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Browsing by study line "Klasslärare, pedagogik"

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  • Lindberg, Emilia (2023)
    Goal. The purpose of the study is to describe, analyze, and interpret primary school teachers' thoughts on sexual education in primary schools. Previous research indicates that only a small amount of research on sexual education has been conducted regarding children in the primary school years. Furthermore, research shows low self-confidence and inadequate knowledge on the subject among teachers. In addition to previous research, the study utilizes UNESCO's and WHO's guidelines for sexual education, as well as the national curriculum, as a theoretical background. Methods. The study was conducted as a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. Six primary school teachers were interviewed for the study. The teachers were aged between 27 and 56 and had 2-29 years of teaching experience. The interviews were transcribed and anonymized. Thematic analysis was used as the analysis method. The material was coded multiple times to extract relevant themes that answered the research questions. Results and conclusions. The results reveal that the concept of sexual education can be misleading. Some of the teachers had difficulty defining the concept and focused on the content related to sex and contraception during the interview. Nevertheless, the teachers had a diverse understanding of the content of sexual education. The lack of knowledge among teachers on the subject makes them feel more uncomfortable, resulting in less sexual education in the classroom. Teachers had different opinions on when sexual education should begin, with variations in responses between grades 1-5. There is a need for strong support within schools for the implementation of sexual education, and teachers would benefit from further training and education in the subject during their studies.
  • Laattala, Laura (2022)
    In 2020 new university students started their studies in special arrangements due to COVID- 19-pandemic. This thesis has two purposes. First, this thesis examines the student engagement of first-year students at the University of Helsinki. Second, it examines the correlation of student engagement and sense of coherence. The theoretical background of this study is Korhonen’s (2014) model of student engagement, where engagement develops through the interaction of individual and collective progress, strengthening student’s identity and sense of belonging. This study aims to answer to the following research questions: 1) How are the first- year students engaged in their studies, and how does their engagement differ from that of first year students in 2012? 2) How does engagement differ according to change of residence and previous experiences university studies? 3) What engagement groups can be found in first year students? 4) Is there a connection between sense of coherence and student engagement? The data was collected with a survey in spring 2021. The survey was answered by 183 first year students at the University of Helsinki. In the survey student engagement was measured with EEQ and sense of coherence was measured with the SOC-13 scale. The data was analyzed with quantitative methods. First-year students were more engaged in the individual dimension, but in the collective dimension engagement was weaker. Students’ engagement was strong in areas of identity and sense of belonging. There were several differences between 2021 and 2013 data. First-year students who begun their studies in 2020 had better academic skills, but in all other areas engagement was weaker. In particular, sense of belonging and participation were weaker than in students who started their studies in 2012. Students who moved to a new residence experienced fewer social practices in their studies. Students who had earlier university degree, had stronger academic skills and stronger sense of meaning in studies, identity and belonging. Three different engagement groups were found and named strongly, individually and weakly engaged. Sense of coherence correlated positively with five areas of student engagement.
  • Väänänen, Elina (2023)
    In my research, I examine special education as a discursive practice in the Foucauldian sense, in which ideas about disturbance are almost exclusively produced as individual characteristics. The discursive perspective also challenges the position of scientific knowledge and concretizes the power and control contained within it. My study is situated in special education context where the education system has assumed a significant role in constructing the normal individual. Therefore, the examination of disturbance is closely related to questions of exceptionalism. In my research, I investigate how disturbance is conceptualized in Helsinki university course materials. Additionally, I reflect on the positioning that materials offer to individuals, mainly in expert positions, who consume them. My data consists of two course books used in special education training, which I approach and deconstruct discursively. In my research, discourses appear as information systems that, instead of merely describing, act as significant building blocks in our thinking and actions. Thus, course materials are kind of a window into the ways in which disturbance and specialness are structured within the education system and more broadly in society. The results of my research show that disturbance is primarily presented as individual deficiencies, which reinforces my preconception that disturbances are personal faults or defect. Consequently, various skills and self-management strategies are offered as solutions to disturbance, which enable one to overcome it. The results also challenged individualistic views. The disorder was presented as a product of Western culture, where certain behavioral patterns are intentionally excluded from appropriate and correct behavior. The course material also placed the adult i.e. the teacher, in a position where they are seen as an actor outside the disorder, who is able to know and report how, when, and why the disorder develops.
  • Vackström, Eveliina (2022)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The interest towards the subject of the study awakened because the field of student councelling is in major changes in Finland due to the most recent changes in the law enforcement regarding student councelling and transferring information from the basic education to secondary education. In this study that was put into practice as a qualitative research the articulated phase of basic and secondary education is inspected from the perspective of the student counselling of a pupil with special needs and the transfer of information. Six student counsellors of basic education were interviewed for the study with a structured interview. The data of the study consisted of those interviews. The data of the study was analyzed by theming the research results. It was discovered that there is no overestimating the importance of the articulated phase of basic and secondary education. The student counselor of a pupil with special needs requires getting familiar with the individual needs in education of the pupil and getting familiar with questions of the health of the pupil or other aspects in pupil’s life that may affect the choice of vocation. The student counsellors do a lot of multiprofessional cooperation with the special education teachers and student counsellors of secondary education. Pointing out facts regarding to pupil’s education and other aspects that can affect the choice of vocation was important but the student counsellors also pointed out that supporting the student and their self-image was important as well as encouraging the student. The importance of coopetaring with the pupil’s guarding was also brought up in regards of pondering the choice of vocation and also in regards of getting the permission to transfer information. The discoveries of the study also pointed out that the obligation to maintain secrecy complicates transferring information between basic and secondary education and it needs changes. It was discovered in the study that more coherent courses of action are needed in regarding transferring information throughout the whole country of Finland.
  • Ryynänen, Lilli (2023)
    My Master's thesis is a qualitative study, the purpose of which is to find out how teachers working in pre-primary and in the early stages of basic education the importance of self-esteem and how they recognise the differences between healthy and weak self-esteem in children. I will also try to find out what methods are they using to support the development of children's healthy self-esteem and what they perceive as potentially damaging factors for children's self-esteem in the learning environment in both pre-primary and early- elementary education. I want answers to these questions because self-esteem has a significant impact on a child's development and life. I collected research data from seven teachers who work in different preschools and early-elementary schools. By Early-elementary school I mean the first and second grade of elementary school. The research material was collected using thematic interviews. The interviews were conducted during October and November 2022. I analysed my research data using the phenomenographic method of analysis. The research shows that all interviewed teachers were aware of the basics of self-esteem formation. They were able to distinguish between healthy and poor self-esteem based on children's behaviour and felt that supporting healthy self-esteem was an important part of their daily work. According to the interviewed teachers, healthy self-esteem promotes among other things a better future for children and affects learning and motivation. The teachers felt that strength-based teaching, positive interaction and creating a safe environment are the best ways to promote children's self-esteem. They also emphasized the importance of professional support and cooperation because it enables providing the necessary help to children, which also increases the teachers' own competence and well-being at work. Although supporting healthy self-esteem is important, challenges related to working conditions and the teacher's own problems can prevent teachers from supporting each child in a way that would promote the development of children's healthy self-esteem. Every teacher interviewed cited a negative atmosphere as a barrier to children's self-esteem development. In addition, challenges faced by teachers that have a negative impact on professionalism, such as fatigue and teachers' personal problems, were perceived to have a negative impact on children's self-esteem. Lack of resources, time pressure on teachers, and neglecting children's challenges were also identified as significant problems.
  • Maximova, Liina (2023)
    In Finland, children transition from pre-primary education to primary education in the year when the child turns seven years old. Children are already preparing for their schooling in pre-primary education by practising their school readiness skills. However, there is a major variation in the skill levels of pupils in the first grade of education. The concept of the readiness of the school has emerged alongside children’s individual school readiness skills, describing the school’s readiness to take in learners with varying levels of skills. As a result, the focus of the examination of children’s school readiness has increasingly shifted from the development of schools and education. This study explores the views of pre-primary and primary education teachers on the ideal and actual school readiness of children and the readiness of today’s schools to receive learners whose skill levels vary. The research data included three group interviews participated by nine teachers in total. The groups included pre-primary school teachers, class teachers and special needs teachers with experience in teaching pupils in pre-primary and primary education. The data were collected using the semi-structured theme interview method carried out via a remote connection in December 2022. The obtained data were analysed using data-driven content analysis. The school readiness skills that the teachers perceived as ideal were concerned with basic everyday skills, academic skills, fine motor skills, working skills and socio-emotional skills. Especially basic everyday skills, working skills and socio-emotional skills were considered particularly important school readiness skills. Above all, the interviewees wished that children would be able to act in a large group, taking other children into consideration. The teachers noted that there has been progress in children’s academic readiness recently, whereas there are shortcomings in their working skills and socio-emotional skills. The teachers had a positive view of the school’s readiness to take in learners with different skill levels, but they also considered the school’s resources insufficient. The current resources are inadequate to provide pupils with enough of the individual support that they need. Group sizes at schools should be made smaller and the number of adults should be higher. The teachers also considered alternative ways for starting school that would better serve the beginning of each pupil’s school path.
  • Pelander, Anni (2023)
    Every year children with intensified or special support transition to school. Usually, these children transition to general education classes. According to previous studies the transition between preschool and primary education is a significant moment for all children which affects future school success. Also, according to previous studies collaboration between teachers during the transition is important for the successful transition. For the children with special needs the transition often appears to be more challenging than to others, so they need special attention during the transition. The purpose of this master’s thesis was to examine the collaboration between preschool teachers and primary school teachers when children with special needs transition from preschool to first grade. The aim of this study is to find out what views and experiences preschool teachers and primary school teachers have about collaboration in the transition phase of children with intensified or special support. The research data was collected by interviewing eights teachers and using theme interviews. The data consisted of interviews with four preschool teachers and with four primary school teachers. This study was a qualitative study, and it was based on phenomenography. The interviews were analyzed using content analysis. According to the results the teachers implemented collaboration differently. However, the collaboration often increased when a child with special needs transitioned to school, in which case the teachers held an information transition meeting. The visit to school was the second most used form of collaboration. The teachers recognized the importance of collaboration for the teacher, the child with special needs and the child’s family. The desire and activity of the teachers, resources, instructions, management support and the physical location of the preschool and primary school were significant factors that influenced the implementation of the collaboration. Collaboration was usually implemented rarely, and its implementation varied between teachers and cities. The varying implementation of collaboration sets children with special needs in an unequal position during the school transition.
  • Niittynen, Saara (2023)
    Technology is constantly becoming a more significant part of society and schools. This trend is also reflected in the Finnish curriculum for primary and secondary schools (2014) where technological proficiency is identified as one of the greater goals for education. Online education in COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 brought significant changes in the use of technology in education. Teachers were required to adapt quickly and enhance their technological skills. This study examines the attitudes of primary school teachers towards the use of technology in education and whether online education has had an impact on teachers' attitudes. Furthermore, the research explores the factors that impact the utilization of technology by elementary school teachers. The research data was collected through interviews with six primary school teachers. The interviews were conducted as semi-structured interviews, incorporating elements of narrative interviewing to formulate questions. The collected data was analysed using narrative and qualitative content analysis methods. The attitudes of all the interviewed primary school teachers appear to be more positive after online education. Two teachers with previous negative attitudes now exhibit much more positive outlooks than before, while three teachers with neutral attitudes appear slightly more positive, and one teacher who already had a positive attitude seems even more optimistic. Online education also improved the teachers' technological skills, expanding their understanding of the new possibilities that technology offers in education. This enhancement of skills likely contributed to the improved attitudes. Using technology in education poses challenges. Technological devices and software used in schools are continuously evolving, necessitating ongoing efforts from teachers to adapt to new technologies. There also appears to be a shortage of further training and other assistance for using technologies. Previous research supports the need for additional training. According to earlier studies, some schools have deficiencies in their equipment, which raises concerns about inequality in education. The teachers I interviewed stated that support from colleagues is crucial. This aligns with findings in previous studies.
  • Salonen, Nette (2022)
    The aim of this master’s thesis is to examine the teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy of those teachers who taught remotely during the autumn of 2020. Furthermore, the aim is to find out if some background variables are connected to these above mentioned constructs. Teacher efficacy and collective efficacy are based on the self-efficacy beliefs which describe person’s beliefs in their own ability to succeed in specific situations (Bandura, 1977). Teacher efficacy is connected to many positive outcomes, e.g., remaining in the profession (Burley et al., 1991), and job satisfaction (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010). There is also evidence that teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy are connected to each other (Goddard & Goddard, 2001). This master’s thesis aims to supplement the previous research data on teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy in the context of COVID-19. The data used in this study are from a research project that aims to examine the effects of COVID-19 on studying, teaching and well-being. The project is run by University of Helsinki and Tampere University. The data were collected in November 2020 by sending electronic surveys to every comprehensive school in Finland. In total there were 5797 teacher participants, but the final sample consisted of those 1095 teachers who said that they had taught remotely during the autumn. The methods used in this quantitative study included describing the data and running correlation analyses and Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The dimensions of teacher efficacy were more correlated between themselves than the dimensions of collective teacher efficacy. The correlations between the two were even weaker. Class teachers had higher teacher efficacy compared to subject teachers or special education class teachers. Female teachers of the lower levels of comprehensive education had the highest levels of efficacy when teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy were examined together; the result is in line with several other studies (e.g. Greenwood, 1990; Edwards et al., 1996). Results indicate that remote teaching has weakened the collective teacher efficacy by decreasing the encounters of the work community. The result that class teachers had the highest levels of teacher efficacy might be explained by the vast level of general competence brought by the education or by their more reasonable workload.
  • Laine, Hanna (2022)
    The purpose of this thesis is to examine classroom teacher’s views on participation and agency in primary school’s visual arts education. The study aims to find out how classroom teachers define the concepts of participation and agency and in what ways it is found possible to promote these things in school in general, and visual arts classes in particular. The theoretical framework of participation and agency is based on the socio-pedagogical approach of participation. The promotion of participation and agency is viewed in social and political contexts and examined through the concept of engaged pedagogy. The study was conducted as a qualitative interview survey. A total of six people were interviewed for the study and the interviews were conducted as semi-structured thematic interviews. Interviews were conducted both by using online connections and in person. All the interviewees were working as classroom teachers or special class teachers that had taught visual arts to primary school students. According to the study, classroom teacher’s views in participation and agency could be categorized as opportunities to influence, personal experiences of meaningfulness and active acts. The views in promoting participation and agency in school and in visual arts education adapted the above-mentioned categories. Participation and agency were promoted via social and political means. The opportunities to impact were associated to both political and everyday decision-making. Promoting student’s identities and internal motivation were emphasized in the personal experiences of meaningfulness. Active acts consisted of dialogical and interactive working methods that emphasized responsibility among students.
  • Ilomanni, Pia (2023)
    Finnish elementary students’ mathematics performance is well above average in international comparison, but research shows that it is declining. Also, students’ motivation is not as strong as could be expected according to their performance. We used the person-centred approach to investigate Finnish third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students’ mathematics motivation profiles. In addition, we explored differences between the motivation profiles regarding students’ mathematics identity, performance, and their parents’ mathematics-related attitudes Participants were 304 Southern Finnish third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students from five separate schools and their parents/guardians (N=241). The surveys were conducted during spring of 2021 in the pilot stage of an international research project focusing on students’ mathematical motivation. Analysis was conducted with Mplus. Motivation profiles were derived by a latent profile analysis (LPA), additional analysis used bch and r3step methods and crosstabulation (spss). Analysis revealed three distinct types of math-related motivation profiles: highly motivated, non motivated and indifferent. Further investigation of the profiles showed that students’ higher mathematics identity is represented strongly in highly motivated group, as are students’ mathematics performance scores. Parents’ self-reported perceived low mathematics competence is highly represented in those students belonging to the non motivated profile. The article: ” Examining motivation profile differences across students' mathematics identity, performance, and parents’ attitudes” is planned to be published in the LUMAT-journal.
  • Källman, Amanda (2023)
    For years, mathematics in Finland has deteriorated according to Pisa. The results of the students has deteriorated even if mathematic has an important roll in todays society. Mathematic is needed in many professions, but also in the everyday life. According to both national and international surveys, both mathematic results and the attitude towards mathematics has decreased. Previous research shows that childrens working memory is facilitated by learning things by heart. Research has also shown that traditional teaching methods and sufficient repetition improves students results. The aim of this study is to investigate how school books, used in mathematical education, have been changed during the last ten years, which teaching methods are used the most by teachers, and how teachers are working with pupils motivation towards mathematics. A survey and content analysis is used as collection methods. The survey consists of both open and closed questions. The schools books Min Matematik and Karlavagnen for the grades two, four and six has been analysed by content analysis. The surveys respondents consists of 20 teachers working in grade two, four or six, with a work experience of atleast ten years, in five municipalitys in southern Finland. The surveys results is analysed by using the programme IBM SPSS Statistics 28 and tematic analysis. The results showed that there is a difference between the school books used today compared to school books used ten years ago. Today there exists more variation and aid in the tasks. Ten years ago there was more repetitions in the books. Teachers, working in elementary schools, use the school book a lot during their classes, it is used almost every lesson. Teachers mostly use traditional teaching methods, which benefits pupils. The presence of aids in the mathematic education is big. Most of the teachers says that pupils attitude towards mathematic is unchanged. Most of the pupils have a good attitude toward mathematics. Teachers try to work with pupils motivation by showing the pupils when they will need the konwledge they get during the mathematic lessons, in their everyday life.
  • Veinola, Katri (2022)
    Currently in Finland there are very limited number of assessment tools in use to identify mathematical learning difficulties in children aged 9 to 16. This study examines the validity of the FUNA-DB measure for assessing mathematical learning difficulties in terms of concurrent validity. The objective of this study is to determine how FUNA-DB correlates with a previously developed RMAT measure, and how, compared to the RMAT measure, FUNA-DB identifies those children and adolescents who potentially should be suspected to have a mathematical learning difficulty. This research is part of a larger FUNA research project in Finland. The study was performed by having 318 children tested with both FUNA-DB and RMAT measurements. The analysis of the data was performed using quantitative research methods. The correlation of FUNA-DB and RMAT was measured by task sections using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In addition, configural frequency analysis was used to determine whether both FUNA-DB and RMAT recognize the same weak students. In addition, descriptive statistics were examined. The results of this study showed that FUNA-DB and RMAT correlated with each other for all task sections (p <0.001). In addition, statistically significant correlation was identified between task sections where the tasks did not correspond to each other in terms of content. FUNA-DB and RMAT both identified the same low-performing students (p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that FUNA-DB appears to be a valid and effective assessment tool in identifying mathematical learning difficulties. Moreover, the study showed that the language best spoken by the student was not relevant to the results of the FUNA-DB measurement, while in the RMAT test, those who spoke Finnish outperformed (p<0.05) the students who did not speak Finnish as their mother tongue. Therefore, FUNA-DB does not seem to be tied to a student’s language skills and it specifically measures math proficiency, as it should. However, the as-sessment of the validity and reliability of the FUNA-DB test in this study remains rather one-sided, yet there are ongoing studies which examine the reliability and validity of FUNA-DB in other means.
  • Niemi, Sofia (2023)
    In a mediated society, the importance of media education is emphasised, and it is important that media education and news are processed with children and young people in schools. News aimed at children offer teachers a good way to discuss about current affairs with children, as well as provide media education. This study examines how news and current topics are handled in primary schools and utilized as part of teaching. The study also examines the importance of news aimed at children for teachers and pupils. The subject of the study is Helsingin Sanomat’s Children's News, a news media aimed at children in Helsingin Sanomat. Children's news is commonly utilized in schools, but there is no information on how Children’s news is used in schools. In addition, research on the educational use of news and news for children is largely focused on international research, so the aim of this study is also to produce research information on the topic specifically in the Finnish context. This study is a qualitative case study that examined Children's news in educational use and also teachers' and pupils’ experiences on educational use of and more generally on Children's news. The data of this study consisted of semi-structured themed interviews with primary school teachers and of a teaching experiment which was conducted on the basis of the interviews. The data in the experiment was collected from primary school pupils using a questionnaire and semi-structured themed interviews. The data was collected in two phases in 2021 and 2022. The method of analysis for both data sets was qualitative content analysis. Based on this study, Children's news was utilized in teaching weekly and specifically as part of the actual teaching. The Children's news broadcast, which most of the pupils also mentioned that they liked, was exploited the most in the teaching. Children's news was used most frequently in Finnish language and literature lessons, but also, for example, as part of the work on transversal competence skills such as learning skills. Educational situations with Children’s news were not usually very planned and the planning appeared particularly as checking the news topics beforehand as well as by the acquisition of any additional information. The main methods of teaching with Children's News were discussions and written methods of working. Interviews with teachers also highlighted the importance of handling news in teaching, as well as the importance of news aimed specifically to children. Pupils also felt that following the news was a positive thing and being informed about world events was important. The results show that Children's News offers opportunities for a wide range of uses in primary school education, including media education, integrative instruction and as part of the work on transversal competence skills. I hope that this study will provide examples and perspectives on educational use of news and media education and encourages to use of the news as part of teaching.
  • Ronkainen, Inka (2021)
    Aims. The aim of the study is to find out what kind of expectancies and values 7 th graders hold in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, physics and Finnish language. Subjective task values, which are intrinsic value, utility value and attainment value, have been studied a extensively, but phenomenon-based learning is a new perspective in this research field, as it only became established in Finnish schools with the latest curriculum. Subjective expectancies, values, self-efficacy and costs influence adolescents’ performance and school related choices. The study uses expectation value theory applying person-oriented approach. This research answers three research questions: 1) What kind of motivational profiles can be identified in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, science and Finnish language among middle school students based on expectancies and values? 2) How is the gender distributed in the identified profile groups? 3) Do the identified profile groups differ in terms of school performance? Methods. The data used in the study was collected with an electronic questionnaire, which was answered by 1013 7th grade students from Helsinki. The first research question was studied using latent profile analysis. The second research question was examined by cross-tabulation and the third was examined by one-way analysis of variance. Results and conclusions. Using the profile analysis, five different profile groups were identified from the respondents: phenomenon-oriented (23%), motivated and well-being (24%), weakly motivated (15%), motivated but loaded (16%) and science-oriented (26%). Phenomenon-oriented students were more interested in phenomenon-based learning than in other subjects, although they also considered traditional subjects important. Motivated and well-being were interested and felt competent in all subjects; they were not burdened by studies. Weakly motivated did not value any of the subjects and the study was perceived as burdensome and challenging. Motivated but loaded students hold high attainment value across subject domains but they also showed high cost value. Science-oriented students hold high interest value in mathematics and physics but low interest in phenomenon-based learning. The results were in line with the previous study, but phenomenon-oriented were identified as a new group. Girls were more evenly distributed in all profile groups, while the percentage of boys was clearly lower in phenomenon-oriented group compared to girls. School performance were lower in weakly motivated students compared to other groups.
  • Suorajärvi, Emma (2023)
    Objectives. Positive classroom climate has direct effects on students’ school satisfaction and motivation to learn. Character strength interventions implemented in schools also have a connection with students’ school satisfaction and their enjoyment of school. The aim of this study was to translate a classroom climate questionnaire for finding out whether the students’ and teacher’s experience of the classroom climate dimensions were similar before the intervention and whether the character strength intervention affected the classroom climate dimensions from the perspective of the students and the teacher. In the study, a 10-lesson-long See the Good! -intervention was implemented to introduce students to character strengths and help them harness those strengths for everyday use. The structure of the intervention lessons is based on versatile See the Good! -material by Lotta Uusitalo and Kaisa Vuorinen. The classroom climate theory in this study is based on the five dimensions of classroom climate by Barry Fraser, Gary Anderson and Herbert Walberg (1982). Methods. The study was conducted as a mixed method intervention study, where quantitative data was obtained from the students of experimental group and control group using the MCI questionnaire and qualitative data by interviewing the teacher of the experimental group. The study contained two measurements, an initial measurement before the intervention and a final measurement after the intervention. Both measurements included the MCI questionnaires of the experimental group and control group and the teacher’s interview. 37 third grade students (experimental group N=19, control group N=18) and one teacher participated in the study. Quantitative data was collected using an anonymous electronic questionnaire and the data was analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test of two independent samples. The reliability of the MCI questionnaire was examined using Cronbach’s alpha values. Qualitative data was collected with the teacher’s semi-structured thematic interview and analysed using data-driven content analysis. Considering the sample size of the study, the study does not aim for broadly generalizable results. Results. Experimental group’s and their teacher’s experiences on classroom climate dimensions before the intervention were somewhat similar and somewhat different. Both felt that the dimensions of satisfaction and competitiveness were present in the classroom climate and there were no strong signs of friction or difficulties. However, the teacher felt that the classroom climate includes cohesiveness but according to the students’ experience, there were not much cohesiveness in the classroom climate. The teacher found that the intervention had positively improved four of the five dimensions (cohesiveness, friction, satisfaction and difficulty). The teacher didn’t notice that the intervention had affected the dimension of competitiveness. According to the students’ experience, the intervention had a positive effect on two dimensions (cohesiveness and friction), of which the effect on cohesiveness was statistically significant. The intervention had not statistically significantly affected other dimensions. The intervention improved the dimension of cohesiveness according to both the students’ and the teacher’s experience.
  • Brotherus, Robert (2023)
    Bicycle model on climate change education is a model recommended by the Finnish Board of Education. It combines current climate education and offers a way to educate children about climate change. The goal of the model is to be involved in solving the climate crisis, one of today's biggest issues. This study examines the thinking contained in the bicycle model from the point of view of ideology criticism. Its goal is to investigate how the bicycle model promotes or avoids facing the Real of the climate crisis, the contradictions that fundamentally challenges the current order of humanity. The research method is Žižek's critique of ideology, which consists of interpreting the symptoms of ideology and traversing the fantasy. The study shows how the bicycle model approaches the Real of the climate crisis to some extent, but ends up avoiding it through an ideological operation, according to which the climate crisis can be solved by environmental responsibility. Based on the study, the bicycle model offers means of consumption to change the consumption-oriented worldview and contains the fantasy of "Nature" as a coherent entity that interacts with the individual. The Study presents an alternative attitude towards the climate crisis based on Žižek's philosophy.
  • Kivistö, Iina (2021)
    According to the National core curriculum for basic education (2014), schools should guide students towards a sustainable lifestyle, as well as understanding that people are part of na-ture and completely dependent on the surrounding ecosystem. Schools should also address emotions related to climate change, as children have experienced, for example, sadness, fear, and helplessness. Studies suggest that climate education in schools is very fragmented and variable and should be improved. Studies show that children’s books are a good way to deal with difficult issues and emotions among children. In this thesis, I examine what climate emotions occur in children’s books on climate change and how the books present climate change. Based on these questions, I evaluate how children's books on climate change could be used in climate education. This thesis is a qualitative study. Four Finnish children's books on climate change published during 2019 and 2020 were used as data. The books are aimed at children of primary school age. The books were analyzed by using content analysis. In the second research question, I used theory-guided content analysis, in which the guiding theory was the model of ecological literacy by Wong and Kumpulainen (2019). The characters in the books had a wide range of climate emotions: distressing emotions from fear to anxiety, worry, and joy and enthusiasm. The climate emotions in the books were simi-lar to emotions that people have related to climate change. The books described climate change and issues related to climate change in many ways. Children's books on climate change can be useful in climate education, as they can help children deal with difficult climate emotions, as well as understand climate change as a wider phenomenon. More research is needed on how books could improve children’s ecological literacy, and more specifically cli-mate literacy.
  • Almén, Jannica (2022)
    The purpose of this Master's thesis was to find out what kind of role after-school clubs play in supporting the daily life and well-being of the child and family. The objective is to highlight the factors that are part of a high-quality after-school club. After-school clubs, as well as its connections with well-being support, have been little studied. However, previous research has shown that there is a strong connection between child and parental well-being. So, the well-being or ill-being of someone affects other family members as well. According to previous research, after-school clubs play a large role in combining parents' work and family life, as well as reducing a child's lonely time after school. After-school clubs also play an important role in strengthening the child's social relations and healthy lifestyle. The study was conducted as a qualitative study. The data were collected as themed interviews by interviewing eight parents of children attending Tennis- ja mailapelikoulu -after-school club organized by Grani Tennis. The research setting was phenomenographic, meaning the goal was to understand and describe the meanings given by parents to the phenomenon being studied. The data was analyzed using theory-driven content analysis in which the theoretical framework of the thesis served as the theory. The study’s results highlighted the important role of after-school clubs in organizing the daily life of the child and the family and in supporting everyone’s well-being. They allow parents to work full-time. While working, it is important to have a safe place for their child to spend time after school. Parental well-being is supported by the fact that the daily life is not burdened with additional planning in relation to reducing the child's lonely time. The well-being of the child and parents was also perceived to have a strong connection. After-school clubs particularly support the child's social, psychological, and physical well-being. After-school clubs in Finland, however, should be still developed more so that there are enough instructors that have the skills to work with different children and supporting their needs. It should be ensured that every child has equally a safe place to develop and grow. As after-school clubs are fee-required, they should also be developed so that every family has the possibility to use them in their daily life.
  • Leppänen, Linnea (2022)
    Objective of the study. The beginning of teacher’s career, in other words, the induction phase, has been noticed in previous studies to be very challenging and stressful for them. During the induction phase teachers often decide on the continuation of their careers. In previous studies related to teachers in the induction phase, it has been noticed that they have higher stress levels than more experienced teachers. They also feel that their workload is excessive. This master’s thesis objective was to study the induction phase teachers’ workload forms and factors. I also make subject teachers’ workload risk profiles with person-oriented research. The main objective of this thesis is to increase understanding of the induction phase subject teachers’ workload to improve teachers’ working conditions. Methods. The data of this thesis consisted of six induction phase subject teachers’ interviews. The interviewed subject teachers were chosen at discretion for this study. The data on my study was collected as a part of a larger joint research project of the Universities of Tampere, Helsinki, and Easter Finland funded by the Academy of Finland entitled “Early career Teachers’ Professional Agency across four European countries -Key for Sustainable Educational Change?”. The data from these interviews were analyzed qualitatively with theory-based content analysis. Result and conclusions. In the induction phase subject teachers experienced a lot of workload. Teachers were burdened by stress the most. Stress was caused by excessive workload, time pressure, and the lack of support. According to the results, prolonged stress caused burnout. All the burnout dimensions (cynicism, decreased professional self-esteem, and exhaustion) came up in teachers’ speeches. This master’s thesis showed that in the induction phase subject teachers had a risk to become exhausted due to excessive workload. Subject teachers’ workloads are important to identify in order to improve teachers’ well-being at work.