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Browsing by study line "Human & Urban Geography and Spatial Planning"

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  • Nyström, Henrietta (2023)
    Urbanization, densification of the built environment, community degradation, and privatization and commercialization of space have shaped the urban development of Helsinki and also worldwide. These environmental, social, and economic problems have increased political pressure to find appropriate uses for existing spaces. The development of urban commons, i.e. shared, often non-commercialized spaces in urban environments, has entered the policy arena in recent years. This master's thesis examines how the ideas underlying urban commons are intertwined with contemporary neoliberal urban policy and planning. The ideas underlying urban commons include notions of social processes and socio-spatial relations that allow us to reimagine urban space and to figure out in what ways and by whom it is owned, managed, and utilized. The study aims to find out how the interrelationships between urban commons and neoliberalism are manifested in urban space and in the objectives behind the creation of urban commons. I approached the topic from the perspective of public administration and therefore examined in more detail two projects/actions managed by public sector organizations in Helsinki: Circular Green Blocks and Enhancement of the Sharing Economy in Zoning Plans. Data was collected through seven semi-structured interviews with planning and policy professionals and from several planning documents. Discourse analysis was used as a method of analysis and enabled the discovery of the meanings and representations of the world that underlie talk about urban commons. The results of this study show that the development of urban commons is intertwined in complex ways with neoliberalism in urban politics, which became evident through five discourses uncovered. The discourses of welfare and the right to the city revealed attempts to create a more spatially and socioeconomically equal as well as open urban space. Creating space that supports sustainable economic development was another key objective manifested in the discourse on the green economy. The support for the private sector in policymaking revealed an entrepreneurial discourse that indicated that urban space was sometimes treated as a commodity. A managerial discourse revealed a shift in urban governance and the role of the public sector, which showed that urban space was also sometimes treated as something non-political. The study concludes that the development of urban commons is influenced by neoliberal ideals, but also by ideas that can be considered as going beyond neoliberal ideology. For example, ideas of equality and welfare that reflect the tradition of welfare state policies in Finnish politics. The study encourages further research on the governance of urban commons, power relations in policymaking, and discourses among other actors in planning.
  • Mäkelä, Susanna (2023)
    Today, issues related to nature and the environment are increasingly topical and therefore also play a greater role in land use planning and urban planning. In this thesis, I study the different concepts of nature behind urban planning, i.e., the ways in which nature and its relationship to humans are defined. These many different conceptions of nature, such as dualism, materialism, idealistic conception of nature, external and frightening nature, economic and resource -focused thinking, ecomodernism, biodiversity perspective, posthumanism, continuum thinking or ecosystem service thinking, also have a direct and indirect impact on urban planning and what kind of nature and green areas are planned. In this thesis, I examine four partial general plans (in Finnish, osayleiskaava) for the city centre areas of Southeast Finland: the partial general plans for the centre of Kotka, the centre of Karhula, the city centre of Kouvola and the centre of Lappeenranta, which are all fairly recent plans. The main objective of my thesis is to find different conceptions of nature in the materials of these general plans, such as plan descriptions and various impact assessments. The method used in this analysis is qualitative content analysis. With the help of theory-based qualitative content analysis, I identify various conceptions of nature related to previous theory and research from the above-mentioned planning documents. In the analysis and results -section of my thesis, I attach the results of the content analysis to the theoretical framework concerning conceptions of nature. In the results of different conceptions of nature, especially the perspective of cultural ecosystem services, technology-oriented ecomodernism and biodiversity perspectives emerged from many text documents. The economic view of nature as a resource was also emphasised in many texts. In addition, dualistic conceptions that emphasize the dichotomy of man and nature and materialistic conceptions focusing on material reality were reflected as a broader way of thinking. On the other hand, posthumanist concepts related to equality between humans and nature are not as strongly visible in the results.
  • Tanska, Topias (2024)
    Sosiaalinen aktiivisuudella on positiivisia vaikutuksia yksilön elämään. Sosiaalisten aktiviteettien tärkeys korostuu erityisesti ikääntyvillä ihmisillä. Sen on todettu olevan positiivisessa suhteessa monien eri tekijöiden, kuten esimerkiksi koetun terveyden kanssa. Suomen väestö ikääntyy koko ajan ja ikääntymiseen liittyvä tutkimus on erittäin ajankohtaista. Ikääntyvän väestön tuottamia haasteita on pyritty kompensoimaan maahanmuutolla. Maahanmuuttajien osuus onkin noussut Suomessa merkittävästi viimeisen 30 vuoden aikana. Suomeen muuttaneista vieraista kieliryhmistä suurin on venäjänkieliset. Tämä ryhmä eroaa muista kieliryhmistä siten, että se omaa paljon myös ikääntyvää väestöä ja sopii siten hyvin ikääntyviä käsittelevän tutkimuksen kohteeksi. Tässä tutkielmassa tutkitaan Suomeen muuttaneiden venäjänkielisten sosiaalista aktiivisuutta ja siihen yhteydessä olevia yksilö- ja aluetasoisia tekijöitä. Aineistona toimii kyseiselle CHARM-kysely, joka on kohdistettu Suomeen muuttaneille venäjänkielisille 50-vuotiaille tai sitä vanhemmille. Aktiivisuutta mitataan kulttuurisen osallistumisen indikaattorilla, joka koostuu aktiivisuudesta käydä elokuvissa, teatterissa, konserteissa, oopperassa, museoissa ja taidegallerioissa. Yksilö- ja aluetasoisten tekijöiden välistä yhteyttä aktiivisuuteen tutkitaan monitasoisella regressiomallilla. Kulttuurisesta osallistumisaktiivisuudesta muodostetaan faktori, jonka yhteyttä eri yksilö- ja aluetason muuttujiin voi tutkia. Tuloksena saatiin, että yksilötason muuttujista sukupuoli, ikä, kielitaito, koulutustaso, koettu terveys sekä läheisten ystävien määrä ovat selkeässä yhteydessä aktiivisuuden tasoon. Erityisen suuri merkitsevyys oli kielitaidolla, koetulla terveydellä sekä läheisten ystävien määrällä. Viimeisimpänä mainitun merkitsevä yhteys korosti kulttuuriaktiivisuuden sosiaalista ulottuvuutta. Tutkimuskysymysten kohteena olevina aluetason muuttujina toimivat kulttuuripalvelujen läheisyys sekä asuinalueen sosioekonominen eriytyminen. Näiden ja aktiivisuuden välitä ei kuitenkaan löytynyt tilastollisesti merkittävää yhteyttä. Yksilötason muuttujista kielitaito vaikutti myös eriytymisen ja aktiivisuuden väliseen yhteyteen, mikä vähensi alueellisen tason merkitsevyyttä.
  • Suoknuuti, Aku (2023)
    Climate change has been identified as one of the most critical challenges of our time globally, but studies show that the adverse effects are already culminating in sensitive areas such as southern Africa. The increase in drought and extreme weather phenomena confuses the region's hydrological cycle, which poses challenges to countries dependent on surface water. The transboundary river network requires cooperation from governments in decision-making on water use. Studies show that water scarcity often leads to increased cooperation between states, but the situation is not excluded from conflict. Water diplomacy activities aimed at cooperation have been identified in Finland as an effective way of resolving water conflicts, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is seeking better implementation of the paradigm within the institution. This Master's thesis examines policy documents of Southern African actors identifying water and climate-related conflict risks. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with conflict research in geography and the basis for resource conflicts and transboundary water cooperation. In addition to the theory, the thesis examines Southern Africa as an operating environment in its own chapter. The material used in research is official documents defining the use of waters by South Africa, Namibia and two regional institutions, the Southern African Development Community, and the Oranje-Senqu River Commission. The relationship between the actors and their approach to the risks identified in the literature has been examined through content analysis and interpretative policy analysis. The thesis has been carried out as a mandate towards a Water Cooperation and Peace – Finnish Water Way project funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Ministry of the Environment. The Finnish Environment Institute and the Finnish Institute for International Affairs coordinate the project. The study's key findings indicate that the documents defining water use in the region are outdated. In international research, climate change has been identified as a key risk in the region, but only the relevant Southern African Development Community document has comprehensively addressed the issue. South Africa is launching a new strategy in 2023, in which, according to the draft used in thesis, the theme has also been taken fully into account. According to the results, Namibia has been active as a single actor in the climate change debate as early as the turn of the 2010s. According to the study's results, the scarcity of water resources and the challenges associated with their distribution impact the region's political power balance. However, despite the asymmetrical nature of power, the initiatives taken by the actors are, in principle, cooperative and therefore peace-building. According to the paper, the region has strong institutions, and decision-making is based on both regional and international norms.
  • Laurila, Soili (2023)
    The aim of this thesis is to explore how the Indigenous people’s rights to education in their own language and culture are realized in practice and what are the challenges for providing education that is both high in quality and equal for all. For the context of the research, the rights of Indigenous peoples were studied, and also central to this research were concepts of intercultural bilingual education and Indigenous knowledge. The research data was collected as part of a case study that was carried out during geography field course to the Ecuadorian Amazon in October 2015. The research was carried out using qualitative methods and the research methods were semi-structured interviews and observation. Expert interviews were conducted in Quito, which teachers and parents were interviewed in schools in Ahuano, Santa Clara and Sarayaku. The results are in line with previous research and show that the education does not in all respects consider the cultural and linguistic rights of Indigenous peoples. Even though the majority of the students in the schools selected for the study were Amazonian Kichwa, the language of teaching and instruction was mainly Spanish, and Indigenous language and culture were taught in separate lesson. There were differences between the schools in both resources and curriculums. As a conclusion, it can be stated that teaching is subject to continuous development, but there is no consensus among different actors and communities how it should be organized in the future. On the one hand, there are calls for organizing the teaching independently in accordance with local traditions and cherishing the language and culture of the Indigenous peoples, but the educational policy guidelines and the teaching materials dictate what kind of teaching is available for the children.
  • Mäntymaa, Eeva (2020)
    This thesis aims to examine the current regional identity of Jätkäsaari, a district of Helsinki, halfway of its construction phase. In the thesis I aim to find out, what are the most important factors in creating a regional identity for Jätkäsaari from the perspective of both the urban planners of the region and its residents. Moreover, I also sought to find out, how the regional identity of Jätkäsaari has been shaped in the planning phase of the district, and how the regional identity of Jätkäsaari has been modified by means of branding. In addition, the aim of the thesis is to find out how the residents of Jätkäsaari experience the identity of the area, and what factors make up regional identity. I interviewed three key experts for the thesis, who were substantially involved in the planning work of Jätkäsaari. In addition, I surveyed the opinions of Jätkäsaari residents on the topic by using a questionnaire published on Facebook. 80 people responded to the survey. The data was collected in the spring of 2019. The answers to the expert interviews and resident surveys are compared and used to find out, how the views of the residents and the planners relate to each other, and to determine the most important features of Jätkäsaari's regional identity. The results of the questionnaire show, that Jätkäsaari has clearly started to develop a distinctive identity. Maritimeity and the port's presence are important factors of the identity. However, Jätkäsaari is also designed as a clear extension to the city center of Helsinki. On the other hand, some residents of the area also perceive Jätkäsaari as its own territory and as an island that clearly stands out from the city center. Community spirit of Jätkäsaari has started to develop already from the early stage. Resident evenings have been popular from the beginning and there has been active discussion between the residents and the planners about the development of Jätkäsaari area.
  • Syvänen, Satu (2024)
    Tutkimuksessa käsitteellistetään kansalaisuusköyhyyttä terminä. Kansalaisuusköyhyyttä käsitellään moniulotteisesti ja sitä tarkastellen sekä yksilön että valtion näkökulmasta. Teoreettinen viitekehys rakentuu Hannah Arendtin teorioiden ja Berlinin vapauden käsitteiden varaan. Tutkimus keskittyy kansalaisuuteen liitettäviin oikeuksiin, toimintamahdollisuuksiin ja poliittiseen osallisuuteen. Empiirinen osa perustuu suomalaisessa mediassa käytyyn julkiseen keskusteluun kansalaisuuteen liittyen. Tutkimuksessa syvennytään myös kansalaisuuden merkityksiin ihmisoikeuksien ja vapauden kontekstissa sekä paikan merkitykseen kansalaisuusköyhyydessä. Julkisen keskustelun analyysissa havaitaan moniäänisyyttä, jossa poliittiset toimijat ja maahanmuuttajat esittävät erilaisia näkökulmia kansalaisuuskysymyksiin liittyen.
  • Kauppi, Juho (2023)
    Tarkastelen tutkielmassani Suomen pääkaupunkiseudun kiinteistömarkkinoita kriittisten teorioiden näkökulmasta. Hyödyntäen historialliseen materialismiin nojaavia ajatuksia finansialisaatiosta (Aalbers, 2017, 2019), yrittäjämäistymisestä (Leitner, 1990, Harvey, 1982, 1989, Hyötyläinen, 2015) ja kasvukoneesta (Molotch, 1976, 1993) luon kriittisen linssin, jonka läpi tutkin niin kiinteistöpolitiikan kuin kiinteistömarkkinoiden muutosta. Uusliberalismin pohjustama muutos kaupunkien hallinnassa on johtanut finansialisaatioon ja yrittäjämäistymiseen, jotka muuttavat kaupunkeja kasvukoneiksi. Kasvukoneistuminen tuottaa taloudellista riippuvuutta ja polkuriippuvuutta yrittäjämäisistä politiikoista sekä finansialisaatiosta luoden kehämäisen prosessin, joka pyrkii purkamaan esteitä pääoman kerryttämiselle. Kehämäinen prosessi on mahdollista erilaisten mekanismien, kuten hyvän sijoitusilmapiirin ylläpidon, kansainvälistymisen, arvopaperistumisen ja dehumanisoivien diskurssien avulla. Prosessin vaikutuksena on pääoman epätasainen jakautuminen spatiaalisesti ja sosiaalisesti. Tarkastelen tutkimuksessa tästä näkökulmasta Suomen pääkaupunkiseudun eli Helsingin, Espoon, Kauniaisten ja Vantaan kiinteistömarkkinoita ja kiinteistöpolitiikkaa. Aineistonani käytän Maanmittauslaitoksen Kiinteistötietojärjestelmän kiinteistökauppatietoja, kaupunkien kiinteistöpoliittisia julkaisuja sekä media-artikkeleita. Yhdistelemällä kvantitatiivista ja kvalitatiivista aineistoa syvennyn kiinteistöpolitiikan ja -markkinoiden toisiinsa kietoutuvaan luonteeseen. Keskeistä tutkielmassani on kiinteistösijoittajien ja kaupunkien roolit sekä niiden yhteistoiminta ja -vaikutukset. Toimijoiden rajauksen vuoksi keskityn erityisesti kiinteistökauppoihin, joissa myyvä osapuoli on kaupunki ja ostaja yksityinen yritys. Kiinteistöpolitiikka on tutkimusalueella vaihtelevaa kaupungista riippuen, mutta Kauniaista lukuunottamatta kaikki osallistuvat aktiivisesti kiinteistömarkkinoihin. Julkinen sektori perustelee kiinteistömyyntiä esimerkiksi palvelujen kustannuksilla. Liiketalouden toimijat ovat monesti saajia kiinteistökaupoissa ja kiinteistömarkkinoita voisikin luonnehtia finansialisoituneiksi. Suurin osa kaupunkien myymistä kiinteistöistä on rakentamattomia ja yleisin ostaja on kiinteistöosakeyhtiö. Kiinteistöosakeyhtiö on huomattavasti yleisempi ostajana, kun myyjä on kaupunki. Kiinteistöosakeyhtiön luonteen vuoksi todellinen ostaja eli yhtiön osakas jää pimentoon. Tukevien lähteiden, kuten Patentti- ja Rekisterihallituksen sekä Yritystietojärjestelmän tietojen perusteella kiinteistöosakeyhtiöiden takana on monesti kiinteistösijoittaja. Osassa kaupoista oli myös hyödynnetty yrityssarjaa ja yritysten ketjuttamista kolmannen osapuolen, kuten asianajotoimiston avulla. Monimutkaisten omistusjärjestelyjen kautta jäljet vievät usein ulkomaille, mikä osoittaa kiinteistömarkkinoiden kansainvälistymisen. Tutkimukseni osoittaa, että kaupungit kasvukoneina luovat yrittäjämäisillä maanhankinta-, kehitys- ja myyntipolitiikoillaan finansialisoitunutta kiinteistömarkkinaa myymällä kiinteistöjä suurella volyymillä liiketalouden toimijoille, kuten pankeille, rahastoille ja kiinteistösijoittajille. Samalla kaupungit heikentävät kykyjään harjoittaa kestävämpää asuntotuotantoa omilla hallintoalueillaan. Kiinteistömarkkinoiden finansialisoitumisen on mahdollistanut etenkin läpinäkyvyyden puute, joka johtuu yritysten sarjoittamisesta, ketjuttamisesta ja kiinteistöosakeyhtiöiden hyödyntämisestä. Läpinäkyvyyden puute heikentää mahdollisuuksia kiinteistömarkkinoiden ja kiinteistöpolitiikan kriittiseen arviointiin ja tutkintaan.
  • Välimäki, Suvi (2021)
    The goal of the Helsinki City Strategy for years 2017–2021 has been to make Helsinki the most functional city in the world. Strategy of functionality aim to improve economic attractiveness and competitiveness in Helsinki as one of its main objectives. In academic literature, regional competitiveness is connected to a wide range of different factors. However, common for many theories is an underlying idea of companies benefitting from functioning as part of a wider regional system. These benefits may relate a to better availability of labour and other specialized inputs but above all, to companies being able to make use of the knowledge located in the region. Company’s ability to utilize knowledge is linked especially to developing innovations that improve production. For cities, motivation to improve competitiveness lies in questions of employment and welfare. It can be linked to a development in which globalization and post industrialization have together led to a situation, where cities are considered to be competing on resources. This development can also be seen in a change in the role of city governments. In so called entrepreneurial cities, governments function as active agents aiming to mould cities into favourable platforms for entrepreneurship. However, despite the fact that companies are located in regional system they automatically do not have access into the benefits, such as knowledge. This brings importance to the networks of regional actors and to the manner of how they communicate through these networks. Academic literature gives evidence to an idea that besides examining only the dynamics between urban governments and companies, there should be research placed on how public and private actors exchange knowledge and how that interactions is experienced. The aim of this theses is to examine the interaction between a city and its entrepreneurs as one factor of a regional economic system. The knowledge gained is also hoped to benefit the city of Helsinki in developing its services. The research is done by examining the role of cities in entrepreneurship and the interaction between a city and its companies. Methodological perspective of this thesis is a case study. The case comprises the interaction that takes place in the permission and advisory services of the city of Helsinki, between the city of Helsinki and six private companies from the field of tourism and services. Helsinki City Strategy and one more economically profiled document are used to shed light to the role of urban government from the city of Helsinki point of view. Company perspective is gained from semi structured themed interviews with entrepreneurs, that have been clients of previously mentioned services of the city of Helsinki. Both documents and interviews are analysed by performing a theme analysis. From the entrepreneurship point of view, the current situation of the city of Helsinki aligns with the theory of an entrepreneurial city. Knowledge that companies need is mainly related to being able to understand what rules and structures effect their ability to function as a part of urban environment and to plan and implement ideas. Companies and the city of Helsinki share a common goal of building high quality urban environment that benefits all involved. However, there are also some identified challenges caused for example by different operating speed and difficulties in finding relevant information and knowledge. In general, knowledge accessibility appears to be one of the key factors in successful interaction between companies and the city. According to the results, knowledge accessibility is related to the ability to understand the structure of the city’s network of knowledge and actors. In addition to that, the type and quality of interaction is also considered important. How companies experience the interaction is related to how well the network is known and how fast the right people will find each other. Interaction that is defined by discussion and communication is viewed as effective and entrepreneur friendly. Based on the interviews there is evidence that effectivity of interaction might effect companies’ ability to run business and implement new ideas. To sum up, for companies good advising is considered to mean fast and clear answers, promoting to mean conversation, and enabling entrepreneurship to mean that companies are allowed to develop their businesses to meet the needs of their clientele. Hence, it seems important to remember that in addition to supporting the creation of innovation it is also important that efficient governance enables companies to implement their ideas.
  • Hämäläinen, Raakel (2023)
    As people form and experience their daily travel patterns differently, it is important to consider perceived accessibility in public transportation planning. Perceived accessibility affects the way people feel about their abilities to attend desired social activities. Therefore, it is an effective indicator to measure social inclusion, for example. Recently, Western Metro in southern Espoo has expanded from Matinkylä to Kivenlahti and changed the overall bus system within the subdivisions. The target subdivisions have been Matinkylä, Finnoo, Kaitaa, Soukka, Espoonlahti, Kivenlahti, and Saunalahti. Thus, this study aimed to find out if residents’ travel behaviors within these areas have changed and if they feel like public transport supports their travel needs. Ultimately, I wanted to see if the changed routes in public transportation in southern Espoo alter residents’ feelings about the transportation networks, and what is the overall level of perceived accessibility among them. The target group of my research were university students, who live across Matinkylä-Saunalahti scale. As many students do not own a car and their assets may be limited, public transport is considered vital for their every-day trips. As public transportation is seen as a sustainable travel option compared to private car, it is important to assess perceived accessibility especially in terms of young people. The movements of youth are interesting to study, because their perceived accessibility can affect public transportation usage in a long-term scale. PPGIS-based survey has been created for the target subdivisions in southern Espoo. The surveys contain map-based questions with both qualitative and quantitative aspects. According to the survey results, the level of students’ perceived accessibility within the context of public transportation was assessed in a mixed-methods analysis. It is also interesting to compare results (statistically and qualitatively) among the chosen groups to see, if there are similarities or differences regarding to perceived accessibility. Although almost every respondent said that they use public transport in their daily life, most of them were upset with the changes within their every-day routines. Ticket prices, travel options, and travel comfort rose as the most significant issues determining perceived accessibility of a university student. According to this data, public transportation services could be enhanced and the imago of it could be positively increased. Thus, both customers and service providers could benefit from my study.
  • Saarinen, Eemi (2022)
    This Master’s thesis addresses perceived insecurity in socio-economically segregated districts in Helsinki surrounding metro stations. Helsinki has long been in a cycle of segregation, and news of street violence and youth gangs have caused concern. This thesis focuses on perceived insecurity, which can be caused by many factors, including physical environment and presence of other people. Segregation is a phenomenon with several causes and consequences. Segregation has often thought to be a delayed, regional consequence of economic inequality in society. Segregation can also be driven by the negative spiral in neighborhoods and the associated relocations of affluent population. In Helsinki, segregation is moderate compared to the global scale, but several studies have shown that disadvantage is localized in the eastern parts of Helsinki. Perceived insecurity is a holistic experience involving cognitive functions and risk theories. Insecurity can be experienced, for example, in terms of the characteristics of the physical environment: open spaces without social control or crowded spaces which obstruct escape routes can cause insecurity. In addition, individual factors, other people’s behavior in the space, and surveillance can affect perceived insecurity. The thesis has two research questions. In the first research question, the issues causing perceived insecurity in Lauttasaari, Herttoniemi and Mellunkylä are investigated. The reason for the selection of these districts as target areas is socio-economic diversity and proximity of metro stations, which may have an impact on perceived insecurity. The results of a security survey conducted in Helsinki serve as data related to insecurity. The second research question examines how urban planning and the characteristics of the built environment affect insecurity in the target areas. The data used for this research question are planning documents and photographs taken in the target areas. The results show large regional differences in perceived insecurity. Lauttasaari is perceived as the safest area and Mellunkylä as the least safe area, with Herttoniemi in between. In Lauttasaari, the main concerns are reduction of green areas and traffic behavior. In Herttoniemi, social problems are significantly more of a concern than in Lauttasaari. In Mellunkylä, many are concerned about, for example, intercultural conflicts, street violence and youth gangs. The different responses of the target areas may be explained by the socio-economic differences between the areas. Based on the planning documents, the aim is to improve especially the status of Mellunkylä: The aim is to create a new center in the area surrounding Mellunmäki metro station. Mellunkylä is also involved in the urban renewal project within the housing & land use implementation program concucted by the city of Helsinki. Actions targeting socio-economically weaker regions may reduce segregation and the associated regional disparities in perceived insecurity. According to the results of the photography tour, elements of the physical environment causing insecurity were found in almost all the metro station surroundings. Such elements include, for example, narrow underpasses, blocks without round-the-clock use and signs of vandalism. Helsinki is perceived as a fairly safe city, but regional differences are considerable. Measures to prevent segregation and the resulting insecurity must be aimed at preventing socio-economic disparities at the macro level by closing income disparities and raising the profile of deprived neighborhoods. At the micro level, insecurity can be prevented by improving the quality of the built environment where it is weak. However, the causes and consequences of segregation and insecurity are complex and actions need to be tailored to the local context.
  • Kukkola, Henna (2022)
    Suomalaiset lähiöt sijoittuvat kaupunkien keskustojen laidoille. Ne ovat keskenään erinäköisiä, eri ikäisiä ja keskenään hyvin erilaista kaupunkiympäristöä. Siitä huolimatta termi ”lähiö” tuo meille jokaiselle mielikuvan juuri tietyntyyppisestä alueesta erityispiirteineen. Tämän tutkielman tarkoituksena oli tarkastella sitä, millaisista elementeistä lähiömäinen kaupunkiympäristö mielikuvissa muodostuu sekä sitä, miten se poikkeaa erityisesti kantakaupunkimaisesta ympäristöstä. Lähiöitä on tutkittu Suomessa vuosikymmeniä. Lähiöt ovat kiinnostaneet ja herättäneet keskustelua ensimmäisten lähiöiden valmistumisesta saakka. Tämä keskustelu on vaikuttanut mielikuviimme lähiöstä sekä siihen, miten itse niistä puhumme. Lähiöiden suunnittelussa aikanaan tapahtuneet virheet johtivat paikoittain rakenteellisiin ja sosiaalisiin ongelmiin, joiden takia esimerkiksi sanomalehdissä uutisoitiin pitkään lähiöiden ongelmista niiden asukkaiden todellisia kokemuksia sen enempää kuulematta. Asukkaat itse viihtyivät alueillaan ja yrittivät vaikuttaa lähiöiden negatiivisiin imagoihin muun muassa yleisöpalstojen kirjoitusten kautta. Yhdessä nämä puhetavat ovat antaneet lähiöille maineen, joka kaikuu jo lähiö-termissä itsessään. 2000-luvulla alueellinen eriytyminen on paikoittain syventänyt lähiöiden ongelmia. Samalla lähiöiden määrän kasvu on tuonut ne kaupungin laidoilta lähemmäs arkikokemuksiamme. Kaikki tämä näkyy siinä, miten ihmiset lähiöitä mielikuvissaan rakentavat. Mielikuvia päätettiin lähteä tutkimaan laadullisia tutkimusmenetelmiä hyödyntäen. Huomio haluttiin kiinnittää mielikuvien muodostumiseen, jota tutkimukseen vastaajien toivottiin kuvailevan mahdollisimman vapaasti, mutta kattavasti. Mielikuvien tarkastelua varten laadittiin kyselylomake, joka jaettiin huhtikuussa 2022 sosiaalisen median kautta kaikkien aiheesta kiinnostuneiden vastattavaksi. Lomakkeella selvitettiin vastaajien mielikuvia sekä lähiömäisestä kaupunkiympäristöstä että kantakaupunkimaisesta ympäristöstä. Vastauksia kerättiin sekä vastaajien omin sanoin, että luokittelemalla ympäristöä eri kategorioihin ja pyytämällä vastaajia ottamaan kantaa juuri niiden luonteeseen. Lisäksi haluttiin selvittää vastaajien henkilökohtaista suhdetta lähiöön. Kyselyn aineisto käsiteltiin sisällönanalyysiä hyödyntäen. Tutkimuksessa tunnistettiin tärkeimpiä lähiöön liitettäviä mielikuvia. Vastaajat mielsivät muun muassa ilmeeltään yhtenäisten asuinkerrostalojen, ostoskeskusten, lähiluonnon, ulkoilumaastojen, henkilöautopainotteisen liikenteen sekä ystävällisten, kylämäisessä yhteisössä asuvien ihmisten muodostavan lähiöihin kuuluvia ympäristön kulmakiviä. Vastauksista on tunnistettavissa selvä ero kantakaupunkimaisen ympäristön ja lähiömäisen kaupunkiympäristön herättämien mielikuvien välillä. Samalla vastauksista kävi ilmi, että vastaajat käsittävät lähiön identiteettiä sen suhteen kautta, joka lähiöllä on kantakaupunkiin. Vastaajat ymmärsivät lähiön riippuvuuden kaupungista ja vertasivat lähiömäisen kaupunkiympäristön yksityiskohtia kantakaupunkimaiseen. Piirteet, joissa näiden välinen ero oli suurin, olivat vastaajien mielikuvissa lähiöille kaikkien tunnusmaisimpia. Vastaajat eivät pitäneet lähiötä urbaanina, kaupunkimaisena ympäristönä, mutta eivät myöskään maalaismaisena. Lähiö sijoittuu kyselyyn vastanneiden mielikuvissa näiden maailmojen välimaastoon alueeksi, jolla on näistä molemmista irrallinen, oma identiteettinsä.
  • Bergström, Karoliina (2021)
    School environments have become increasingly challenging due to segregation in cities, escalating social problems and multiculturisation. The challenges do not emerge only in classrooms but are also reflected more widely to the school communities and surrounding areas. The growing challenges raise a question whether a school’s role could be extended from an educational institution to a more versatile node of services that supports not only children’s learning but also all residents’ wellbeing and lifelong learning in the neighbourhood. In this study I examine a school’s local role in increasing social capital, sense of community, inclusion and trust in its neighbourhood and I analyse how a community building, where the school is placed, could take a supportive role in it. The thesis is a case study of a Finnish multicultural urban neighbourhood where a new community building was opened a few years ago. The community building houses a school, daycare, library, youth centre and social- and health services. I take an institutional approach in the study and I interview five institutional actors representing the school and the city. The study material consists of these interviews and of a recording given to me by one of my interviewee who had interviewed other school representatives before my study. In the analysis part, I use a case analysis method, which sheds light not only on the policies and functional practices of the school and the community building but also on the challenges they face. Even as one case study, the knowledge gained from it can be viewed in a wider context in order to understand the functioning of school communities and to take part in discussing the operational school environments. The main results of the study indicate that the interviewed school and city representatives perceive the school as a larger local actor rather than only as an educational institution. The representatives see that the school is an important actor in building sense of community, inclusion and trust in the wider neighbourhood and also believe that it reflects its conventions and values to the whole community. Central finding in the thesis is also the interviewees’ common view that the community building and its versatile services strongly support the school in delivering education, wellbeing and assistance for children, families and all residents of the community. The school and community building are also regarded as important domains of integration for the people with an immigrant background to the Finnish society. A school represents one the most central institutions of the society and it reaches whole families due to compulsory education. Therefore, it works as a natural platform for integrating services and assistance not only for children but also for adults. The main challenges that the school and community building face in its functioning and in creating a wider local role were mentioned to be segregation with its negative side effects and policies made in the city level that do not fit as such to the neighbourhood’s local context. This study takes part in the discussion of segregation in cities and growing spatial inequality with their negative impacts on people’s wellbeing and on equal opportunities. This negative trajectory will also lead to malfunctioning of cities and the wider society. The results of this study provide insights to the question, whether a community building as a concept could be a solution in school and spatial development and in urban neighborhood improvement. A community building that supports a school in taking a stronger local role and working as a node of services for education, hobbies, leisure and assistance can possibly improve people’s everyday lives and wellbeing in the whole society.
  • Ahtinen, Sini-Maaria (2024)
    Asukkaiden tyytyväisyyttä omaan asuinalueeseensa pidetään yhtenä yleisimmistä asuinalueiden laatua tarkastelevista mittareista. Asumistyytyväisyys on myös liitetty oleelliseksi osaksi ihmisen yleistä elämänlaatua ja asuinympäristöä voidaan pitää ihmisen arkielämän tärkeimpänä elinympäristön osa-alueena. Tässä tutkielmassa tutkimuskohteena olivat lähiöissä asuvien henkilöiden asumistyytyväisyys. Lähiöt ovat oleellinen osa suomalaista kaupunkikuvaa ja Suomessa lähiöiden, ja niissä asuvien ihmisten määrä on merkittävä. Kun puhutaan tyytyväisyydestä, niin puhutaan ihmisten subjektiivisesta kokemuksesta. Tutkittaessa aihetta, joka on ihmisten subjektiivisista kokemuksista riippuvainen, luo se tutkimukselle omat haasteensa. On tiedossa, että ihmisillä on suuria eroja siinä, kuinka he pystyvät ilmaisemaan epämukavuutta sekä tyytyväisyyttä. Kun siis tehdään tutkimusta, jossa tyytyväisyyden mittarina käytetään henkilön subjektiivista arviota, tulokset perustuvat siihen olettamukseen, että ihmisten omat arviot elämästään ja tyytyväisyyden tasostaan ovat luotettavia mittareita. Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, millä tekijöillä on yhteys suomalaisissa lähiöissä asuvien henkilöiden asumistyytyväisyyteen. Tutkimuksen aineistona toimii Helsingin yliopiston ja Suomen Akatemian rahoittaman PREFARE-hankkeen (2012–2015) aikana hankittu aineisto. Aineistoon on kyselydatan lisäksi yhdistetty vastaajien sijainnin perusteella kontekstuaalista rekisteritietoa, jotka saatiin ruututietokannasta. Aineisto on siis kaksitasoinen, yksilötaso, jossa vastaajia oli 7728 ja lähiötaso, jossa alueita oli 71. Aineiston analyysimenetelmänä toimi monitasoinen lineaarinen regressiomalli, jonka avulla pystyttiin analysoimaan monitasoista aineistoa. Analyysissä aineistosta luotiin asumistyytyväisyyttä kuvaava tyytyväisyysmuuttuja ja tutkielmassa tarkasteltiin aluetasonmuuttujien, yksilötason taustamuuttujien ja asuinympäristön kokemiseen liittyvien muuttujien yhteyksiä tähän tyytyväisyysmuuttujaan. Tutkielman oleellisin tulos oli maineen merkitys asumistyytyväisyyteen. Aluetason muuttujien yhteydet tyytyväisyysmuuttujaan kulkivat hyvin vahvasti mainemuuttujan kautta ja maineella oli myös tarkasteltavista muuttujista vahvin yhteys tyytyväisyyteen. Maineen lisäksi kaksi muuta kokemusmuuttujaa, turvallisuus ja naapurisuhteet olivat hyvin vahvassa yhteydessä asumistyytyväisyyden kanssa. Yksilötason taustamuuttujista vahvimmat yhteydet tyytyväisyysmuuttujaan olivat tulotasolla, iällä ja asunnon hallintamuodolla.
  • Häkkinen, Sanni (2024)
    Cities are culmination points for linguistic diversities, and the variety of spoken languages is encountered in the everyday urban streetscapes. The coming together of cultures in this sense is an outstanding example of Doreen Massey’s throwntogetherness, the question of our living together. Hearing different languages can be a significant part of the sensory experience of a space, and at the same time a means of making sense of the entire social environment. Linguistic landscapes, i.e. language displays in spaces, have been studied almost predominantly by sociolinguists with a focus on the textual domains, whereas the study of the oral domain has remained limited. In more recent research, the subfield of linguistic soundscapes has aimed at better addressing the rich linguistic varieties in everyday contexts. These linguistic soundscapes are hyper-relational and thus ever-changing, constantly negotiating presences and absences. This thesis focuses on studying the different manifestations that linguistic diversities can take in the soundscape, and at the same time, how these diversities can be captured. Through a case analysis of three linguistically diverse areas in Helsinki, I explore and construct an example of conducting linguistic soundscaping. Following the conceptualisation of linguistic soundscaping, suggested by Scarvaglieri et al. (2013), the analysis builds on both qualitative and quantitative methods. I developed an observation method for capturing diversity on a spatially accurate scale by walking in the streetscape and documenting encountered languages. In doing so, I acted as a mediator in the data collection and produced a quantitative snapshot of possible linguistic diversities one could encounter while walking in the study areas. In addition, I utilised interview transcriptions and thematic analysis to understand how linguistic encounters are perceived. The results suggest that the linguistically diverse case study areas (Aleksanterinkatu, Kauppakartanonkatu and Pihlajamäki) show diversity in the spoken languages, and that the narrated linguistic experiences can come from a complex register of ‘knowing’ that builds on familiarity, linguistic resources and past experiences. The observational method, although considered to be challenging concerning subjectivity, soundscape elements and mobility, could be repeated with the findings of this study especially with additional resources. On the other hand, the differing experienced diversities invite further qualitative research, considering the multiple effects of the immediate surroundings in more detail. At best, systematically documented linguistic soundscapes could support understanding of the overall social diversity beyond register data and provide clues of who are audibly present – and absent – in the public spaces.
  • Viertola, Julia (2022)
    Pastoral livelihoods are currently changing in Kenya. Economic, societal and environmental development of the country has led to increased standard of living and demand of livestock products in the markets. The rising demand to contribute to food production puts pressure on pastoralist production, while keeping livestock is becoming more challenging due to changes in land use, commercialisation and climate change. Pastoralists are at crossroads, in which they should adapt to the mentioned changes through options such as sedentarisation and livelihood diversification while taking gender into account. Pastoralists are relatively vulnerable due to being a socially marginalized group in Kenya and several development actors are now focusing their projects on pastoralists in order to support them in adaptation. However, Mausch et al. (2021) have argued that development projects often neglect the needs of the target group. Including the target group’s opinions and aspirations to project objectives can lead to more inclusive and sustainable outcomes. ESSA - Earth observation and environmental sensing for climate-smart sustainable agropastoral ecosystem transformation in East Africa is an example of a development project which could benefit from acknowledging target group’s aspirations. Within the systemic change of pastoralism it is crucial to look more deeply at separate pastoral communities. Pastoralism is connected to environment, culture and history which vary between locations, thus they cannot be categorised as a homogeneous group. However, most pastoral communities share the traditional labour division between women and men. In patriarchal pastoral communities women have traditionally been responsible for work labelled as reproduction. Pastoral women have not had the same opportunities in life or representation in society as pastoral men or women in urban areas which puts them in a doubly marginalised position. In this study I combine mapping livelihood aspirations of women and exploring womanhood in the context of pastoralism. The choice to focus on pastoral women’s livelihood aspirations is influenced by the field of feminist geography, the lack of information on pastoral womanhood, the ESSA project and my personal interest towards strengthening the position of women in Global South. The aim of this research is to explore livelihood aspirations of six pastoral Maasai women in Taveta Sub-County, Kenya. Additionally, I am searching for possible connections between the aspirations and the women’s current positions and roles. This research also contributes to the ESSA project by providing information on pastoral womanhood and women’s opinions towards beekeeping, because ESSA’s women-related objectives include livelihood diversification through beekeeping. Feminist geography materialises through aims to broaden the understanding of lives of women, who have traditionally not gained attention in science. This work also includes extensive self-reflection of my position as the researcher, which is instrumental in feminist geography. The research material was collected through fieldwork which took place in six households close to Salaita Hill and Lake Jipe. The research methods were participative observation and semi-structured interviews which were executed with the support of two translators. The research material consists of field diary, in which I report what I observed, interview transcriptions and ESSA’s project paper. In this research I represented the women’s future livelihood aspirations as the women expressed them, and analysed the type of aspirations. The women wanted to continue pastoralism, although most of them were also interested in diversifying their livelihoods to farming, business and casual labour. The women knew relatively little about beekeeping, and the main message from the interviews was that these Maasai women are afraid of bees. Thus, they were not interested in beekeeping as livelihood. From the field diary and interview transcriptions I interpreted that there were connections between the livelihood aspirations, pastoral culture and its patriarchal characteristics, which determine women’s thoughts. Additionally, it seemed that casual work and lack of education might affect the livelihood aspirations. However, the conclusions of this research are not objective because they are interpretations affected by my subjective positionality as the researcher.
  • Karhu, Teemu (2020)
    Suomea pidetään ensisijaisesti luontomatkailun kohteena. Luonnon vetovoiman merkitys kuitenkin vaihtelee niin tutkimusten kuin kansallisuuksien ja yksilöidenkin välillä. Matkailun vetovoimakohtaista kysyntää on tutkittu muun muassa haastattelututkimuksin, mutta perinteisillä tutkimusmenetelmillä tarkasteltuna vetovoiman kysynnän ja tarjonnan spatiaalista kohtaamista ei ole voitu selvittää. Uudet, suuriin tietomassoihin perustuvat tutkimusmenetelmät mahdollistavat kokonaan uudenlaisen tutkimuksen. Matkaviestinten käytöstä syntyvät lokitiedot muodostavat tietolähteen, johon perustuen matkaviestinlaitteen käyttäjiä voidaan jäljittää sekä ajassa että paikassa. Matkaviestimet toimivat potentiaalisena aineistolähteenä matkailututkimukselle erityisesti matkailijoiden reittien ja preferenssien esiin tuojana. Matkailun kokemukset luovat ihmisille mielihyvää ja tyytyväisyyden tunnetta. Kokemus nähdään matkailussa arvon tuottajana. Arvon yhdessä luonnin teorian mukaan hyödykkeen arvo on asiakkaan siitä saama käyttöarvo. Arvontuottoon vaikuttaa asiakkaan motivaatio, joka matkailussa vertautuu ihmisen henkilökohtaisiin tarpeisiin ja näkyy kiinnostuksena matkakohteeseen. Kohteen valinta omien mielenkiinnon kohteiden perusteella edesauttaa arvonluonnissa. Millä tavalla matkailijoiden todelliset reitit ja vetovoimatekijät kohtaavat? Voiko reittivalinnoista nähdä, että ihmiset matkustavat omien mielenkiinnonkohteidensa mukaisesti? Tutkimuksessa analysoidaan ulkomaisten matkailijoiden käyttämiä matkareittejä Suomessa suhteessa matkailun vetovoimatekijöihin. Vetovoimatekijöiden luokitus perustuu Suomen matkailun aluerakennetutkimukseen. Visit Finlandin matkailijasegmentointi tuo esiin matkailijoiden mielenkiinnon kohteet. Matkailijoiden reitit pohjautuvat DNA Oyj:n matkaviestinaineistoihin. Analyysin perusteella matkailijoiden reitit kohtaavat luonnonvetovoimaisimmat kohteet heikosti, mikä johtuu pääosin matkailun kaupunkikeskeisyydestä. Kohtaavuus reittien ja muiden vetovoimaluokkien välillä on luonnonvetovoimaa parempi. Tulosten perusteella on syytä pohtia, onnistuuko matkailumarkkinointi viestimään ja kohdistamaan viestinsä oikein, ja ymmärretäänkö viesti oikein. Heikko kohtaavuus henkilökohtaisten toiveiden ja todellisuudessa tapahtuneen matkailun välillä indikoi heikkoa arvontuottoa ja sitä kautta matalaa todennäköisyyttä suositella Suomea matkakohteena tai matkustaa uudelleen Suomeen.
  • Komulainen, Reetta (2022)
    In public debate, peripheral areas have become accustomed to dealing with through the problems that are related to them. Declining populations, poor physical accessibility, decaying services and disappearing jobs are typical ways of describing rural and remote areas. Also, comparing to cities and growth centers is a typical part of the style of conversation. The peripheral regions and their decision-makers have had to come up with new ways of discussing and engaging their residents as part of a more positive aspect of regional development and a more solution-oriented discussion style. The objective of inclusive regional development activities that arise from this need is to involve the residents of the area in planning so that development is more likely to be oriented in the right and desired direction from the perspective of the actual inhabitants of the places. The relationship of young people with and living in peripheral areas has been complex over time and, despite their attempts, their perspective does not seem to be able to be considered when developing services and activities in peripheral areas. On the other hand, young people attach importance to many features of remote areas, such as proximity to nature and tranquility, and are able to use remote and empty space innovatively. However, at the same time, they miss opportunities for recreational possibilities familiar from cities, such as cafes and diverse recreational opportunities, as well as greater physical accessibility. The lack of a continuum traditionally drives young people from remote areas to move away from home to growth centres in order to pursue work and study, but in the absence of these opportunities in the region, a return move is not even dared or wanted to dream of. However, today's Finland has been awakened to recognise the fact that the places of the future will be built for today's young people, so making their voice heard is the key in the development of the regions. My research focuses on examining young people's views on desired regional developments through the texts of the Upper Savo of My Dreams 2030 - writing contest. The writing competition was organised in spring 2020 by the Ylä-Savon Veturi ry, which is part of the European Union's Leader Network. The competition was aimed at collecting the ideas of young people living in Upper Savo municipalities about the desired developments in their own places of residence. The data for the study consists of 54 participating works, 51 of which are in text and 3 in video format. Participants in the competition are students in the 9th grade of elementary schools, as well as 2nd year students at upper secondary schools. Based on the results of the study, young people in the region share a wide range of common views on the need to improve the accessibility of the area, to safeguard access to basic services and to maintain a close relationship with nature. In addition, young people have plenty of concrete ideas for developing services that concern them, such as pastimes, events, and educational services. The future images of young people in the region are also tinged with a kind of acceptance of scarcity, as young people in the upper Savo perceive the resource realities of their home municipalities well and see many shortcomings as opportunities. At the same time, the acceptance of scarcity acquires familiar aspects of public discourse, contributing to perhaps nitrotting young people's ability to imagine future images that are different from norms and generally accepted ideas. Overall, young people in the region have an uncomplicated approach to combining the features of rural and urban areas, and young people wish for some of the services and features that are familiar from urban areas to improve their playing field as well.
  • Oikarinen, Inka (2020)
    In recent decades there has been a revival of customs and traditions among several indigenous Amazonian peoples, one feature of which is the strengthening of many shamanic practices repressed and partially abandoned under colonial rule. For the Yawanawa people of Acre, Brazil, annual cultural festivals have become a prominent symbol of cultural revitalization. Festivals enable an international audience to experience a live tradition in the form of song, dance, games, art and crafts as well as shamanic rituals and substances. In the context of shamanic ritual, the terms medicine and healing are some of the prominent discourses through which shamanic networks connect and alliances are created between visitors and the Yawanawa. The present study looks at the understandings of health and wellbeing of non-indigenous persons participating in contemporary shamanic networks in Amazonia. The aim of the study is to describe how knowledge of Yawanawa shamanic practices affects understandings of health, sickness and healing. My research questions are: 1) What are the meanings assigned to health and illness in Amazonian sociophilosophies and those of the Yawanawa people? 2) How do Western people practicing Amazonian shamanism perceive health and illness, and how do their understandings relate to those present in Yawanawa shamanism? 3) What constitute the main elements of healing in Yawanawa shamanism? My primary research data consists of six thematic interviews with non-indigenous people practicing and studying Yawanawa shamanism. I will employ two theoretical approaches to frame the analysis. The study locates in medical anthropology which examines concepts around health, illness and healing and their cultural and social diversity. I will refer to the framework of subjective theories of health by Schmid (2010, 2011) to view individual health-related understandings as subjective meaning-making frameworks that resemble but are not reduced to scientific medical theories. Indigenous relational philosophies of health comprise the second theoretical framework, through which the Yawanawa medical system and shamanism will be understood as consisting of the creation and management of harmonious relationships with both human and nonhuman actors. Literature review represents Amazonian shamanism as an interconnected world with a visible and invisible side. Health for indigenous peoples is based on a relational cosmovision where principles of right relationship and reciprocity are recreated at social, ecological and cosmological levels. Wellbeing is a co-created, shared resource as well as the result of successful negotiation with nonhuman beings with potentially conflicting interests. For the Yawanawa, health is defined through the balanced relations of bodies and souls that constitute a human person, as well as creating a distinct Yawanawa identity through embodied means. Traditional Yawanawa shamanism equally relies on the transformation of the body and its different capacities through removal and adding of substances. More recently, the changes occurring in Amazonian shamanic practices have been characterized by increased interconnectedness and exchange on a global level with an increase in shamanic tourism and neo-shamanic movements alongside the practice of indigenous shamanism. Non-local neo-shamanic activities, such as the ritual consumption of ayahuasca for self-healing, have been criticized as reflecting a western, individualistic worldview that does not recognize the relational, intersubjective dimensions of shamanism. Similarly, the elements of Amazonian shamanism undergo a translation that includes the medicalization and commercialization of ayahuasca as well as a tendency to psychologize shamanic experiences with nonhumans. Analysis of the interview data shows that the understandings of health of shamanic practitioners reflect a relational worldview that shares several elements with indigenous socio-philosophies of health. For the study participants, shamanism offers an alternative worldview and framework for understanding wellbeing compared to that of biomedicine characterized by scientific reductionism. A central effect of maintaining relational conceptions of health can be seen in an expanded view of the determinants of health. Individual wellbeing is defined holistically as the balance between the physical, psychological, social and spiritual dimensions of a person. At the same time consideration of elements and actors affecting health is spread horizontally to include relations between individual and their social and intergenerational ties, as well as ecological ties to the nonhuman world which includes other species as well as invisible beings of the spirit world. There is an individualistic orientation present whereby individual responsibility and autonomy are considered as important determinants of wellbeing. Interviewees also recognize some differences between their views and those of the Yawanawa regarding the agency of nonhuman beings. However, the study concludes that practicing and studying shamanism is not merely an egoistic pursuit for the study participants, but increased understanding of the principles of Amazonian shamanism and worldviews shows in an expanded awareness of relational ties in both shamanic cosmology as well as in interpersonal ties with the Yawanawa and Amazonian peoples. This is also reflected in the way the elements of healing in shamanism are understood as containing both subjective and intersubjective elements.
  • Mallinen, Lotta (2023)
    Monipaikkaisuus on ollut ilmiönä olemassa jo pitkään, mutta se on noussut keskusteluun Covid-19-pandemian seurauksena. Monipaikkaisuudella ei ole yhtenäistä teoreettista kehystä, mutta yksinkertaisuudessaan monipaikkaisuus on yksilön elinpiirin ulottumista kahteen tai useampaan paikkaan. Monipaikkaisuus on herättänyt keskustelua erityisesti kuntakentällä, sillä yksilöiden ja organisaatioiden liikkuvuuden dynamiikan vaikutukset esimerkiksi kuntatalouteen ovat olleet epäselviä. Kuntakentän monipaikkaisuuskeskustelu kiinnittyy erityisesti kuntatalouteen, verotukseen ja elinvoimaan, mutta myös sosiaalinen kestävyys ja osallisuus yhdistyvät kunnan monipaikkaisuustyöhön. Tutkielmassani tarkastelin Iitin viranhaltijoiden näkemyksiä kunnan monipaikkaisuudesta. Tarkoituksenani oli selvittää, minkälaisen merkityksen kunnan strategia antaa monipaikkaisuudelle, ja minkälaisena tämä merkitys siirtyy viranhaltijoiden tulkinnan kautta konkretiaan. Aineistona tutkielmassa käytin Iitin vuosien 2022-2025 kuntastrategiaa sekä kolmen viranhaltijan kanssa tehtyjä puolistrukturoituja teemahaastatteluja. Lähestymistapana käytin tulkitsevaa diskurssianalyysiä, jossa pyrin pääsemään tekstin semanttisten merkitysten ohi tekstin eri osien tarkasteluun, jotta pääsisin tulkitsemaan tekstistä erilaisten sosiaalisten todellisuuksien rakentumista. Tulkitsin aineistostani kaksi diskurssia: monipaikkaisuus kunnan resurssina sekä monipakkaisuus yksilön vapautena. Diskurssit lähestyvät monipaikkaisuutta eri näkökulmista. Monipaikkaisuus kunnan resurssina -diskurssi näkee monipaikkaisuuden kasvun työkaluna, kun monipaikkaisuus yksilön vapautena -diskurssi taas näkee monipaikkaisuuden liberalistisena ideologiana. Diskurssit ovat rinnakkaisia, mutta niissä on niin keskeisiä kuin sisäisiä ristiriitoja, jotka syntyvät erityisesti monipaikkaisten positioinnin kautta. Keskustelua käymällä ja kuntakentän monipaikkaisuuden tietoa tuottamalla monipaikkaisuustyötä voidaan kuitenkin suunnata vahvemmin elinvoimatyön tukemiseen.