skills with newcomers. As a background material I used the research data of similar minded communities of practice, such as skydivers, climbers and skiers, and this data supported my own field material as it pertained to learning and becoming a member in a community. The characteristic phenomenon among wind tunnel flyers was, that after the rather structured beginning in the learning process, the skilled flyers were encouraged towards being innovative and developing the discipline of freeflying. As a conclusion of my thesis, we are able to propose that wind tunnel flying not just exemplifies well the old fashioned learning method of novice and master, but also the continuous dynamic character of not just the discipline of freeflying but also the applicable technology (wind tunnels) and social media. While some of my case examples of social worlds (such as yoga and Arabic calligraphy) were based on preserving and honoring the old traditions, the community of practice of wind tunnel flyers was quite the opposite, and the members were quick to react to new innovations, and skills were spread rapidly to the whole worldwide community.
  • Kanniainen-Anttila, Piia (2018)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract This study aims to ”sense the sense of border(s) in Pykeijä”, a small fishery on the northeast boundary of Europe, through exploring how its inhabitants experience, narrate, confront, and sense the Norwegian-Russian and Norwegian-Finnish borders lying nearby their village. This work thus, contributes to the anthropology of borders in seeking to unravel the processual character of the idea of a border and to enhance the conceptual reflections about the symbolic functions and material impacts of borders on the everyday lives of the people living near and across them. Borders are understood here as parts of the wider historical, cultural, political, and epistemological entirety unfolding on a given border land at any given time. Thus, the development of Pykeijän sense of border(s) is followed through three distinct border logics, dominating the life on the border land in succession from the mid-19th century onwards. The Imperial border logic allowed for the current Pykeijän’s Finnish ancestors to move across the northern periphery and to settle on the cape of Pykeijä. The National border logic placed Pykeijäns under the intense Norwegianization policy, by which the forming Norwegian state strived to achieve a homogenous nation within its borders. In conclusion, Pykeijäns are also presented as people whose history is so inalienably entwined with the emergence and development of the nearby borders, that they could indicate if there was something happening with the border logics again – as is widely suggested across border studies. Methodologically this study adheres to the anthropology of borders, which emphasizes the importance of time-consuming fieldwork amongst border people and delving into their experiences and understandings. The data was gathered during three months of fieldwork in Pykeijä in summer 2017. It consists of 56 interviews with 39 Pykeijäns, as well as the understandings attained through extensive participant observation of the everyday life in Pykeijä. This data is treated essentially as narratives instead of realistic descriptions of the objective reality, to allow for an access to the informal means of understanding as well. Narrative analysis found a number of recurrent narrative clusters from the data, which were then worked into the main themes of this study – the historical changes in the meanings of borders, the materiality of borders (fences), borders as distinctions of separation (neighbours) and crossing the borders in a pursuit for a better life (greener grass). These themes are wrapped around two well-known proverbs, “Good fences make good neighbours” and “The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence”, which capture many of the main findings of this study. Namely, that there are two highly antithetical borders lying nearby Pykeijä - different in almost every respect, but at the same time, both constituting equally ”good” and functional borders and a good neighbourhood. What makes up a good border must be a question of relativity, then. At times a good fence is one that prevents and halts, while sometimes it is best almost unnoticed. What is shown in this study, is that the sense of border(s) in Pykeijä highlights the importance of knowing one’s neighbours and how to best distinguish oneself from them, leaving room for whatever ambiguity and borderness is required to be able to live on and as a border. Also, since both of their borders are essentially “good fences, making good neighbours”, there is a sense of trust and safety about the Pykeijän sense of their borders. Because of this, the current European discourses on borders and border-crossers as threats, have not gained ground in Pykeijä, but are forcefully overpowered by a discourse of Pykeijäns’ own immigrant past. As such, this study serves to prove, that a history of trust and amity can abide on a border land, just as well as conflict and fear do.
  • Sillanpää, Suvi (2016)
    This study is about translocal marriage and gender relations of the Bhil communities living in Rajasthan, India. It examines how the seasonal and circular migration of men alters gender relations and the role and status of women in terms of division of labour, decision making, social responsibilities and mobility. The study is based on five month’s fieldwork in the villages of Dungarpur district in southern Rajasthan, where rural-urban migration is prevalent. The main research methods used were semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Theoretically the study draws from the works of scholars who understand kinship, gender and space in processual terms. Janet Carsten’s idea that kinship relations are made through practices as well as McKim Marriott and Ronald Inden’s theory of Indian personhood, which suggests that Indian persons should be seen as dividuals (not individuals) formed through interpersonal contacts, are central to the this study’s approach toward understanding marriage and gender. The study also looks at the ways in which space and gender are produced through mutual processes as well as the meaning of the house to the marital relationship in the Bhil communities living in Dungarpur. The key concept of this study is gender complementarity, which defines the roles of the husband and wife in India, and usually leads to the formation of separate gendered spheres and roles. The study demonstrates how the gendered division of labour in Dungarpur is flexible and suggests that it is best understood in terms of fluid complementarity, whereby the husband and wife engage in gendered, but flexible practices to maintain their house, through which the relationship between them is maintained. Migration increases the work-load of the women who stay in the villages as they take responsibility of all the household work and increasingly of the agricultural work. They also maintain the social relationships in the village and take up tasks that used to belong to men such as going out to markets. Changes in decision-making practices vary according to whom women share their house with. The study suggests that the fluidity of the complementarity in the marital relationship in Dungarpur facilitates the flexible reorganizing of work. The increased responsibilities and mobility of women should be seen in the framework of fluid complementarity as the new practices they engage in are incorporated as part of the contributions they make to the house they share with their husbands. The house in the village is also important for belonging to the village community and being part of its reciprocal relationships, both of which are important objectives to the translocal households in Dungarpur.
  • Seppälä, Riikka (2011)
    This study approaches the problem of poverty in the hinterlands of Northeast Brazil through the concept of structural violence, linking the environmental threats posed by climate change, especially those related to droughts, to the broader social struggles in the region. When discussions about potentials and rights are incorporated into the problematic of poverty, a deeper insight is obtained regarding the various factors behind the phenomenon. It is generally believed that climate change is affecting the already marginalized and poor more than those of higher social standing, and will increasingly do so in the future. The data for this study was collected during a three month field work in the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba in Northeast Brazil. The main methods used were semi-structured interviews and participant observation, including attending seminars concerning climate change on the field. The focus of the work is to compare both layman and expert perceptions on what climate change is about, and question the assumptions about its effects in the future, mainly that of increased numbers of ‘climate refugees’ or people forced to migrate due to changes in climate. The focus on droughts, as opposed to other manifestations of climate change, arises from the fact that droughts are not only phenomena that develop over a longer time span than floods or hurricanes, but is also due to the historical persistence of droughts in the region, and both the institutional and cultural linkages that have evolved around it. The instances of structural violence that are highlighted in this study; the drought industry, land use, and the social and power relations present in the region, including those between the civil society, the state and the private agribusiness sector, all work against a backdrop of symbolic and moral realms of value production, where relations between the different actors are being negotiated anew with the rise of the climate change discourse. The main theoretical framework of the study consists of Johan Galtung’s and Paul Farmer’s theory of structural violence, Ulrich Beck’s theory of the risk society, and James Scott’s theory of everyday peasant resistance.
  • Suomalainen, Veera (2015)
    This is a study of the practices of place-making and the power of place attachment. The aim of the thesis is to understand how place attachments are formed and reinforced in the city of Valparaíso, Chile. The thesis explores the themes of memory, participation, and community resilience from the perspective of identification with a place. It examines the neighborhood life of the inhabitants of Valparaíso, the neighborhood organizations and their activities, and the community response to a devastating fire in the city. The data was gathered during a three-month-long fieldwork period in Valparaíso. The ethnographic methodology consisted of participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and everyday discussions with informants. The data gathered consists of field notes, photographs, transcribed interviews, and media contents. The key informants were inhabitants of four different neighborhoods in Valparaíso. They were members of the neighborhood organizations or active neighbors, who were interested in contributing to the reinforcement of the community. Chile’s history of political repression is a significant factor in the low participation rate of the neighbors today. The military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet in the years 1973–1990 destroyed the trust between the neighbors and demolished the structures of civic engagement. The transition to democracy has been slow in the post-dictatorship Chile, and the consequences of the repression can still be perceived in the society today. It is, however, important to remember the trauma in order to not repeat it. Urban landscapes are important markers of social history, and thus significant contributors to place memory and place attachment. The historical significance of Valparaíso as a port city has been acknowledged by designating it a UNESCO World Heritage site, but the preservation of the public landscape in the city is threatened. The main argument of this thesis is that the attachment of the people of Valparaíso to their city is particularly strong, and suggests that this identification should be harnessed to promote community activism by practices of place-making. The traditional neighbors’ council does not appeal to the neighbors as a channel of participation. However, some of the organizations studied are implementing the place-making practices, and thus attempting to engage the neighbors. Situating the problems as well as the solutions to a local scale is essential for motivating the people to participate. The impressive potential of the urban communities of Valparaíso was revealed in the first stages of fire recovery, and the mobilization of the citizens was further stimulated by the common opposition to the government.
  • Lehtonen, Inka (2013)
    Tutkielma käsittelee ihmisen tekemiä tulkintoja luonnonympäristöstä Ecuadorille kuuluvilla Galapagossaarilla, Tyynellä valtamerellä. Tulkinta tarkoittaa erilaisia näkökulmia ja käytäntöjä, joiden kautta saarten materiaalinen luonto erotetaan inhimillisen tiedon ja toiminnan kohteeksi. Tutkimuksen lähtökohta on, että luonto on sosiaalisesti rakentuva käsite. Samasta materiaalisesta luonnosta voidaan tehdä erilaisia tulkintoja riippuen tulkitsijasta. Työn tavoitteena on tarkastella Galapagossaarten erilaisia luontoja ja pyrkiä näkemään niiden keskinäisen vuorovaikutuksen tuloksena syntyviä luonnon hybridejä. Tutkimusaineisto on kerätty antropologisen kenttätyöjakson aikana, lokakuusta joulukuulle 2010, Galapagossaarilla. Tutkimusaineisto käsittää kahdeksan nauhoitettua ja yhden sähköpostitse toteutetun haastattelun, kenttätyöpäiväkirjan, osallistuvaa havainnointia ja muuta kentällä kerättyä tutkimusmateriaalia sekä lukuisia epävirallisia keskusteluja informanttien kanssa. Lisäksi tutkimusta varten on luettu runsaasti tutkimuskirjallisuutta, mikä tukee teoreettisen viitekehyksen valikoitumista tutkimusaineiston tarkastelussa. Tutkimus keskittyy kolmen erilaisen luonnonympäristön tulkinnan tarkasteluun. Niitä edustavat tiede ja ympäristönsuojelu, paikalliset pienviljelijä-kalastajat sekä turismi, kukin omissa käytännöissään. Erilaisia tulkintoja tarkasteltaessa nousee esille, että tieteen ja ympäristönsuojelun edustama, luonnontieteelliseen tietoon perustuva globaali suojeludiskurssi nostetaan usein muiden tulkintojen yläpuolelle, hallitsevaan asemaan määrittää, miten inhimillisen ja ei-inhimillisen keskinäistä suhdetta tulisi rakentaa. Tiedon ja vallan diskurssiin liittyvät myös Ecuadorin valtiolliset intressit ja toisaalta paikallisen väestön käytännöllinen ymmärrys suhteessa luonnonympäristöön. Tutkimus tuo esille, miten nämä erilaiset tulkinnat vaikuttavat toisiinsa ja luovat uusia luontoja. Galapagossaaret ovat olleet avainasemassa modernin luonnontieteellisen maailmankuvan muodostumisessa Charles Darwinin nostettua ne merkitykselliseksi paikaksi evoluutioteorian elävänä laboratoriona. Saarten luonnontieteellistä arvokkuutta on suojeltu ihmisen aiheuttamia muutoksia vastaan jo vuosikymmenien ajan. Samalla saarille muuttavien uudisasukkaiden ja niiden luontoa ihailemaan saapuvien turistien määrä on ollut jatkuvasti kasvussa, toinen toisiaan ruokkien. Tänä päivänä Galapagossaaret elävät erilaisten luonnonympäristön tulkintojen solmukohdassa. Erilaisten tulkintojen ja niitä tukevien käytäntöjen yhteensovittaminen on osoittautunut haasteelliseksi tehtäväksi. Galapagos heijastelee universaalilla tasolla inhimillisen ja ei-inhimillisen keskinäisen tasapainon löytämisen haasteellisuutta.
  • Hirvonen, Viivi (2019)
    Originally founded as a Finnish utopian colony in 1929, Penedo in Brazil has developed over the decades from full-board guest housing activity to a full-fledged tourist destination. Nowadays Penedo is a popular day or a weekend trip destination that attracts predominantly domestic Brazilian domestic tourists with its Finnish exoticism in its townscape. Pequena Finlândia shopping center and the folk-dance nights organized by the Clube Finlândia are the two primary tourist attractions. In Penedo, there still lives a Finnish community of a few dozen people. Only a handful of the Finnish Penedians participate in the tourism industry, but many more reside in the area affected by tourism. This study examines the Finnish Penedians’ perceptions of tourism and of its impact on the town, community, and Finnish culture. Tourism in Penedo is built on the image of Finnishness, and thus the work concentrates on some of the classic discussions in anthropology of tourism about commodification of culture and cultural authenticity in a tourist setting. In addition, the work discusses the potential of tourism in the maintenance of Finnish culture in Penedo. The data for this study was collected during a six-month long ethnographic fieldwork period from September 2017 until March 2018. The data was gathered mainly by participant-observation and different types of interviews. The data is comprised of 24 transcribed interviews and field notes, but it also includes a small amount of other written data. The data was analyzed by employing the grounded theory method. The research shows that the Finnish Penedians’ perceptions of tourism are not uniform and straightforward. From the local perspective, tourism does not embody such meanings that it could be unequivocally deemed as good or bad. Tourism is understood as indispensable for the town’s existence, but its rapid growth has brought about challenges to the town’s infrastructure and negative consequences especially to the environment. The local community feels it does not culturally benefit from the growing mass tourism. The commodification of Finnishness divides the community. On one hand, it is seen as cultural exploitation for economic profit, particularly when the culture is being commodified by the Brazilian entrepreneurs. On the other, the commodification of Finnish culture is regarded as means for the preservation of Finnishness in Penedo. The local Finnish community experiences that there is not much “real Finnishness” in the town anymore. Instead, culture and traditions have adopted new forms and embraced new functions and meanings. The maintenance of Finnishness and its appearance to tourists is considered important. Finnishness works as a reference of the origin of Penedo as a Finnish colony and as a nest of Finnish culture in Brazil. With the growing tourism and disappearing Finnishness, phenomena brought about by globalization and modernization are seen as a future challenge, since they are perceived as something that take the interest of tourists and Finnish descendants away from the cultural traditions.