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Browsing by study line "Ihmisen ravitsemus"

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  • Kalliomäki, Ville (2022)
    Abstract Background: Excessive consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases. Finnish men consume too much red and processed meat compared to the recommendations. In contrast, legumes account for only about one percent of total daily energy intake. Because legumes are rich in protein, they are well suited as meat substitutes in the diet. Replacing some of animal-sourced protein in the diet with plant-based sources can shift the diet in a healthier and more sustainable direction. Aim: The aim of the thesis was to investigate how the partial replacement of red and processed meat with non-soy legumes affects the intake of energy nutrients, energy, and fiber in healthy working-age men. It was also investigated how the sources of nutrient intakes in the diet change when meat is replaced by legumes. Methods: Material from the Papumies (“bean man”) intervention study was used in this thesis. The subjects were healthy Finnish men aged 20–65 years (n = 102) who were randomized into two different intervention groups for six weeks. The meat group received red and processed meat and meat products 760 g / week (25% of daily protein intake). The legume group received legumes and legume products (including peas and fava beans) corresponding to 20% of daily protein intake and red and processed meat 200 g / week (5% of daily protein intake). Subjects’ energy, energy nutrient, and fiber intakes were analyzed from food records kept by subjects before the beginning of the intervention period and during the last week of the intervention on three weekdays and one weekend day. Energy and energy nutrient intakes were analyzed from food records using CGI’s Aromi Diet program. Results: At the endpoint the intake of fiber (p <0.001) was higher, and the intake of cholesterol (p = 0.013) was lower in the legume group compared to the meat group. The percentages of energy intake of polyunsaturated (p <0.001) fatty acids and n-3- (p <0.001) and n-6- (p <0.001) fatty acids were higher in the legume group than in the meat group. In contrast, the percentage of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.012) of energy intake was higher in the meat group compared to the legume group. Conclusions: The partial replacement of red and processed meat with legumes improves the fatty acid composition of the diet and increases fiber intake. Through these favorable changes, even the partial replacement of animal protein with plant protein may reduce the risk of developing chronic lifestyle diseases. The study highlights the diet-improving effects of legumes (peas and fava beans) grown in Finland, which is important when considering ways to change eating habits in a healthier and more ecological direction.
  • Närvä, Sini (2021)
    Tiedekunta/Osasto: Maatalous-metsätieteellinen tiedekunta Laitos: Elintarvike- ja ravitsemustieteiden osasto Tekijä: Sini Maria Närvä Työn nimi: Punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan osittainen korvaaminen palkokasveilla: vaikutus veren rasva-arvoihin ja kehonkoostumukseen terveillä työikäisillä suomalaisilla miehillä Oppiaine: Ihmisen ravitsemus- ja ruokakäyttäytyminen (Opintosuunta: Ihmisen ravitsemus) Työn laji: Maisterintutkielma Aika: Huhtikuu 2021 Sivumäärä: 63 sivua + 1 liite Tiivistelmä: Tausta: Sydän- ja verisuonitaudit (SVT) ovat merkittävin syy sairastuvuuteen ja kuolleisuuteen länsimaissa. SVT:n riskitekijöitä ovat ruokavalion rasvan laatu, veren korkea kolesterolipitoisuus (erityisesti LDL-kolesteroli), ylipaino, tupakointi, diabetes ja kohonnut verenpaine. Miehillä riski sairastua SVT:hin on naisia suurempi. Lisäksi miesten ruokavalio on usein laadultaan naisia heikompi, ja miesten punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan kulutus on liian runsasta suosituksiin nähden. Korvaamalla eläinperäisiä proteiinin lähteitä kasviperäisillä lähteillä voidaan vaikuttaa suotuisasti sydän- ja verisuonitautien riskitekijöihin. Tavoite: Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia, onko veren rasva-arvoissa, kehon painossa ja kehonkoostumuksessa eroja, kun ruokavalion punaista ja prosessoitua lihaa korvataan osittain ei-soijaperäisillä palkokasveilla. Tutkimushypoteesina oli, että punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan korvaaminen osittain palkokasveilla pienentää kokonais- ja LDL-kolesterolipitoisuutta sekä kehon painoa ja rasvamassaa. Menetelmät: Tässä tutkimuksessa käytettiin Papumies-interventiotutkimuksen aineistoa. Tutkittavat olivat 20-65-vuotiaita terveitä suomalaisia miehiä (n=102). Heidät satunnaistettiin kahteen eri interventioryhmään kuuden viikon ajaksi. Toinen ryhmä (liharyhmä) sai punaista ja prosessoitua lihaa ja niistä valmistettuja tuotteita 760 g/vko (25 % päivittäisestä proteiinin saannista). Toinen ryhmä (palkokasviryhmä) sai palkokasveja ja palkokasvituotteita (pääosin herneitä ja härkäpapuja) 20 % päivittäisestä proteiinin saannista sekä punaista ja prosessoitua lihaa 200 g/vko (5 % päivittäisestä proteiinin saannista). Ennen intervention alkua ja sen lopussa kerätystä paastoverinäytteestä analysoitiin kokonais-, HDL- ja LDL-kolesteroli sekä triglyseridipitoisuudet, ja lisäksi mitattiin tutkittavien pituus, paino, vyötärön- ja lantionympärys sekä kehonkoostumus. Ryhmien välisiä eroja näissä muuttujissa intervention loppupisteessä tutkittiin kovarianssianalyysillä käyttäen alkupisteen arvoja kovariaatteina. Tulokset: Alkupisteessä ryhmien välillä ei ollut eroa kolesterolipitoisuuksissa (pois lukien HDL-kolesteroli), painossa, vyötärön- ja lantionympäryksessä tai kehonkoostumuksessa. Intervention lopussa plasman kokonais- ja LDL-kolesterolipitoisuudet (p<0,001 ja p=0,001), kehon paino ja painoindeksi (p=0,031 molemmissa) olivat pienemmät ja HDL-kolesterolipitoisuus suurempi (p=0,030) palkokasvi-ryhmässä liharyhmään verrattuna. Triglyseridipitoisuudessa, vyötärönympäryksessä, vyötärö-lantio-suhteessa, rasvaprosentissa, rasvamassassa, rasvattomassa massassa tai rasvamassan ja rasvattoman massan indeksissä ei havaittu eroja ryhmien välillä intervention lopussa (p>0,05). Johtopäätökset: Punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan osittainen korvaaminen ei-soijaperäisillä palkokasveilla kuuden viikon ajan paransi veren rasva-arvoja ja vähensi painoa terveillä työikäisillä miehillä, mikä viittaa sydän- ja verisuonitautiriskin pienemiseen. Tätä tietoa voidaan hyödyntää suunniteltaessa toimenpiteitä terveellisemmän ja ympäristön kannalta kestävämmän ruokavaliosuosituksen laatimisessa väestötasolla. Avainsanat – Nyckelord – Keywords: Ravitsemus, ei-soijaperäiset palkokasvit, punainen liha, plasman lipidit, sydän- ja verisuonitaudit Säilytyspaikka – Förvaringställe – Where deposited: Maatalous-metsätieteellinen tiedekunta, Elintarvike- ja ravitsemustieteiden osasto, Helsingin yliopisto Muita tietoja – Övriga uppgifter – Additional information: Ohjaajat: Suvi Itkonen, ETT, dosentti; Anne-Maria Pajari, apulaisprofessori
  • Anttila, Johannes (2022)
    Tausta ja tavoitteet: Punaisen lihan kulutus on maailmanlaajuisesti liian runsasta, millä on merkittäviä epäsuotuisia ympäristö- ja terveysvaikutuksia. Suomessa erityisesti miehet syövät merkittävästi enemmän punaista lihaa kuin ravitsemussuosituksissa suositellaan. Punainen liha on kuitenkin suomalaisten miesten ruokavalioissa merkittävä B12-vitamiinin ja hyvin imeytyvän raudan lähde. Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia punaisen ja prosessoidun lihan osittaisen korvaamisen palkokasveilla vaikutuksia suomalaisten miesten B12-vitamiinin ja raudan saantiin sekä niiden biomarkkereihin. Menetelmät: Tutkimusjaksoa edeltävän seulonnan läpäisyn jälkeen osallistujat (n=102) jaettiin kahteen rinnakkaisryhmään, liharyhmään ja palkokasviryhmään. Liharyhmä sisällytti ruokavalioonsa 760 grammaa punaista lihaa viikossa, kun palkokasviryhmä puolestaan sisällytti ruokavalioonsa 200 grammaa punaista lihaa ja loput punaisesta lihasta (560 g/vk) saatavasta proteiinimäärästä korvattiin palkokasveja sisältävillä elintarvikkeilla. Muu ruokavalio pyydettiin pitämään tavanomaisena, mutta muiden kuin tutkimuksessa jaettujen punaisen lihan ja palkokasvien käyttö kiellettiin. Tulokset: B12 vitamiinin saanti oli suurempaa (p<0,001) liharyhmässä (7,7±4,0 μg/vrk) kuin palkokasviryhmässä (5,0±2,7 μg/vrk). Raudan saanti oli puolestaan pienempää (p<0,001) liharyhmässä (14,0±3,1 mg/vrk) kuin palkokasviryhmässä (21,9±5,7 mg/vrk). Transkobalamiini II sitoutuneen B12-vitamiinin (holoTC) pitoisuus oli suurempi (p=0,022) liharyhmässä (120,4±47,3 pmol/l) kuin palkokasviryhmässä (107,1±45,1 pmol/l). Interventioryhmien välillä ei havaittu eroja veren hemoglobiinissa ja hematokriitissa sekä plasman transferriinireseptorissa, raudassa, ferritiinissä, transferriinissä eikä transferriinin rautakyllästeisyydessä. Johtopäätökset: Punaisen lihan osittainen korvaaminen palkokasveilla vähensi B12-vitamiinin saantia ja johti pienempään veren holoTC-pitoisuuteen. Raudan saanti puolestaan kasvoi palkokasviryhmässä mutta raudan biomarkkereissa ei ollut eroja interventioryhmien välillä.
  • Petäjä, Pirita (2020)
    Johdanto: Fitnessurheilijoiden kilpailuihin valmistavan kausi kestää noin 2–6kk, jonka aikana he pyrkivät vähentämään kehon rasvamassan määrää ja ylläpitämään lihasmassaa. Ravitsemuksella on merkittävä rooli paitsi näiden kehonkoostumustavoitteiden saavuttamisessa myös urheilijan terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin ylläpitämisessä. Pitkään jatkuva energiavajeen seurauksena elimistö pyrkii saavuttamaan uuden homeostasian vähentämällä energiankulutusta muun muassa kilpirauhashormonipitoisuuksia säätelemällä. Tavoitteet: Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tarkastella fitnessurheilijoiden ravinnon saantia ja kehonkoostumuksen muutoksia kilpailuihin valmistavalla kaudella sekä siitä palauttavalla kaudella. Lisäksi tarkasteltiin kilpailuihin valmistavan kauden vaikutusta kilpirauhashormonipitoisuuksiin. Menetelmät: Tutkimuksessa seurattiin 9 nais- ja 12 mieskilpailijan valmistautumista syksyn 2019 suomenmestaruuskilpailuihin. Heidän kilpailuihin valmistava kausi kesti keskimäärin 21 viikkoa, jota seurasi keskimäärin yhtä pitkä palauttava kausi. Verrokkiryhmässä oli 22 tavoitteellisesti harjoittelevaa miestä ja naista, jotka eivät laihduttaneet. Tutkittavilta mitattiin veren kilpirauhashormonipitoisuudet (T3 ja T4) ja kehonkoostumus (DXA) ennen kilpailuihin valmistavan kauden alkua, sen lopussa sekä 21 viikon palauttavan kauden jälkeen. Lisäksi tutkittavat täyttivät ruokapäiväkirjaa, jonka avulla arvioitiin energian- ja ravintoaineiden saantia. Ryhmien väliseen vertailuun käytettiin riippumattomien otosten t-testiä ja ajallisia muutoksia arvioitiin toistomittausten varianssianalyysillä. Lineaarisella regressioanalyysillä arvioitiin kilpailuihin valmistavan kauden lopun T3-pitoisuuksiin vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Tulokset: Kilpailuihin valmistavan kauden aikana tutkittavien energian- ja hiilihydraattien saanti sekä rasvamassan määrä ja T3-pitoisuudet laskivat merkittävästi (p-arvot <0,001). Kaikki arvot palautuivat keskimäärin ennalleen palauttavan kauden aikana rasvamassan nousun myötä. Regressioanalyysi osoitti, että kilpailukauden lopun T3-pitoisuutta selitti vahvimmin rasvamassan määrä (p-arvo <0,001). Lisäksi hiilihydraattien osuus oli naisilla, mutta ei miehillä, merkittävä tekijä (p-arvo 0,002). Johtopäätökset: Kilpailuissa vaaditun kehonkoostumuksen saavuttaminen tapahtui energian ja hiilihydraattien saannin laskemisella alle urheilijoille laadittujen suositusten. Painonpudotuksen myötä myös T3-pitoisuudet laskivat merkitsevästi. Hormonipitoisuudet näyttävät kuitenkin palautuvan 21 viikkoa kestäneen palauttavan kauden aikana, kun kehon rasvamassa palautuu lähtötasolle.
  • Jussila, Henriikka (2021)
    Background: Migration has found to be associated with changes in eating habits. Typically, dietary acculturation occurs which means that the person adopts host country’s ways of eating. Previous studies suggests that dietary acculturation can have negative effects on person’s diet if the person adopts the host country’s way of eating processed foods that replace the traditional healthy foods of their own culture. The phenomenon is also reflected in other generations, with children and young people with a foreign background being found to eat more sweets and soft drinks than other peers. To promote the eating habits of families with children with a foreign background, a deeper understanding is needed of the factors behind eating habits. Ethnography offers an opportunity to increase understanding of everyday eating and produces descriptive data to complement traditional nutrition research. Objectives: The aim of this MS's thesis was to draw a picture of everyday eating in families with children and with a foreign background in Finland. The study participants were mothers with first- and second-generation foreign backgrounds and with different ethnic backgrounds. Methods: This was a qualitative study using an ethnographic design. The field of research was an open community space in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The data consisted of ethnographic interviews with mothers (n=23) and field workers (n=2), as well as participatory observations and pictures. The data was analyzed by coding and theming. The results were compared with the model of dietary acculturation created by Satia-Abouta and with previous literature. Results: The role of mothers in the food supply of families was central. They made a distinction between “everyday food”, “cultural food” and “Finnish food”. Everyday food was something easy and fast, while cultural food required time and expertise. Some of them prepared cultural food as everyday food, as it was a means of maintaining cultural heritage. Except for fruits, vegetables and vegetarian dishes played a smaller role in mothers’ stories than animal-based products (meat, chicken, fish) and carbohydrate-containing products (rice, pasta, potatoes). Ethnic shops in the area were perceived as comprehensive, although many bought only (halal) meat there. The mothers' eating habits showed dietary acculturation, as they had begun to prepare “Finnish foods” such as mashed potato or lasagna that were new to them. It was important for the mothers that their children ate well, and children’s lack of eating emerged as a concern. The mothers balanced between what foods children liked and what they considered as good for the child. They had searched and received ideas and information regarding eating on the Internet and from a Finnish counseling center. Conclusions: This study brought understanding of everyday eating in families with children with a foreign background in Finland. The ethnographic approach made it possible to describe mothers’ own perspectives and was an effective way to recruit people with a foreign background. More ethnographic research is needed from the perspective of children and adolescents with foreign backgrounds to make their voices heard as well.
  • Keränen, Kerttu (2020)
    There are only few studies about diet of food pantry recipients or quality of their diet. Previous studies have found out that food pantry recipients are elder, more disadvantaged and in lower socioeconomic status compared to general population. The aim of this study was to find out from which food groups the daily diet of food pantry recipients consisted, do there exist different dietary patterns among the food pantry recipients, and are sociodemographic factors, experienced wealth and vulnerability associated with the diet. In addition, experiences about convenience of food donated in food aid for cooking and possibilities to prepare warm meals among food pantry recipients, and association between convenience, possibilities and diet, were studied. This study was a cross-sectional study and the data consisted of participants in the project called From food pantry to participation (Ruokajonosta osallisuuteen -hanke). Diet was studied by using the Diet and lifestyle questionnaire form that included 7-sections - food frequency questionnaire. Closed questions were applied to study experiences about convenience of food donated in food aid, possibilities to prepare meal and economic situation. T-tests and variance analysis were used to study differences between the groups, and regression analysis were used to study associations between diet and background factors. Principal component analysis was used to detect dietary patterns. The study population consisted of 137 participants from different parts of Finland. 114 participants were included in the final analysis. 45 % were men and 78 % were retired. There was a need for improvements in the diet. Less than half of the participants consumed vegetables, berries and fruits daily. Dairy products, dietary fats and grains were eaten daily by every third. 58 % ate fish 1–2 times per week. Eggs and meat were eaten 3–5 times per week by 33 %, and daily by 23 % respectively. 53 % of food pantry recipients felt that food donated in food aid was convenient for cooking. 83 % cooked often or quite often. In this study two dietary patterns were detected; traditional dietary pattern and vegetable-fish -based dietary pattern. The most strongly loaded food groups in the traditional dietary pattern were grains, dairy products, dietary fats, and meat and eggs. Fruits, berries, vegetables and fish were most strongly loaded in the vegetable-fish -based dietary pattern. There was one group that preferred vegetable-fish -based dietary pattern. Factors positively associated with the dietary patterns in this group were older age, female sex, living in an owner-occupied flat, experienced good wealth and low vulnerability, non-smoking and low consumption of alcohol. Convenience of food donated in food aid for cooking and possibilities to prepare a warm meal were not significantly associated with the dietary patterns. The study population represented general food pantry recipients. However, the results cannot be generalized as the population was small. The study indicates that the diet of food pantry recipients needs improvements, and there exist groups with different eating patterns among them. More research is needed to find out if there was an association between the diet of food pantry recipients and the way food aid was implemented in practice. Diet should be studied more precisely in the following studies. Young people and persons having risk of exclusion, and consequences of COVID-19 pandemic for food aid work and food pantry recipients should be studied also.
  • Tilli, Venla (2023)
    Background: Previous studies have measured low levels of EPA and DHA in vegetarian and vegan participants, and the clinical significance of low EPA and DHA levels on children’s growth and devel-opment is yet to be decided. Especially DHA is crucial element in the development of retina, brain, and immune systems during childhood. As a response to climate change and burden of disease, more plant-based diets such as vegetarian and vegan diets are gaining popularity and number of people following such diets is expected to rise. Objectives: This thesis aims to investigate serum fatty acid composition in vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore children, and to explore the fatty acid data to find fatty acid components to be associated with the diets. Methods: Current data is from a cross-sectional study called MIRA2. Serum samples of 2−7-years old Finnish children (26 vegan, 17 vege-tarian, 22 omnivore) from the city of Helsinki were processed to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), which were analysed using gas-liquid chromatograph. Differences in fatty acid proportions between diet groups were investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal.Wallis’ test. Principal component analysis was carried out to form fatty acid components. Results: Vegans had more polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids compared to omnivores. Omnivores had more saturated fatty acids than vegans, but lower n-6/n-3 ratio. Vegans had relatively less DHA compared to the other diet groups. Four fatty acid components were formed, but only one of the components had statistical significance between the groups and could be used to deviate vegans from omnivores. Conclusions: The results confirm that vegans measure low levels of DHA, and more longitudinal studies are needed to ensure the adequacy of vegan (and vegetarian) diets for growth and develop-ment in children. Overall, vegans had more favourable fatty acid composition compared to omni-vores.
  • Ahokas, Iida (2022)
    Background: Food systems and diets affect both human health and the environment. As dietary behaviour adopted in childhood often track to adulthood, the meals served in daycare centres offer a good opportunity for promoting healthy and climate-friendly eating habits in both short- and long-term. Objectives: As part of the FoodStep project, the objectives of this study were to examine compliance with the food-level recommendations, nutrient content per child and climate impacts of the conventional menus in Finnish daycare centers, as well as the potential changes in the compliance with the food-level recommendations, nutrient content per child and climate impacts of the FoodStep menus, modified towards more plant-based diet. Methods: Menus, recipes, and planned portion sizes were used to create hypothetical food diaries, representing the planned foods per child during a full-day daycare. Nutrient calculations were performed for conventional menus and modified FoodStep menus for four Finnish municipalities. Climate impacts of the same meals were calculated at Natural Resources Institute of Finland. Results: In the conventional menus, food-level serving frequency recommendations were not met for several food groups, but the compliance was clearly improved in the modified FoodStep menus in all the municipalities. At nutrient-level, the issues in the two menus were similar in every municipality: compared to the recommendations for daycares, too low proportion of energy was derived from fat and too high from protein. In addition, the planned salt supplies were excessive. The planned supplies of energy and micronutrients fulfilled the recommendations with the only exception of iron in the conventional menu of one municipality. In three of the four municipalities, the FoodStep menu modifications led to markedly reduced climate impacts. Conclusions: More focus in daycare menu planning would be needed to meet both the food- and nutrient-level recommendations. Moderate modifications of the conventional daycare menus – increasing vegetables, fruits, and berries, and sustainable fish species and decreasing meat and dairy products – can improve the compliance with the food-level recommendations and decrease the climate impacts of the menus without negative effects on the nutrient supplies.
  • Joutsi, Roosa (2022)
    Tiivistelmä Tausta: Ruoankäytön ja ravinnonsaannin sukupuolieroja on nähtävissä jo nuorilla lapsilla. Muun ruokaan liittyvän käyttäytymisen sukupuolieroista lapsilla on vasta vähän tutkimusta. Uusi ruokaymmärryksen ja ‑kiinnostuksen (food engagement) käsite pyrkii kuvaamaan monipuolisesti erilaisia tapoja olla kosketuksissa ruokaan ja ruokajärjestelmään arjen käyttäytymisen kautta. Tavoitteet: Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli kartoittaa lasten ruokaymmärryksen ja ‑kiinnostuksen sukupuolieroja Suomessa ja Puolassa. Lisäksi tässä tutkimuksessa tutkittiin uuden ruokaymmärryksen ja ‑kiinnostuksen mittarin rakennevaliditeettia. Menetelmät: Tutkimuksessa käytetty aineisto on peräisin EIT Food WeValueFood -konsortiohankkeen tutkimuksesta. Aineisto kerättiin Suomessa ja Puolassa syksyllä 2020. Tässä tutkimuksessa käytettiin tutkimuksen alkuvaiheessa kerättyä aineistoa poikkileikkausasetelmassa. Tutkittavat olivat 9–11-vuotiaita lapsia (n = 165). Ruokaymmärryksen ja ‑kiinnostuksen mittarin rakennevaliditeettia tutkittiin eksploratiivisella faktorianalyysillä. Sukupuolen ja ruokaymmärryksen ja ‑kiinnostuksen pisteiden yhteyksiä mallinnettiin lineaarisella regressioanalyysillä. Sukupuolieroja vastauksissa mittarin yksittäisiin kysymyksiin tutkittiin ristiintaulukoinnilla ja Khiin neliö -testillä. Tulokset: Suurimman osan (23 %) ruokaymmärryksen ja ‑kiinnostuksen pisteiden vaihtelusta selittivät mittarissa ennalta määritellyn ruokaviestinnän osion kysymykset (ruoasta lukeminen, ruoasta puhuminen sekä ruoka-aiheisten ohjelmien ja videoiden seuraaminen). Tiettyjen kysymysten poistaminen vahvisti mittarin sisäistä yhtenäisyyttä. Sukupuolten välillä ei ollut eroa ruokaymmärryksen ja -kiinnostuksen pisteissä, kun tarkasteltiin koko aineistoa erilaisissa regressiomalleissa. Suomalaisilla tutkittavilla sukupuolten välillä havaittiin tilastollisesti merkitsevä piste-ero vakioimattomassa regressiomallissa (p = 0,015): tyttöjen pisteet olivat keskimäärin 6 prosenttiyksikköä poikien pisteitä korkeammat (tytöt 48 % ja pojat 42 %). Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä monimuuttujamallissa. Puolalaisilla tutkittavilla sukupuolten välillä ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevää eroa missään regressiomallissa. Kysymyskohtaisia tilastollisesti merkitseviä sukupuolieroja havaittiin koko aineistossa sekä erikseen Suomen osa-aineistossa. Puolan osa-aineistossa ei havaittu tilastollisesti merkitseviä eroja sukupuolten välillä. Johtopäätökset: Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella lasten ruokaymmärryksen ja -kiinnostuksen mittari on potentiaalinen työkalu kuvaamaan, kuinka monipuolisesti lapsi on arjessaan tekemisissä ruoan kanssa, mutta sen rakenne vaatii vielä lisätutkimusta. Tämä tutkimus antoi viitteitä siitä, että vaikka tyttöjen ja poikien ruokaymmärryksen ja ‑kiinnostuksen tasossa ei olisi suuria eroja, tavat olla tekemisissä ruoan kanssa saattavat kuitenkin olla erilaisia
  • Kuokkanen, Taija (2023)
    Introduction Lifestyle change recommendation from healthcare professional can motivate people to improve their lifestyles and decrease the risk for non-communicable diseases (NCD). Previous evidence show that lifestyle change recommendations are provided insufficiently in healthcare. Unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, excessive use of alcohol and smoking are lifestyle factors that can be influenced to prevent or delay the development of NCDs. Aims This Master´s thesis aim was to investigate the quantity of received lifestyle change recommendations from healthcare professionals in Finland, and whether sociodemographic factors influence on receiving them. We also studied whether there are differences between lifestyles (diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption) and risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypergly-caemia and overweight or obesity) among those who received lifestyle change recommendations and those who did not. Materials and methods Cross-sectional data (n=5125) from FinHealth-2017 -study, by the Finnish institute of Health and Welfare were used in this study. Variables concerning lifestyle change recommendations, lifestyle and metabolic risk factors were gathered by questionnaires and certain risk factor variables were measured in health examinations. Statistical analyses for continuous variables were performed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and by crosstabulation for categorial variables. Results Received lifestyle change recommendations were reported by 25 % of participants. Nurses were reported as provider of the recommendation twice as often as doctors. Age group from 50 to 70 years reported receiving recommendations the most. Lifestyle- and metabolic risk factors were more com-mon among those who received lifestyle change recommendations, but quality of diet did not differ notably. Conclusions Results suggest that the quantity of received lifestyle change recommendations from healthcare professionals is low, considering the lifestyles and the prevalence of risk factors in Finnish population. Thus, it is possible, that risk factors for NCDs are not identified in healthcare practise, or that lifestyles are not raised as an issue during healthcare visits with patients that are still relatively healthy, without comorbidity. Results suggest that lifestyle guidance and primary prevention should be made a priority to prevent NCDs and enable adequate public healthcare for all in the future.
  • Peters, Olubusola (2023)
    We assessed the association between hair cortisol concentration (HCC), a biomarker for long-term stress, and pre-schoolers’ diet on the macronutrient level in this cross-sectional study. The data was collected in 2015-16 from a population of 655 Finnish children of ages 3-6 years. Hair samples of 2cm from the scalp were collected to represent the HCC from the past two months. Macronutrient intake was examined using food diaries filled out by the parents and Early childhood education and Care (ECEC) on behalf of the pre-schoolers. For the socioeconomic status (SES) the parents reported their highest education level reached and family income. We evaluated the association between the pre-schoolers’ HCC and energy percentage (E%) macronutrient intake with univariate and multiple linear regression models. We evaluated three models which we adjusted for varying confounders; Model 1 had no adjustments, model 2 was adjusted with the ISO BMI and energy intake (KJ) and Model 3 had further adjustments with the highest education level and the relative household monthly income. There was no association found between the pre-schoolers’ HCC and macronutrient intake. Our results are in line with a previous study which also assessed the association between HCC and macronutrient intake in E% but not in g/day. Further studies are needed to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between HCC and macronutrient intake in young children.
  • Halonen, Anniina (2022)
    Background and aim Complementary feeding is defined as the period during which there is a progressive reduction of breastfeeding or formula while the infant is gradually introduced to solid foods at 4-6 months of age. Improper complementary feeding practices, such as introducing solid foods beyond 6 months of age or having a low dietary diversity could lead to negative infant health outcomes. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that might detrimentally affect complementary feeding, such as maternal stress. This thesis aimed to study the associations between maternal stress indicators, the age of solid food introduction, and dietary diversity during complementary feeding within a Finnish birth cohort. Methods The Health and Early Life Microbiota (HELMi) is a longitudinal birth cohort study. Participants of the HELMi cohort included 1055 healthy infants and their parents, mainly residing in the capital region of Finland. Pre-collected data from the HELMi study were used. The data collection occurred between 2016-2018. The main variables used in this thesis were collected via extensive online questionnaires. Binomial logistic regression analyses were used to study whether prenatal and postpartum stress indicators were associated with the age of solid food introduction and/or the infant’s dietary diversity during complementary feeding. Results Late introduction of solid foods (> 6 months) was less likely among infants whose mothers reported moderate or high prenatal stress (moderate prenatal stress OR=0.66, 95%CI 0.45-0.97, high prenatal stress OR 0.62, 95%CI 0.39-0.98), when compared to infants whose mothers reported low prenatal stress. Maternal stress indicators were not associated with low dietary diversity (0-3 food groups introduced) at 6 months of life. Among infants with a low dietary diversity at 9 months of age, mothers were more likely to report high levels of prenatal stress (OR=4.88, 95%CI 1.27-18.79), when compared to mothers with low levels of prenatal stress. Further, infants with a low dietary diversity at 9 months were less likely to have mothers report low to moderate levels of life satisfaction (OR=0.25, 95%CI 0.06-1.02) when compared to mothers with very high life satisfaction. They were also less likely to report moderate levels of infant health worry (OR=0.18, 95%CI 0.05-0.67) when compared to mothers with no infant health worry. Conclusions This is the first study to look at the associations between maternal stress indicators and dietary outcomes during complementary feeding. Maternal stress indicators were associated with the age of solid food introduction and the infant’s dietary diversity at 9 months, but not at 6 months. In future studies on this topic, a more socio-demographically representative sample should be recruited, and validated tools should be used to collect dietary and psychological data. Health practitioners and family clinic workers should be made aware of the possibly long-lasting effects of prenatal stress and consider its possible effects on dietary outcomes during complementary feeding.
  • Korpunen, Katri (2022)
    Introduction According to Finnish nutrition recommendations children should eat fruit and vegetables (FV) diversely and at least 250 g/d or five handfuls measured by the child’s hand a day. There are many possible health benefits associated with higher fruit and vegetable diversity (FVD). There is no previous information on children’s FVD in Finland. Aims The main aims were to describe the FVD of 3- to 6-year-old children’s diet in Finland and to analyse whether socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with it. The other aim was to describe which FV species the children consumed. Materials and methods The data used is from the cross-sectional DAGIS survey (n=864) conducted during 2015–2016 in eight municipalities in Finland. The data used in the analyses consisted of 3- to 6-year-old children with three complete food record days (n=760). Ingredient level food data was used to create FV variables. Using these variables, a 3-day FVD score, which indicated the number of different FV species consumed by children during the three days, was calculated for each child. Hierarchical linear model adjusted with the season of food record collection days and children’s age and gender was used to analyse whether SES was associated with FVD. The SES variables used were family relative income, perceived income adequacy and parental educational level (PEL) and all of them were categorized as three-class variables (low, middle and high). Results The median (25th; 75th percentile) of the 3-day FVD score was 10.0 (8.0; 13.0). The low PEL was associated with a lower FVD score in the children’s diet compared to the high PEL. The association remained significant after adjusting for the season of food record collection days and child’s age and gender. No association was found with family relative income or perceived income adequacy. The ten most consumed FV species per gram in children’s diet in decreasing order were juice, apple, banana, cucumber, carrot, tomato, mandarin, pear, strawberry and grapes. Conclusions The children with low PEL had lower FVD than the children with high PEL. Increasing FV consumption in Finland, from the perspectives of both quantity and FVD, is an important task for the public health as it could have important health benefits.
  • Rahkola, Jenna (2022)
    Background: It is known that the dietary patterns adopted in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Since unhealthy diet is, for instance, a considerable risk factor for non-communicable diseases, it is important to promote the formation of healthy eating habits in children. Food fussiness, a rather common phenomenon in preschool-aged children, is an eating behavior that can adversely affect diet quality. Additionally, it can have other adverse effects on the child and the whole family. It can cause stress in caregivers, for instance. Temperament and emotion regulation are among the various individual and environmental factors that can influence children’s eating behaviors. There is evidence on the association between food fussiness and temperament, especially dimensions of emotionality and negative affectivity. More emotional temperament has been linked with higher food fussiness. However, few studies have investigated whether emotion regulation could be associated with food fussiness. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the associations of emotion regulation and emotionality to food fussiness in preschool-aged children, and to examine whether emotion regulation interacts with emotionality in predicting food fussiness. These associations were separately examined for anger, fear, sadness, and positive emotions / exuberance. A secondary objective was to examine the prevalence of fussy eating behavior. Methods: This study was cross-sectional using the baseline data of a feasibility study which tested the effectiveness of an educational mobile application among preschool-aged children in Finland and in Poland. 326 children participated in the study at baseline, and 298 had complete data of the food fussiness measure. Emotion regulation and emotionality were assessed with the Emotion Questionnaire, and food fussiness was assessed with a subscale of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ), which both are caregiver-report questionnaires. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations of emotion regulation and emotionality to food fussiness. The prevalence of food fussiness was examined according to cut-offs for the CEBQ subscale (3.00 for moderate or higher food fussiness and 3.33 for severe fussiness), and the difference in the prevalence between the Polish subsample and the Finnish subsample was examined with a chi-square test. Results: The (down)regulation of anger was negatively associated with food fussiness (p=0.022). Emotionality was not associated with food fussiness, in terms of any of the emotions, nor did emotionality and emotion regulation interact. In addition, the prevalence of moderate or higher food fussiness (cut-off 3.00) was significantly (p=0.049) higher in Poland (61%) than in Finland (49%). Conclusions: These results suggest that emotion regulation, possibly specifically in relation to anger, is associated with fussy eating behavior. The direction of the association between anger regulation and food fussiness was in line with previous studies on the association between emotion regulation (or parallel concepts) and food fussiness. The possible causal relationship and mechanisms are subjects for further research.
  • Karjalainen, Saana (2020)
    The purpose of this thesis was to find out how a brain-friendly dietary intervention affects plasma metabolites. The data was from the BraVe (Brainfood interVention) study conducted by Fazer, Nokia, Nightingale and Afekta Technologies. 88 working aged men and women underwent an 8-week diet-switch trial: first 4 weeks consisted of a control diet similar to a typical western diet and the following 4 weeks of an intervention diet which emphasized brain-friendly foods. Lunch was controlled and the subjects received nutritional guidance as well as breakfast cereals and healthy snack options to take home. Dietary intake was measured with food diaries and transformed into FFQ-like data and the subjects were divided into four groups based on their diet compliance. Also weight, blood glucose, insulin, CRP, cholesterol and plasma metabolites were measured during the trial. The metabolite samples were analysed with liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and identified with MS-DIAL. Correlations between metabolites and food groups were determined with SPSS. There were 99 significantly correlating (FDR p<0.1) metabolites: phospholipids, phosphatidylcholines, amino acids and acylcarnitines. 42 metabolites remained unknown. The strongest correlations were found between the intake of red meat and PC(O-16:0/20:4) (=0,494, FDR-p<0,001) and LysoPC(O-16:0) (=0,423, FDR-p<0,001) and between the intake of full grain products and 3,2-dihydroksyfenyylivalericacid (=0,418, FDR-p<0,001). Compliance to brain-friendly diet affected the strength and significance of the metabolite correlations . The results of this thesis are similar to those previously found in metabolomics which suggests that the results are valid and the trial successful. These results provide also additional information in the field of metabolomics which can be useful in further research.
  • Karhu, Piia (2022)
    Background. To achieve healthier diets and to support the transition towards more sustainable food systems, animal protein needs to be replaced with plant-based protein sources as suggested by the EAT-Lancet commission. However, plant-based diets may be harmful to bone health due to lower intakes of vitamin D and calcium. Additionally, whether the different amino acid profiles of plant and animal proteins contribute to bone health has not been addressed. Objectives. The aim was to investigate whether partial replacement of red and processed meat with legumes affects bone turnover and whether the intake of individual amino acids from diverse sources play a role in this relationship. In addition, the intake of nutrients important for bone health such as vitamin D and calcium were examined. Materials and methods. The study was a six-week partly controlled randomized clinical trial carried out in a parallel design. 102 healthy men aged 20 – 65 years were stratified into two groups. The meat group consumed 760 g of boneless and cooked red and processed meat per week corresponding to 25 % of the total protein intake. The legume group consumed legume-based products corresponding to 20 % of the total protein intake and 200 g of red and processed meat per week corresponding to 5% of total protein intake. The rest of the diet was not controlled. Bone turnover and mineral metabolism markers were analyzed from the blood samples. Analysis of covariance (adjust for baseline values) was used to analyze the differences between the groups. Nutrient intake was recorded with 4-day food records and analyzed with t-test. Intakes of protein, amino acids, and bone-related nutrients were of interest. Results. No differences in bone formation (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase) or bone resorption markers (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) were observed between the diet groups (P=0.875 and P=0.95). Neither parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, or phosphate concentrations differed between the groups (P=0.32, P=0.32, P=0.826, P=0.32, respectively). Parathyroid hormone concentrations increased (meat P=0.006; legume P< 0.001) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations decreased significantly in both groups (meat P=0.043; legume P=0.018). Protein, calcium, and vitamin D intakes did not differ between the groups at the endpoint (P=0.276, P=0.271 P=0.840, respectively). Regarding individual amino acids, methionine intake was higher in the meat group (P=0.041) whereas the legume group had higher intakes of arginine (P< 0.001), asparagine and aspartic acid (P=0.001), glutamine and glutamic acid (P=0.008), leucine (P=0.045) phenylalanine (P=0.001), proline (P=0.015), serine (P=0.046) and tyrosine (P=0.029). Mean intakes of nutrients and essential amino acids in both groups were met the recommendations. Conclusions: Our results suggest that increasing the proportion of plant-based protein by replacing red and processed meat in the diet does not cause a risk for bone health and provides adequate amounts of essential amino acids and nutrients. However, it seems that in the present study differing amino acid intakes did not contribute to bone turnover.
  • Schreck, Isabell (2022)
    Background Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, acetate and propionate, mainly originate from dietary fibre fermentation in the colon. In recent years, additional gastrointestinal (local) and systemic effects of SCFAs have been observed in vitro and in both animals and humans in vivo. Faecal SCFAs have been associated with several conditions and diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes, colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Aim(s) The BEAN MAN study was carried out to assess the effects of the partial replacement of red and processed meat with legumes on nutrient intake, nutritional status, and the risk factors of type 2 diabetes, colorectal cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This thesis was part of the BEAN MAN study and investigated the effects of partially replacing red and processed meat with legumes on the concentration and composition of faecal SCFAs in healthy, working-age Finnish men. As a secondary outcome, the intake of dietary fibre and soluble polysaccharides were assessed and correlations between the total and individual SCFAs were analysed. Methods The BEAN MAN study was a 6-week randomized dietary intervention, with two diet groups in a parallel design. The Conventional Finnish diet group (Conventional FIN) was given 760 g/week of red and processed meat, corresponding the average meat consumption of Finnish men. The Flexitarian/Legume group (Flex/Leg) received 200 g/week of red and processed meat, and legume products to provide an equal amount of protein as 560 g of red meat. The faecal samples obtained from the participants before and at the end of the intervention period were freeze-dried, and SCFA were extracted and analysed using gas chromatography. Dietary fibre intake was analysed based on 4-day food records. Results At the endpoint, no significant differences in total (p = 0.560) nor individual SCFAs concentration and composition between the two diet groups were observed (ANCOVA, baseline as a covariate). The dietary fibre intake of the Flex/Leg group was higher (p < 0,001) when compared to the Conventional FIN. This was not the case for soluble polysaccharides. No correlation between the dietary fibre intake and the concentration of total or individual SCFA was found. Conclusion The concentration and composition of faecal SCFAs were not significantly affected by the partial replacement of red and processed meat with legumes during the 6-week intervention. This may highlight a more complex relationship between diet, microbiota and the production of SCFA.
  • Pietilä, Tuulia Kreetta Matilda (2021)
    Background Endogenous formation of possibly carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds may partly explain the association between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of partial replacement of red and processed meat with legumes on the fecal total and heme-originated N-nitroso compounds (NOC) in healthy working-aged Finnish men. Methods The study was a 6-wk parallel design randomized clinical trial with two groups following either a diet supplemented with red and processed meat or a diet supplemented with legumes and red and processed meat. Total and heme-originated NOCs were analyzed from fecal homogenates using Ecomedics CLD 88. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics 27. Independent samples t-test and Chi-Square test were used to assess the differences between the intervention groups at the baseline. Differences in total and heme-originated NOCs between the intervention groups at the endpoint were analyzed using ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline values). For correlations, Pearson correlation was used. Results 102 men completed the study. No significant differences between the groups were reported at the baseline. At the endpoint, fecal concentrations of total NOC (p < 0.0001) and heme-originated NOC (p < 0.0001) were lower in the legume and red meat group than in the red meat group. A moderate negative correlation between stool volume and NOC concentrations was observed. Conclusions The results indicate that even a partial replacement of red and processed meat with legume products can significantly reduce the total and heme-originated NOC concentrations in feces and potentially reduce the risk for the development of CRC.
  • Ngambundit, Suchaya (2022)
    Background: Birch hemicellulose, mainly composed of glucuronoxylan (GX), is emerging as a sustainable food hydrocolloid. However, studies on health impacts of GX are limited. Aim(s): To study the effects of birch-derived GX on the expression of tight junction proteins in the colonic mucosa of healthy rats. Methods: An animal intervention study was conducted on 42 rats, stratified into three groups that received different diets for 28 days: 1) AIN-93 + 10% of cellulose (control), 2) AIN-93 + 10% of highly purified GX (GXpure), and 3) AIN-93 + 10% polyphenol-and-GX-rich extract (GXpoly). Protein expressions in the proximal and distal colon were analysed with western blot and examined with ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc tests. Results: In the proximal colon, no statistically significant differences in occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-7 expression were observed between the control and GX-diet groups. Similarly, no statistically significant differences in all tight junction proteins expressions were observed between the three groups. There were no differences in the results when adjusted for sex. Conclusion: The findings suggest that birch-derived GX consumption did not significantly alter the expression of TJ proteins, which is a positive sign for its usage as food hydrocolloids. As this is one of the first studies on this topic, further research, especially on a diseased model, is needed before determining the safety of birch-derived GX for human consumption.
  • Änkilä, Nea (2023)
    Background: Consumption of vegetables, fruits, and berries (VFB) is connected to better health. However, most Finnish adults fail to consume the recommended 500 grams a day. Service workers share risk factors for poor financial situation and low socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is often perceived as a barrier to healthy eating and is associated with low intake of VFB. Food choice motives (FCMs) are associated with dietary choices. Aims: This thesis aimed to investigate, how sociodemographic factors and VFB consumption are associated. Another aim was to research, if service working adults’ FCMs of eating “healthy”, “locally grown”, “environmentally friendly” and “rich in VFB” diet are associated with their VFB consumption and if income level or self-perceived adequacy of income moderate the associations. Materials and Methods: The data was gathered in 2019 from PAM members (N=6435) with a questionnaire and data provided by Statistical Finland from 2019 connected to the questionnaire answers. VFB consumption frequencies and sociodemographic variables were studied with one-way ANOVAs. VFB consumptions, FCMs, and income levels were analysed with correlations. Linear regression models were built for FCMs and VFB consumptions and adjusted with two sets of sociodemographic factors. The first models of VFB consumption and absolute FCMs were moderated with income level and income adequacy. Results: Women, married and university-level educated participants, participants considering themselves healthy and reporting adequate income consumed more VFB than their counterparts. FCMs correlated with VFB consumptions and were able to explain 10-20% of their variation. Self-perceived adequacy of income did not moderate the associations. However, the interaction effect of income level was significant with FCM “healthy” p<0.01 and with FCM “rich in VFB” p<0.01 and berry consumption. Those with higher income levels ate more berries when the FCMs were reported as unimportant, but less when the FCMs were reported as very important, compared to those with lower income levels. Conclusions: Even though the participants had financial difficulties, the FCMs were associated with the service workers’ VFB consumption. The interaction effect of income level was significant with FCMs “healthy” and “rich in VFB” and berry consumption.