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Browsing by study line "Home Economics Teacher"

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  • Jalonen, Julia (2020)
    Finland is one of the leading countries in consuming dairy products. The consumption of fluid milk has decreased during the recent years, but the consumption of other dairy products, such as quark and cheese, has increased correspondingly. In addition, various plant-based beverages and other dairy-like products have gradually risen in popularity. The supply of plant-based products has grown, and consumers have accepted them as an alternative to dairy products. This study examines what kinds of dairy products and plant-based dairy product alternatives consumers use and how they explain their product choices. Plant-based dairy product alternatives are discussed by addressing the concept of appropriation because, contrary to the case of dairy products, plant-based products are often new to their users who might have found them only over the recent years. The research method is qualitative. The data was collected by means of semi-structured interview, accompanied by stimulus photos. Ten adults from Finland Proper, Uusimaa and Central Ostrobothnia were interviewed for the research. The participants photographed all dairy products and plant-based dairy product alternatives that they bought within a week. The photo footage was then used as the basis for discussion in the interviews. According to the study, the use of dairy products and the use of plant-based dairy product alternatives are concurrent and versatile among consumers. Dairy products are chosen for their price, taste and familiarity, and they might also be bought for other people besides the consumers themselves. Reasons for choosing plant-based beverages and other dairy-like products, in turn, are their taste, health-promoting effects, consumers’ habits, interest in new products, as well as ethical and ecological reasons. Dairy products are consumed somewhat more versatilely than plant-based products, and none of the consumers replaces cheese with plant-based alternatives as of yet. The appropriation of especially oat-based products has been successful, being clearly the most preferred plant-based products among consumers.
  • Uuksulainen, Mikaela (2023)
    Previous research suggests that following a vegetarian/vegan diet or lifestyle can be challenging for men due to the surrounding community and the norms of masculinity in society. The initiation and adherence to a vegetarian/vegan diet may have to be justified or excused, and on the other hand, there may be a rebellion against the norms. Due to various tensions, models of masculinity can either be consciously modified, challenged, or compensated. This study deepens the understanding of the topic by examining the own experiences of vegetarian/vegan men regarding the relationship between masculinity and diet. In particular, research focuses on how men perceive the influence of hegemonic masculinity norms in society on adopting and following a vegetarian diet. The research has been carried out using qualitative methods. The focus is on adult vegetarian/vegan men who were recruited for the study through Facebook's “Sipsikaljavegaanit” community. The data was compiled in January-February 2023 using an online questionnaire. The form included open-ended questions, in addition to which background information was collected through multiple-choice questions. The survey was answered by 251 men who define themselves as vegetarians/vegans, 206 of whom experienced that the norms of masculinity had in some way affected their diet or its implementation. The analysis focused on the responses of the latter individuals. The data was analysed by means of theory-based content analysis, with the help of Atlas.ti software. The results of the study show that the norms of masculinity had influenced the previous food behavior of many respondents, emphasizing meat consumption and reducing the consumption of vegetables. Switching to a vegetarian diet and talking about it was considered challenging for many. With the change in mentality, efforts were made to challenge the masculine norm of meat consumption. More than half of the respondents said they had encountered ridicule, joking and/or questioning of vegetarianism/veganism and masculinity. Many people found the questioning distressing, but not everyone was bothered by it, because for some, masculinity was not a desirable trait. The traditionally masculine appearance soothed the commentary on the vegetarian/vegan diet. Also, the example of physically powerful men seemed to normalize vegetarian diets for some men. Many respondents felt it was important to form their own definition of masculinity, and some men used the vegetarian/vegan diet as a tool to rebel against the norms of masculinity. Based on the results, it can be interpreted that the norms of masculinity present many men with challenges when it comes to following a vegetarian/vegan diet. The biggest challenges occurred when other men sought to question or discount those who followed a vegetarian/vegan diet. From the results, it can be concluded that traditional, hegemonic masculinity is not very widely manifested among vegetarian/vegan men, but most of them implement hybrid or alternative masculinities. Many men expand the definitions of masculinity beyond traditional notions, partly for other men as well. With this type of activity, the problematic culture of restriction between men could be changed towards a culture of support between men.
  • Tillander, Tessy (2022)
    The purpose of this study is to analyse learning assessment of practical action skills goals in grades 7-9 in home economics education done by teachers. The study is based on theoretical home economics education goals and learning assessments of it. Home economics education is defined in national core curriculum, which includes specific goals based on the subject and general goals. Goals of practical action skills is one of the key categories in home economics education. Practical actions are, for example, skills to work with hands and skills to work safely. Assessment of learning as a term includes assessment of a pupil, which concerns the pupil, the teacher, and the school. Assessment of home economics education has been studied earlier by qualitative methods and it has been mostly based on formative assessments. This study focuses on analysing assessment of practical action skills goals by teachers. This study was done using qualitative methods. The data for the study was gathered during the spring of 2022. The data consists of eight interviews of home economics teachers. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The transcribed data was analysed by theory-guided qualitative content methods. Results of this study indicate that the assessment of practical action skills goals of home economics is done by both teachers and pupils. Assessment happens constantly in every lesson. The aim of the assessment is skills, which are defined in the national core curriculum. The most used assessment methods include observing, which is supplemented with self and peer assessments, assessment discussions and practical tests. How the assessment data was documented was the most varied. Some of the teachers studied write down short memos, but the assessment is done mostly based on memory. Difficulties in assessment, for example, a lack of time and interpretation of curriculum makes the assessment harder. The conclusion of this study is that there should be more research on assessment of home economics education. There could be follow-up studies of how teachers could be supported and educated more so that the assessment would be more systematical and fluent. Home economics education has an important societal impact which creates the basis for education and development of education of teachers.
  • Madetoja, Mariel (2023)
    Sustainability transition is a multidisciplinary topic currently researched broadly. The great necessity of sustainability transition is commonly accepted, but the needed changes in different levels of society from political actions to individual behavior are still slow and inefficient. Socio-technic systems as food-, housing- and transportation systems are fundamentally built for facilitating individuals’ wellbeing in everyday life, and thus the everyday life becomes an important arena of sustainability transition. Former research agrees that many factors having different, independent influences on an individuals behavior are making it difficult to promote sustainable behavior. In this research the aim was to study how individuals explain their actions that have an impact on sustainability and investigate the differences in these arguments’ obligatority. This study utilizes qualitative research methods and narrative approach. The research material used in this study contains 73 writings originally collected in 2018 with an open invitation letter by Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura (Society of Finnish literature) and Talonpoikaiskulttuurisäätiö (Foundation of peasant culture) as a part of Writings about sustainable development 2018 -writing competition. Some of the writings were sorted out based on their unclearness or artistic form. The remaining 43 writings were analyzed using analysis of narratives. Narrative approach was used due to the format of the research material, but it also brought in the conception of telling as a humane way of constructing and sharing knowledge. The explanations given for the sustainable behavior were divided into ten upper classes, from which three main classes were formed. Main classes were named personal features (feelings, likings, values, health), personal resources (money, time, knowledge and abilities, personal justifications and compensations) and external factors (influence of others, environment). The difference in effect of the given explanations was named obligatority and it ranges on a scale from adaptive to unconditional. The individuals perceive many personal and external factors influencing their actions. The factors can be of differing obligatority and thus the individual sees less or more chances to change their behavior.
  • Kylliäinen, Mira (2020)
    The purpose of the study was to examine blogwriters’ expressions of hurry and easing hurry. This thesis explored how bloggers express hurry and ways to ease it in their texts. Previous research and scientific literature related to research includes a discussion related to the dimensions of time, experience of time, hurry, and lack of time. The literature related to time pressures, everyday life rhythms and sequences, hurry in varying life situations and downshifting is also essentially related to the thesis. Key observations in the research literature are that time pressures are often related to family and work reunification and its challenges, work, but sometimes also leisure time. The theme of downshifting in this study is related to the aspect of easing hurry. There are many levels involved in aspects of downshifting, from lighter lifestyle changes to ethical holistic changes in life. The study used textual material obtained from the Internet, 62 separate blog posts, whose expressions related to hurry and easing hurry were examined using the membership categorization method. Membership categorization was used to give an idea of how the thoughts of bloggers can be structured. The study provided an analysis that yielded seven membership categories that bloggers settle into. These categories are emotional or emotionally responsive, responsible, centered on many tasks and issues, hurry opponents, hurry lovers, aware and resourceful, and calm and relaxed. Five of the categories consisted of expressions of hurry and two of categories consisted of expressions regarding easing hurry. The authors associated emotion in their expression of hurry, and hurry was treated with, for example, physical feelings, sense of duty, and even guilty thoughts. When in hurry, writers felt that they were living in the middle of several things and tasks. The hurry was opposed but it was also liked. The expression of hurry facilitation recognized the need to slow down the pace and presented the public various ways to ease the rush. The writings also showed that the hurry was alleviated by calm attitude, slowing down and in a relaxed way. Area for further research would be to study how junior high school students in home economics teaching experience hurry in their own life and what kind of everyday life management skills they could learn in order to ease hurry.
  • Suhonen, Lilli (2021)
    The study examines what home will look like as a space and how home will be made during the coronary pandemic in 2020. The research topic is topical, as the coronary pandemic continues and affects the whole world and thus every home. The home is seen in this dissertation as a concrete, imagined, and lived home space that includes residents, emotions, functions, home material, and interactions. Experiences associated with the home by naming the home as a symbol that is shaped by the meanings and experiences the resident gives to their home. Previous studies show that concept of the home is multidimensional and escapes by precise definitions, but still for most people it is an obvious part of life. In previous studies, the home has expanded in terms of operations and new meanings with the corona pandemic. The corona pandemic appears in this dissertation as a situation of change, to see the attitudes of the home that have become invisible are broken and the experiences and meanings of meaning-making are reappeared. The study is implemented as narrative research. The method of data acquisition was autobiographical stories. The data eventually consisted of 23 stories ranging in length from half a page to three pages. The authors of the stories were Finnish women and men aged 20-48. Data analysis was performed using Atlas software. The analysis utilized thematic design and metaphorical analysis. During the Corona Pandemic, the home became a more private space and the importance of the home expanded. A metaphor was attached to the home to explain the new and strange situation of change. The home appeared on the one hand as an anxious prison and a constant performance but on the other hand as a refuge and an opportunity to finally rest when there was nothing else to go. The importance of the positive meanings inherent in the feeling of home in the home is thus associated with many negative meanings that weakened the feeling of home. The partially lost home feel was sought by providing decorating and repairing the home as well as acquiring new furniture and items. The dissertation provides new information on how the home is perceived during a serious health-threatening crisis, what new meanings the home acquires during it and how the home can be adapted to change situations.
  • Honkamaa, Meeri (2022)
    Leaving the parental home is seen as an important step towards independence in Western societies. Today, an increasing number of young adults in Finland move from their childhood home to live alone. Previous research has shown that interpersonal relationships are a major factor in creating a sense of home, raising the question of how young adults leaving the parental home begin to feel at home in a new place where others do not live. While studying the formation of a sense of home, this research also wants to focus on the object aspect. Based on previous research, the significance of objects in human life is undeniable. This research connects Home Economics with the perception of objects which has been introduced in the study of Material Culture and Consumer Research – in addition to their functionality objects are also seen as active agents and conveying meanings. This study examines factors contributing to the formation of the sense of home in the first independent home after childhood in the individualized context of Finnish society and the significance of objects in the process. The research was conducted as a narrative study and the data was gathered as autobiographical stories using the E-form of the University of Helsinki. The data consisted of 70 autobiographical stories from young adults aged 19–28 living in Finland. The data was analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method and the programme Atlas.ti was utilized. Based on the data, the sense of home in the independent home was created in the context of home as a physical, social and mental space. Seven main themes constituted the sense of an independent home: appartment and surroundings, privacy, independence, management of everyday life, sensory experiences, interpersonal relationships and objects. Settling into the independent home was marked by an ethos of individuality, i.e., the characteristics of the sense of home reflected the society of the given time. In addition to individuality, familiarity was emphasized in the creation of the sense of home. Familiar elements were needed in the new phase of life to facilitate the transition. Based on the object relationships of young adults, objects played an essential role in the creation of the sense of home.
  • Ventin, Kreetta (2023)
    Globalization, technological development, online shopping, and the climate crisis require consumers to acquire new knowledge and ways of acting in society. Consumer education promotes informed and sustainable consumption behavior and increases economic well-being. Research on consumer education has traditionally focused on formal education, such as consumer education in school. However, in Finland, there is no previous research on parents' perspectives on consumer education despite parents being significant influencers of their children's consumer behavior. This study examines parental consumer education practices within households, specifically exploring their views on the content areas, parental responsibilities, and sustainability aspects of consumer education. The data for the thesis was collected through semi-structured thematic interviews. Eight parents, each with at least one child aged six or older, were interviewed. Four of the participants were from the capital region and four were from different cities. The data was analyzed using theory-driven content analysis. Parents perceived consumer education as a multifaceted phenomenon. The boundaries between different areas of education were not clearly defined in everyday life, as consumer education was seen as part of education in general. The content areas of consumer education emphasized money management, budgeting, and saving. Sustainability education highlighted the ecological and social aspects of consumption. According to parents, the primary responsibility for consumer education lies within the home. Consumer education was provided at home in an age-appropriate manner through reciprocal interaction. Additionally, children participated in household consumption practices, particularly in relation to grocery shopping and their own consumer goods.
  • Moisas, Karoliina (2020)
    The current consumption is unsustainable for the planet. Consumption and activities should be made more sustainable, but studies also show challenges in the way of change. Earlier studies have examined sustainable consumption from different perspectives in different disciplines, but the use of social media material, such as blogs, has so far been rather limited. The study examines a more waste-free lifestyle as part of sustainable consumption. The phenomenon is investigated by analyzing sustainable living blog texts. Different ways of avoiding the amount of waste generated in everyday life will be explored. Interest in a more waste-free life and its topical nature guided the setting of the research issue. The study was carried out using qualitative methods. The research material was collected online on the basis of the following criteria: the most recent posts and texts were translated into the implementation of a more sustainable and waste-free lifestyle. The research material consists of four blogs, which examined the texts of a total of five authors. One writing is in English. The material was analysed by means of data-based content analysis. Based on the study, a more sustainable, waste-free lifestyle can be implemented by a variety of means. The lifestyle requires planning, foresight and active investigation and action. Everyday choices can reduce the amount of waste in many ways. Products were produced independently, unnecessary consumption and materials were avoided, and efforts were also made to develop their own activities, and it can be concluded from research that there were many different possibilities for implementing more sustainable lifestyle. The provision of research and opportunities for applications relate to different ways of implementing sustainable choices and information on what needs to be taken into account in order to implement a more sustainable lifestyle.
  • Heikkinen, Tanja (2021)
    Food waste is a global phenomenon that affects many different areas, such as the economy and the environment. Households cause the most food waste in the whole food chain, and if we want to influence and reduce household’s food waste, it is very necessary to study it. A lot of research on household food waste has been done lately. According to activity theory, action always has a target or a goal that actor wants to achieve and actions are always determined by tools. In this study, I investigate what kind of activity the households are doing when trying to avoid food waste. I utilize activity theory and operating system that based on it. I investigate the causes of household food waste, means of reducing and how the operating system appears in the activities of household food waste planning. This study accomplished as a qualitative research. Target group was the people who are interested in reducing food waste. Material for this study was collected using a questionnaire interview with structured and open questions. The questionnaire was sent to the target group through the Facebook food waste group and 89 responses were collected in a short time. The material was analyzed using content analysis. The results of the causes of food waste and the means of reducing it were corresponding with previous research findings. Also in this study peoples own actions, as well as the influence of others contributed to food waste. Proper tools are important when reducing food waste. Proper tools were felt to be necessary, but those availability was mentioned sometimes difficult to get. Also learning and development was seen important when reducing food waste. Experimentalism and courage to try new were also mentioned as important. Many households had also developed their reduction in food waste beyond on their own households, and as well as to the food garbage.
  • Rajala, Emmi (2023)
    The purpose of the study was to find out how drama as teaching method suits in home economics education and how the home economics teachers and students who participated in the teaching experiment experience teaching and learning through drama. In addition, we will think about the possibilities and good sides of using drama as teaching method, as well as the minuses of it. The study thus examines the combination of drama education and home economics from the perspectives of the teacher and the student. There is not much previous research on combining drama education and home economics, but it has been suggested that it would be possible to use drama in teaching home economics. Previous studies of drama education show that drama education can be used versatilely in goal-oriented teaching. As a research method, a case study was used, which was implemented as a teaching experiment in a middle school in Capital region. It included three teaching sessions with three different ninth graders. The length of one teaching session was 2x45 minutes and the groups consisted of approximately 15–20 students. Qualitative methods were used as data collection methods. In addition to the observation of teaching sessions, the material was collected by means of a feedback questionnaire given to all students and interviews with three home economics teachers. Data-oriented analysis was used in the analysis of the data. The students had a very negative and unfavourable attitude towards the lesson of the teaching experiment, especially at the beginning. The biggest reason for this was that the students would have liked to cook in the usual style. However, based on the feedback questionnaire, most of the students believed they learned things well during the lessons and remembered things better. For their part, all home economics teachers believed drama work methods could continue to be used in home economics teaching. They just justified their views on how and when they would use drama work methods in their own teaching in different ways. The importance of variety, better memory and improving group dynamics were listed as possibilities for utilizing drama work methods in the household, while the teacher's own knowledge, skills and skill set, and classroom facilities were perceived as obstacles.
  • Lukkari, Susanna (2022)
    The study examines the experiences of university students in busyness as part of everyday life and how the experience of busyness manifests itself as part of well-being. Previous studies have shown that busyness is positioned, on the one hand, as an experience of the adequacy of leisure time and, on the other, as the inadequacy of leisure time. Time-use surveys show that leisure time has increased in our society, but an increasing proportion of citizens feel themselves busier. The research literature on busyness often looks at people with gainful employment or the peak years of families with children, where students' experiences often take a back seat. This study participates in the discussion of busyness by studying students' experiences. The research data were collected through a semi-structured thematic interview. In January 2022, individual interviews were conducted remotely via the Zoom app. Eleven university students from the universities of Lapland, Oulu, Vaasa, Jyväskylä, Eastern Finland, and Helsinki participated in the interview. The data analysis was initially carried out through thematics, after which theory-driven content analysis was utilized. University students feel that busyness is both a negative and a positive phenomenon. Experiencing busyness as a negative is more common, which manifests itself as part of everyday life as experiencing stress, feeling inadequate, and a challenge to reconcile different schedules. Experiencing busyness as a positive is reflected in the way of thinking in which busyness is perceived to produce effective action. The amount of busyness experienced plays a significant role, as too much busyness appeared negatively. From the point of view of well-being, experiencing a busyness lowers mood and produces an irregular sleep rhythm. However, the students were aware of their resources and looked forward to the weekend as a counterbalance to everyday life. The findings align with the previous research literature that a culture that glorifies busyness is perceived to dominate. In conclusion, busyness was an integral part of the students' lives and perceived well-being.
  • Honkanen, Lotta (2021)
    Aims. The purpose of this study was to picture e-learning in higher education during a global pandemic from the students’ point of view. The study focuses on how higher education students experienced e-learning, either meaningful or unmeaningful. The theoretical framework consists of previous studies concerning e-learning and meaningful learning. The theoretical background also contains a view of personality differences from the perspective of studying. The research questions are as follows; 1. How higher education students have experienced e-learning during pandemic? 2. Which factors have helped to experience the e-learning be meaningful? Methods. The research data has been gathered in individual interviews which took place at the autumn of 2020. Most of the interviews were conducted in zoom. The individual interviews were semi-structured theme interviews. Ten higher education students participated in the study, they were all between 21 and 25 years old and their institutions located all over Finland. The data of this research was analysed with qualitative methods using the databased content analysis. Results and conclusions. From the interviewee’s point of view e-learning was experienced as either meaningful or unmeaningful, depending on the individual preferences. Issues with technology, the lack of instructions and support were mostly experienced as declining the feeling of meaningfulness. Simultaneously longing for social interaction was connected with the personality differences. Of the features of personality orientation, mainly the introverts experienced e-learning to be more meaningful than extroverts. On the other hand, the experience of e-learning was also attached to individual’s attitude towards it. The findings give support to the idea that e-learning can be experienced in a meaningful way. However, it should pay attention to individual learning preferences.
  • Lempinen, Minna (2022)
    Food waste is a global problem with both ecological and economic impacts. The purpose of this study is to explore the perspectives from which food waste content is themed in Kotiliesi magazines in 2000, 2010 and 2021. Throughout its history, Kotiliesi has provided its readers with food-related content and advice. In this study, Kotiliesi magazine is seen as a household food educator. The purpose of the study is to interpret what kind of food education habits can be identified in the background of the food waste content of Kotiliesi magazines. Research shows that a large proportion of food waste is generated in common households and it is therefore important to understand what kind of food waste-related content and food education practices can be found in the magazine available to all Finns. The data for this study consisted of annual issues of Kotiliesi magazines from 2000, 2010 and 2021. As not all magazines contained food waste related content, the data was finally limited to 25 magazines with a total of 30 articles. The data was analysed using theory-based content analysis. Based on the literature review, three different perspectives on the background of food waste reduction practices in the Kotiliesi magazines were identified. The economic perspectives dealt with the financial savings from food waste, the ecological perspectives on the environmental impact of food waste and the moral perspectives on the perceived legitimacy of food waste. Against the background of these food waste reduction practices, the literature review identified three different approaches to food education. The majority of the content on food waste in the Kotiliesi magazines was instructional in general, with an emphasis on 'eating right' and 'doing right'. There was also some food waste content written in a presumptive way, where the reader was assumed to have prior knowledge and skills on the subject, and the magazine used simple or superficial language. In addition to the advisory and presumptive style, a planning style was identified in the magazines with an emphasis on planning and preparedness, mostly related to food preparation practices and food preservation. The study provided new insights into the food waste-related content of Kotiliesi magazines from different decades and the underlying food education practices.
  • Laukkanen, Noora (2021)
    Childrens and adolescents relationship with food can be supported in various pedagogical methods. Previous research suggests that childrens and adolescents relationship with food can be supported by positive interaction and by emphasizing the pleasurable aspect of eating. The suggested approach can be understood with food and eating relationship framework. The framework is developed by Talvia and Anglé (2018), whose aim is to guide educators on how to fulfil the food and nutrition educational needs of putting the diverse relationship with food and eating into practice. In this study the food and eating relationship framework is applied to home economics teachers perceptions on supporting pupils’ relationship with food. The theoretical framework of this study is based on previous research of food education and attitudes towards food. Previous research takes place on the fields of nutritional science and home economics. A qualitative research was utilized in this study. The data consists of six virtual interviews of home economics teachers. Teachers expressions that are associated with supporting pupils’ relationship with food and eating were first separated from the data. The expressions were analysed and categorized with content analysis methods. The analysis yielded four main categories of which represent home economics teachers perceptions on how to support pupils’ relationship with food. The main categories are offering mental support for the pupil, utilizing positive pedagogy in teaching, creating a safe atmosphere in the learning environment and increasing pupils’ knowledge on the impacts of food and eating. In this study the home economics teachers experience that they can support pupils’ relationship with food in various pedagogical means. According to the results, home economics teachers find both teachers and peers contribution being a meaningful part of supporting pupils’ relationship with food. Both teachers and peers are expected to accept and allow different relationships with food and eating. The whole group is expected to offer mental support for peers and teachers find guiding pupils towards this as their task. Results suggest that home economics teachers find pedagogical skills even more important than home economics skills when the aim is to support pupils’ relationship with food and eating. Area for further research would be how the teachers pedagogical skills promote pupils’ relationship with food and eating.
  • Rydberg, Irene (2021)
    The Master´s Thesis examines home economics teachers´ experiences of home economics education during the exceptional circumstances caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) in spring 2020. The topic is important as the coronavirus pandemic continues, affecting and will affect home economics education. Previous research has shown that home economics is a civic subject that is constantly evolving as the world changes. Previous studies have also found that the management of competencies (such as consumer skills, cooking and home sanitation) included in the home economics subject supports people’s well-being in everyday life. The Thesis analyzes how home economics teachers experience the changes brought about by exceptional circumstances in their work when they switched to distance learning in schools. The material of the Thesis is part of the “Towards more sustainable home economics education 2020” survey, which was collected during the pandemic. The qualitative material consists of the answers of 99 home economics teachers to a two-part open-ended question: "Explain how your teaching changed in a state of exceptional circumstances caused by the coronavirus. Describe how the collaboration with students and their guardians has gone." Coding and thematic design were used in the analysis of the material. According to the home economics teachers who responded to the survey, challenges were posed by, for example, practicing the use of digital tools, inventing new teaching tasks, taking into account different family situations, and the fact that some students had difficulty getting in touch. Home economics teachers though welcomed, for example, the development of digital skills, student assessment and co-operation with students´ guardians. Home economics teachers experienced an increase in workload and working hours during exceptional circumstances, which had a detrimental effect on home economics teachers' resilience at work. The conclusion of the Thesis is that the resilience of home economics teachers must be supported, for example, by providing clear municipality- and school-specific instructions for the implementation of home economics education.
  • Antas, Aino (2022)
    The aim of the study was to examine the views of home economics teachers on the use of school meals as part of home economics education. The study explored the opportunities and barriers that home economics teachers perceived in the teaching of home economics linked to school meals. Also of interest were the views of home economics teachers on the common themes and objectives of home and school meals. Previous research has shown that school meals and home economics education have similar objectives, for example in terms of food and sustainability education. It is therefore necessary to deepen our understanding of the potential for this kind of cooperation in the field of growth. The theoretical background of the study is based on the concept of food education, as previous research has argued that it can be used to structure the ways in which food education can be implemented. In this study, the concept of food sense was used to support the analysis. The levels of food sense were used to clarify the views of home economics teachers on the use of school food themes in their teaching. The data for the study was collected through five paired interviews, i.e. a total of ten home economics teachers participated in the study. The interviews were conducted remotely in Zoom. The data were analysed using data and theory-based content analysis. The home economics teachers perceived school meals and home economics education as combining activities such as encouraging sustainable and healthy eating habits, practising interaction skills and learning about food cultures. In their view, school meals can be used as part of the home economics curriculum, for example by commissioning school food surveys, participating in projects or competitions, designing posters, running food councils and discussing related topics with pupils. The obstacles to the implementation of home economics education linked to school meals perceived by teachers included time constraints, the activities of the catering services and the existence of teaching documents. Better integration of school meals into education would require systemic and institutional changes, in particular. In order to support the development of food sense in home education, further research on the learning process for food sense in the context of home education should be carried out.
  • Harmaala, Kaisla (2021)
    The aim of this study is to understand Home Economics teachers’ beliefs and how they affect teacher agency in education for sustainability. Education has a key role in building a sustainable future and Home Economics has been seen to correspond well with the multidisciplinary nature of sustainability. However, sustainability is a complex issue which students should be taught by encouraging reflection and critical thinking. Home Economics is connected to everyday life and transdisciplinary in nature, therefore it is argued that the themes of sustainability coincide with the subject matter of Home Economics. Previous studies have shown that Home Economics teachers have adopted sustainable practices into their personal lives and are motivated to educate students on sustainability, however the implementation of sustainability into their practice was partially hindered by lack of resources, incentives, and outsiders’ image of the discipline. The data, consisting of the semi-structured interviews of thirteen Finnish Home Economics teachers, was initially coded based on the model of agency achievement. Furthermore, the analysis was carried out using thematic analysis. Four main themes were discovered, involving teacher beliefs about the discipline of Home Economics, beliefs about teaching, beliefs about students and beliefs about sustainability. Results indicated that HE teachers were committed to the principles of sustainability and believed that their work as teachers had impact and meaning in creating a better future by promoting a sustainable lifestyle. However, beliefs, such as students being indifferent about sustainability and the lack of appreciation for Home Economics seemed to inhibit teacher agency. Sustainability was also believed to be a controversial topic, which meant teachers would change the way they spoke about certain subjects with students. Teachers also spoke about how long-standing beliefs and myths about Home Economics still interfere with their work. Additionally, the spaces in which HE was taught seemed to steer the contents of lessons and reinforce beliefs that cooking was the main focus of HE.
  • Romppanen, Viljami (2022)
    The purpose of this thesis is to find out what characterizes food sense of the seventh-grade boys, and how their food knowledge is related to their everyday life. The thesis examines why elementary school boys think that food-related issues are important. Kristiina Janhonen, Johanna Mäkelä and Päivi Palojoki's (2016) concept of food sense and Liisa Haverinen's (1996) everyday management model have been used in the theoretical framework of the thesis.   Qualitative research methods were applied in this thesis. The data of the thesis consisted of eleven (11) semi-structured thematic interviews, which were carried out in connection with home economics lessons in a school in the capital region. The interviewed boys studied in the seventh grade of elementary school. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using theory-based method analysis. The analysis of the data was based on Janhonen, Mäkelä and Palojoki's studies on the concept of the food sense and Haverisen's (1996) studies on everyday management. The analysis revealed that food sense of the boys consisted of three categories: factors affecting boys' eating habits, evaluation of the food-related knowledge and skills, awareness of the social meanings of food. The study revealed that boys' food sense is a multifactorial issue and an essential part of their everyday management. The boys felt that the knowledge and skills related to the food sense also enabled them to manage their everyday lives and lead a meaningful independent life in the future. The boys thought that the social aspects of the food were significant and pleasant for them. While cooking and eating, the boys met family members and friends and exchanged information and learned food knowledge and skills.
  • Wilenius, Iiris (2022)
    The aim of my thesis was to find out how the tray of the optional subjects was shaped in the upper secondary school and what things influenced to the process of making the tray of the optional subjects. The second aim of this thesis was to find out which reasons pupils had for choosing or not choosing home economics as an optional subject. Home economics is a subject that typically ends as a common subject in the spring of year 7. At the end of this the development of household skills at school is left to the optional home economics’ hands. The aim of this work is to help home economics teachers to find ways to motivate students to con-tinue studying home economics more often. My research questions in this thesis were: 1. How are the tray of optional subjects formed in the upper secondary school? 2. How do pupils justify their choices to choose or not to choose home economics as an optional subject in secondary school? For the first research question, I interviewed the headmaster of a school in southern Finland, who brought an education provider’s perspective to the topic. On the basis of head-master’s answers, I outlined the process of creating the tray of the optional subjects. To answer the second research question, I interviewed ten pupils from the same school. They had made elective choices in secondary school. I analysed the interview data using content analysis by making reduced expressions from the quotations and gathering different categories from them. Finally, I examined the differences between the responses of students who had chosen home economics and those who had chosen something else than home economics. The process of forming the tray of optional subjects was initiated by the need to make changes which were caused by the reform of the national curriculum. National curriculum, local policies, pupils’ interests and future competence needs guided the develop-ment process of optional subjects’ tray. Pupils’ choices of optional subjects were most influ-enced by their own interest in learning and their experience of subjects they liked. Differences between those who chose home economics and those who chose something else than home economics were found in how stressful or easy they found home economics lessons and how good they perceived their own home economics skills to be. Pupils wanted optional subjects to be relaxing and meaningful for themselves.