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Browsing by study line "Muuttuva kasvatus ja koulutus"

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  • Potts, Samantha (2023)
    Objectives. This thesis will use Russian-American psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner’s  Bioecological theory of Human Development. This theory applies to the topic of trauma because it suitably explains the complexity of trauma through the theory’s outline of human development occurring in complex multiple layers of influence and differing levels of reciprocal interaction. In addition, it is considered to be a cross-cultural theory. Methods. Method for this thesis is a narrative literature review. A Narrative literature reviews have a less rigid structure than a systematic literature review, but still considered a qualitative analysis. As it name illudes to a narrative literature review is a narration of a carefully curated collection of articles, analyzed through the lens of the researchers own experiences, and through the use of a grounding theory. Although this method is more typcal for a bachelor’s thesis, it should not be underestimated as the literature review is the starting point of any research, to discover what has already been studied in order to build upon that. Selection of Topic: Trauma is not a new topic. As mentioned in the history of trauma section, its roots are in the battle fatigue experienced by soldiers returning from World Wars I and II. However, as a topic in education is relatively new, and the extent of its novelty also depends on geography. In the United States, it has been researched and written about, and foundations and centers on the topic have been created. In the Nordic countries, trauma’s effect on learning has not received comparable levels of attention.  Results and conclusions. Are teachers aware of trauma, its manifestations, and how manifestations of trauma can mimic manifestations of learning disabilities? Is the one question this thesis asked and the answer is some do. This literature review has demonstrated that certain countries or regions, particuarly the U.S have extensive published research on trauma as well as a plethora of resources in a range of academic fields studying it. It also highlights the glaring gaps in research and literature on this topic in certain regions, most notably the Nordic countries. This leads me to ask why have the Nordic countries, especially Finland, the world leader in education, are not researching this topic and applying findings to teacher training and improving learning outcomes.
  • van Dam, Sofie (2023)
    Objectives. Research revealed that the Covid-19 pandemic caused stress (Cooke et al. 2020). Whether or not this also applied to principals in Finland will be tested in this study. This study discovers in what way there is a difference in the self-reported as well as the physiological stress of Finnish principals between 2019 and 2020. Researchers have found a connection between stress and social support among principals (Beausaert et al., 2016; Upadyaya et al., 2021). This thesis investigates in what way there is a connection between self-reported and physiological stress of 2020 and the experienced help and support for the Covid-19 procedures. Based on previous studies by Upadyaya et al. (2021) and a someway similar investigation by Beausaert et al. (2016), the hypothesis was that the dataset will reveal a connection between stress and social support. The research questions of this study are: 1. In what way do the principals’ physiological and self-reported stress levels for 2020 differ from 2019? 2. In what way is there a connection between principals’ self-reported as well as physiological stress and the experienced help and support for the Covid-19 procedures? Methods. All the physiological, as well as questionnaire data that are used in this study were collected in 2019 and 2020 by Katariina Salmela-Aro’s research group at the University of Helsinki. The physiological data was retrieved with Firstbeat’s device: Bodyguard 2. In this study, a selection of questionnaire data, and SDNN values that were retrieved during working time (8 a.m. till 5 p.m.) and sleeping time (midnight till 6 a.m.) have been used. Results and conclusions. The self-reported scales of “Cognitive Stress Symptoms”, “Stress” and “Somatic Stress Symptoms” between 2019 and 2020 were analysed as well as the physiological data. A significant result has been found only in the cognitive stress symptoms. Surprisingly, cognitive stress symptoms decreased in 2020, compared to 2019. A significant connection between the self-reported stress of “Cognitive Stress Symptoms”, “Stress” and “Somatic Stress Symptoms” with the experienced help and support of the Covid-19 procedures from Guardians of pupils/students have been found. As well as a significant connection between self-reported “Stress” with the experienced help and support of the Covid-19 procedures from the State level. The physiological data recorded during the night correlated significantly with ‘’Guardians of pupils/students’’, ‘’Municipal education board’’ and the ‘’State level’.
  • Jaakkola, Mira (2023)
    Personal practical theories (PPTs) of early childhood education and care (ECEC) professionals have not been widely studied. Personal beliefs, values and theoretical knowledge form the PPT that affects the decisions a professional makes in everyday work. Therefore, PPT can be considered as an integral element of professionalism in the ECEC field. Professionals' PPTs are often hidden and if not acknowledged and discussed, mutual understanding among professionals may be difficult to achieve. This qualitative study aims to provide some insight into the beliefs, values and knowledge of ECEC professionals, and describe the commonalities found in the PPTs of professionals. The data in this study was gathered from nine (9) semi-structured interviews in Finland. The respondents equally represented different disciplines that prevail in ECEC: pedagogy, social pedagogy and child nursing. The ‘onion model of levels in reflection’ developed by Fred Korthagen (2017) was utilised as a framework in formulating the interview questions and when interpreting the data with reflexive thematic analysis. The main finding in this thesis was the complexity and paradoxical nature of ECEC work which the professionals described. Similarly, the PPT of ECEC professional could be described as a region with a variety of complex dimensions. There were some common themes to be found in the data, one of them being advocating the best interest of children. Another important finding was the understanding of the cruciality of teamwork in ECEC. Consequently, the various PPTs of ECEC professionals should all be valued equally as this enables striving towards shared goals. Furthermore, discussing about PPTs among team members in genuine dialogue may foster the well-being of employees, and ultimately of children in the group. This study suggests that all ECEC professionals should engage self-reflection in order to recognise their underlying beliefs and values that affect their everyday work. This is a practice which enables professional development and also demonstrates ethical responsibility.
  • Kantosalo, Viviana (2024)
    This article-based master’s thesis evaluates and describes the levels of engagement and motivation, along with the experience of flow, in students studying Spanish as a second language at a metropolitan school in Finland during playful game-based activities, using the well-known online game platform Kahoot. The study aims to compare motivation and engagement in two scenarios: playful game-based learning activities and traditional lessons during Spanish language classroom activities. Additionally, it investigates differences in motivation and engagement between genders and explores the correlation between motivation, engagement, and flow during playful game-based classroom activities. A total of 103 students aged 10-15, from grades 4 to 9, participated in the research, utilizing validated psychological questionnaires to assess situational engagement, motivation, and the flow experience. We consolidated the three questionnaires the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS), the Situational Engagement Scale (SES), and the Flow Short Scale (FSS)—into one digital survey that took place immediately after the traditional lessons and playful game-based learning activities were completed. This study employed quantitative research methods, utilizing statistical analyses, to investigate engagement, motivation, and the correlation with flow during playful game-based learning activities, as well as the differences between game-based learning and traditional lessons, and gender differences. This study found that, during situational motivation, the participants demonstrated a significantly higher difference in the Intrinsic Motivation factor in playful game-based learning compared to traditional lessons. The participants also expressed a significant difference in their level of interest when asked about their engagement during game-based learning. No gender differences were observed in either situational engagement or motivation; however, boys showed slightly higher levels compared to girls. A strong correlation was found between intrinsic motivation and flow during playful game-based learning. The study highlights the potential of educational games to promote student intrinsic motivation, engagement, and flow experience, emphasizing the importance of incorporating innovative and enjoyable learning methods such as games into the school classroom. The article relating to this master’s thesis is to be considered for publishing in The Journal of Language Teaching and Research (JLTR)
  • Penttala, Sanna (2024)
    The objective of this master’s thesis was to discover preschool teachers’ experiences with using music as an educational tool during preparatory Finnish language lessons. Language is a tool that helps humans connect with each other and their surroundings in a meaningful way. It is especially important for children who learn through play and interactions with others. Teachers and their pedagogical choices are in key position in supporting second language learning. Music has been found to be beneficial to second language learning. The significance teachers place on music as an educational tool can be observed by defining how and when they utilize music during language teaching sessions, and how they justify its use. The aim of this qualitative study was to discover personal motivation and experiences with using music as a teaching tool. Since the objective was to acquire the most valuable research results possible, the participants were chosen based on their personal knowledge and experience with using music during preparatory language teaching lessons in preschool. Seven qualified teachers were interviewed through semi-structured face-to-face interviews that were conducted in the summer of 2023. The participants all reported having had very positive experiences with using music as a teaching tool and having noticed significant benefits it has on second language learning. Participants had observed music impacting different areas of language learning, such as vocabulary recall, pronunciation, rhythm of language and sentence structuring. The impact was described as significant by the participants, which reflects findings of prior studies. Teachers valued its influence on supporting functions of learning such as memory, motivation and focus. Previous experiences with music seem to influence how comfortable teachers are with starting to implement music into their curriculum, and that support from colleagues has a vital role in encouraging its use. Having a teammate who has a strong background in music education was a key incentive that encouraged them to start utilizing it in their work, as it allowed new teachers to witness the effect music can have on language learning.
  • Kang, Nayeong (2023)
    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the experienced primary school teachers' implementation of the key characteristics of project-based learning (PBL) in South Korea. Six key characteristics of PBL were used in this study as the theoretical framework. The characteristics are driving questions, learning goals, scientific activities, collaborative activities, using digital tools, and creating artefacts. The other focus of this study is analysing the challenges that the teachers faced when implementing PBL. The study had two research questions. The first one examined how primary school teachers in South Korea implement the key characteristics of PBL, and the second one focused on what kinds of challenges they have when applying PBL. The data were collected by semi-structured online interviews of seven primary school teachers. Their project plan documents designed and implemented by the teachers were used as additional data. The collected data were analysed with qualitative content analysis mainly in an inductive way. The main findings are that the experienced teachers in South Korea employed PBL as follows: the teachers (1) designed PBL based on the curriculum and the students' interests, (2) tried to reflect the students' opinion, (3) created a PBL environment, (4) had the students practice related skills, (5) facilitated the students' learning, (6) designed collaborative work, (7) utilised digital tools, and (8) gave an opportunity to showcase the results of the learning. The study indicated that the teachers faced challenges such as managing time, ambiguity, and diversity. The teachers also described several challenges related to student engagement, collaborative work, lack of skills, resources, school support, and teacher expertise. These results confirm earlier research in other countries. The results and suggestions of the study can provide new insights of experienced teachers’ PBL implementation to teachers, schools, and curriculum developers wishing to implement PBL in classrooms. The findings revealed the strategies of PBL implementation, the need to guarantee teacher autonomy more in the curriculum and need of training for teachers’ professional development.
  • Yin, Ziwei (2023)
    Aims. The aim of the present study was to investigate how Chinese high school students’ psychological needs frustration in physical education courses relate to their school achievement, which was reflecting by the change of physical fitness test results. According to the concept of Self-Determination Theory (SDT), humans have three fundamental needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Previous studies have shown that satisfying psychological needs lead to positive outcomes, while thwarting psychological needs cause negative outcomes. This research links Chinese high school students’ psychological needs frustration to their school achievement within PE context, which was conducted to assess the stability of school achievement in physical tests over time for students with different needs frustration groups. Methods. 518 students (274 male, 244 female) from three Senior High Schools in Beijing completed an online questionnaire during school days. Two-Step Cluster analysis in SPSS was used to group students into homogeneous clusters based on their scores for psychological needs thwarting. A mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to measure the between-group and within-group differences. Results and conclusions. Three distinct psychological needs profiles were identified: high frustration (20.3%), moderate frustration (54.6%), and low frustration (25.1%). For school achievement, it was discovered that students who reported high levels of frustration received the lowest grades in both high school entrance exams and current exams, whereas those who reported low levels of frustration received the highest grades. The mixed ANOVA results showed a significant difference in physical test scores between entrance exams and current exams, indicating a decline in physical performance over time across all three identified profiles. Overall, this study contributes to our understanding of the complex interplay between psychological needs fulfilment and academic performance, which could inform future research and interventions in this field.
  • Lee, Jamie (2023)
    Previous research has shown that racism and discrimination negatively impact mental health and that students in Finland from immigrant families are more likely to report loneliness, anxiety, lack of close friendship, and poorer school belonging than their native counterparts. Furthermore, international schools, which is the empirical context of this thesis, have been criticized for being highly Western and white, leaving out important topics concerning BIPOC that would be expected to obtain an “international” education. Therefore, there is a need for more research into the lived experiences of racism of YPOC in an international school context and ways to support their wellbeing. To address this need, this thesis aims to investigate in what ways YPOC studying at an international school in the Greater Helsinki area cope with racism and how they find support. I focus on how race, racialisation, and racism affect their lived experiences and their sense of belonging, and how YPOC construct their racial and ethnic identities within white-dominated spaces. I also highlight sources of support for YPOC and how peer support is a means of supporting student wellbeing. The study was conducted using a participatory approach, with data collected through notes taken from a series of peer support group sessions I co-facilitated, as well as interviews. The planning of the research focus and facilitation of peer support group sessions took place in collaboration with a youth mental health association The data was analysed using a reflexive thematic approach to highlight themes in stories shared by the participating youth while acknowledging the value of research subjectivity. YPOC shared experiences of constantly being seen under the white gaze, being made aware of their race and Otherness in everyday life. They shared challenges with defining their identity and finding belonging and community, especially in transnational spaces. Finally, they affirmed peer support as a strategy for coping with the effects of racism, demonstrating the need for safe spaces for YPOC. This research indicates the need for contextualised mental health support for YPOC and action towards deconstructing institutional racism and Eurocentrism in the international school context.
  • Sheehan, Marcus (2023)
    Objectives. The development of a strong ethnic identity is crucial for minority students throughout their school years. A sense of invisibility and stereotype threat may develop in the absence of a strong identity. Therefore, a rich representation of ethnicity is essential to the development of ethnic identity. This study aims to determine how minority representation is reflected in Finnish school textbooks, particularly how minorities racialized as non-white are depicted through the images found in textbooks. As earlier reports and research show that students from immigrant backgrounds perform lower than students from non-immigrant backgrounds and meaningful representation is important to avoid stereotype threat, it becomes important to examine how minorities are represented in Finnish textbooks used by all students. Methods. A content analysis was conducted to gain a greater comprehension of how minorities are portrayed in Finnish middle school textbooks which affects the development of ethnic identity. To gain insight into how students may perceive the presence of minorities in their textbooks, I examined 227 images found in several textbooks from the two main Finnish textbook publishers. Based on the variables set out, representation was categorized into categories of social hierarchy between the majority racialized as white and minority racialized as non-white found in the textbooks. Results and conclusions. Overall, the representation was 76 % for the majority racialized as white and 23.4% for the minority racialized as non-white. The greatest disparity in representation between majority and minority backgrounds was observed among professionals and academics, with the majority background appearing 80% more than the minority. On the other end of the social ladder, 'peasants' from minority backgrounds were represented more than those from majority backgrounds. The research indicates that textbooks do not give a full account of the varied backgrounds of minority students, which can have a detrimental effect on their ethnic identity and result in a sense of invisibility and stereotype threat.
  • Lusa, Vanessa (2024)
    Migration trends globally are reshaping primary and secondary school demographics leading to increased linguistic and cultural diversity in historically monocultural settings. In La Rioja, Spain, students with immigrant backgrounds make up more than 15% of the current student body. Teachers are navigating these intercultural classrooms with varying experiences implementing culturally and linguistically responsive teaching. Research currently focuses on student academic performance and well-being deficits as well as deficit-based public and teacher narratives. This leaves a gap in research on the teacher experience and positive narratives. This study aims to fill this gap by addressing two research questions: What are the components of positive narratives of teachers working with students with immigrant backgrounds? What are teachers’ understandings of linguistically responsive teaching (LRT) and culturally responsive teaching (CRT)? The data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews of seven teachers with varying years of experience in primary and secondary schools. A narrative driven content analysis was used to inductively code the positive narratives and deductively code the understandings of the pedagogies based on a combined LRT and CRT framework. Traces of the Narrative Dimension Model were used to evaluate the form of the narratives enhancing understandings of the teacher’s perspectives and experiences. Results from this study show three components of teachers’ positive narratives: growth as a teacher, satisfaction and efficacy, and inclusive community extending previous research which has overlooked these aspects. The narratives collectively indicate an emerging understanding among teachers of LRT and CRT in both teacher orientations and skills. Some inconsistencies in the understanding of academic rigor and scaffolds for language learners persist. Nonetheless, these positive narratives offer a fresh perspective that contrasts with the prevailing research focused on challenges. Teachers expressed strong and clear appreciation for the positive aspects of their experiences. Through personal authorship and some shared ownership, the teachers highlight the enriching aspects of teaching diverse student populations. The study shows the potential inherent in classrooms with students with immigrant backgrounds to improve education for all students.
  • Zhang, Shizhao (2023)
    Teacher’s job burnout has been a global concern in recent years, especially during the covid pandemic. To reduce their burnout, job crafting is proposed as a key factor for teachers. Yet previous empirical research has found inconsistency findings between job crafting and burnout. In some studies, job crafting was found to exacerbate instead of reducing the burnout. The current thesis aimed to address this issue from a multi-dimensional perspective. Moreover, basic psychological needs were added as mediators to uncover the mechanism behind the paradoxical relationships between job crafting and burnout among teachers. For those purpose, 726 teachers (Age mean= 39) from China were surveyed online and reported valid responses during 2022. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Model (SEM) with three dimensions of teacher job (i.e., exhaustion at work; cynicism toward the meaning of work; the sense of inadequacy at work) and four dimensions of job crafting (i.e., increasing social job resources; increasing structural job resources; increasing challenge job demands; decreasing hindering job demands). The present study revealed a suppression effect that obscured the genuine correlation between job crafting (i.e., increasing social job resources, increasing structural job resources) and burnout. Furthermore, the findings contribute to job crafting and burnout relationship by indicating that “decreasing of hindering job demands” may induce burnout cynicism, while “increasing challenge job demands” effectively diminishes burnout (the sense of inadequacy at work). Additionally, the augmentation of “increasing structural job resources” is identified as a catalyst for teacher burnout, manifesting in forms such as heightened work exhaustion and cynicism towards the meaning of work.
  • Liikanen, Elena (2023)
    Objectives: Are serious games enjoyed by the students, are they effective for learning and who exactly benefits from them? These questions are raised by the scientific evidence on enjoyability and effectiveness of serious games being contradictory. In parallel, there is a practical need to ensure that everyone has similar opportunities to thrive in school. The purpose of this thesis was to compare learning with serious games and traditional instructional style. Temperament and enjoyment were decided to take into account in the analysis, as both possibly play a role in learning with either of the instructional styles. Enjoyment has also been claimed to play a role considering the effectiveness of serious games, and it is also important from a student satisfaction point of view. Hence, it was also investigated which instructional style (game or traditional learning) students enjoy more. Lastly, the connection of temperament and enjoyment was investigated. Methods: Altogether 66 Finnish fourth grade students participated in the study, 31 in the control group and 35 in the intervention group. Class teachers were instructed to either take up a serious game website called Loru Games for learning multiplication and division (intervention group) or keep teaching as normally (control group) for the period of two weeks. In both groups, teachers were sent links to pre- and post-tests assessing multiplication and division skills. Teachers also filled in temperament (EAS: Emotionality, Activity, Sociability) questionnaires about the students. Paired samples t-tests were run to investigate which instructional style was enjoyed more. Correlational analyses were run to examine the connection between temperament and learning with either instructional style and the possible connection between enjoyment and temperament. Results: The participants in the intervention group rated game learning significantly higher compared to the traditional instruction. It was also found that there was no association between enjoying either of the instructional styles and temperament. Lastly, it was found that the participants’ learning scores (post-test scores) were not associated with temperament or instructional style. Based on this study It seems that serious games are an enjoyable learning method for the students and it does not seem that there is a need for concern about only some students reaping the benefits of either of the instructional styles, at least where temperament is concerned.
  • Zhang, Xinlan (2023)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of sustainability education in Chinese primary education. Society has attained unprecedented level of development as a result of science and technology, while simultaneously there is a growing call for a sustainable future. Due to the huge population and lack of awareness of sustainability in the Chinese context, education plays an important role in facilitating the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are needed to address the current sustainability challenges. More importantly, in China, sustainability education has not been popularized in primary and secondary schools, and various obstacles and barriers remain to the implementation of sustainability education in primary schools. The study focuses on analysing the connections between the newly published national curriculum standard in 2022 and 12 science textbooks currently used in Chinese primary schools. Throughout the research, the sequence of science textbook contents relevant to sustainability education is analysed to identify the specific teaching and learning contents, within textbooks. Qualitative content analysis and descriptive analysis are conducted to systematically describe the national curriculum standard and textbook contents related to sustainability education. Meanwhile, Python will also be used as a tool to deal with word frequency. The research will result in a theory-based model to show how sustainability education is integrated and worked in Chinese primary science education textbooks. The model is represented as a Chinese knot, representing relations of 13 elements of the learning contents and 4 core competencies. Chinese knots are traditionally believed to indicate a promising future, which also coincides the concept of sustainable development. Additionally, research-based suggestions will be discussed regarding sustainability education in Chinese primary education.
  • Bujedo Barreras, Estibaliz (2023)
    Multicultural learning environments are increasing at schools, where the inherent diversity in groups working in collaboration triggers situations of conflict due to students having different worldviews and opinions. While conflicts have traditionally been seen as negative, research shows that when resolved constructively, they have the potential to develop multiple skills and create richer learning experiences. The path to achieving constructive conflicts in a classroom largely depends on the development of the skills needed for conflict resolution in students and conflict management strategies. Nevertheless, although research shows inconsistency in methods and guidelines to achieve constructive conflicts, it is agreed that holistic support from schools is crucial. Therefore, this study aims to explore the strategies implemented by schools to promote constructive conflict resolution among students, as well as the specific approaches used during conflict situations. This study collected data through online qualitative surveys of in-service teachers at international schools worldwide. Participants shared their beliefs and practices regarding conflict resolution through open-ended questions, and responses were analysed using an inductive approach of content analysis to answer the research questions of this study. The results offered a holistic view of the practices in school settings, dividing the findings into two themes depending on the time of implementation: before or during the conflict. On one hand, preparing students for conflict resolution highlighted the development of SEL skills in the classroom through teachers' practices and curriculum approaches. Specifically, the embedding of SEL in the curriculum, collaborative learning methods and conflict resolution training were significant in preparing students for conflict resolution. In addition, prevalent conflict management strategies included collaborative conflict resolution strategies and teachers’ mediation, while inter-disciplinary support with third parties appeared as crucial for teachers. This study concludes that schools must develop methods at every level of school communities, curriculums need to embed SEL, and multi-disciplinary professionals at school are needed. Finally, there is a need to unify teachers’ practices to further develop teacher training on conflict resolution, so students will achieve constructive conflict resolution independently.
  • Halkosalmi, Ella (2024)
    Even though imagination is recognised in research to be an important part of children’s learning and thinking, there is little research on the role of the teacher in supporting and enriching children’s imagination. Therefore, this study focuses on investigating teachers’ understandings of pedagogical practices that support children’s imagination in Finnish early childhood education. Drawing on the sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 2004) and Donna Haraway’s theory of speculative fabulations (2016), imagination is seen as a socially, materially, and culturally constructed practice in this study. The qualitative study was conducted by using focus group discussions to investigate teachers’ understandings of supporting children’s imagination. Three teachers in early childhood education participated in this study. The data of the study were collected at the University of Helsinki in the workshop Unruly and Embodied Storying – Ecological Imagination Workshop for ECEC Teachers. Speculative fabulation was used to research the socially, materially, and culturally formed understandings that the teachers created on supporting children’s imagination. Reflexive thematic analysis (Clarke & Brown, 2006) was used to conduct the data analysis. The results reveal three main themes that characterise the teachers’ understandings about supporting children’s imagination, illustrating the potential of speculative fabulations as a useful approach to research and conceptualise imagination as a collective endeavour between children and adults. The theme Relating highlighted the importance of being present in and caring for interpersonal relationships. The theme Creating Spaces focused on mental and physical spaces that teachers can intentionally create for children to express their imaginative ideas. The theme Helping showcased how teachers can help children develop their imaginative ideas by accompanying children in their play and providing diverse materials for children to play and story with. The results echo previous findings that teachers can support children’s imagination by joining in imagining and becoming co-learners alongside children. However, further research is needed to investigate if time or space for such shared imagining exists in current Finnish early childhood education and care.
  • Kis, Monika (2023)
    Finnish school principals’ extreme stress and burnout reached worrying proportions in the past years that raised research interest. Job demands rose excessively, undermining their wellbeing. Lately, the primary research focus shifted from school principals’ stress to identifying factors that support wellbeing in their challenging work. This study examines school principals’ personal resources (psychological flexibility, grit, buoyancy) regarding combating stress and enhancing wellbeing. The theoretical framework is based on wellbeing studies, focusing especially on the eudaimonic and subjective nature of it, job demands-resources model, and personal resources. The data of the study consists of questionnaire data and physiological measurements. The levels of personal resources and self-reported stress were measured by using the extended Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire-II. The physiological measurements were obtained with the mobile heart rate monitoring device Firstbeat BodyGuard 2. Altogether 456 principals answered the questionnaire and 29 participated in the physiological data collection. The data analysis was conducted with Jamovi statistical program, using Pearson correlation and linear regression. The results showed that Finnish principals’ wellbeing was vitally influenced by the use of personal resources, which were associated with lower levels of stress: 29% of stress variance explained by them. Nevertheless, the sensitivity analysis highlighted that buoyancy itself significantly explained 27 % of self-reported stress. The correlation model between personal resources and physiological stress indicated that 15% of the measured stress variance could be explained when controlled for age and gender. However, none of the variables in the results showed statistical significance. Even though both self-reported and measured data suggested elevated stress levels, based on the analysis direct association between them could not be assumed due to the small sample size (N=29). This study contributes to a deeper understanding of personal resources and stress of Finnish school principals. These findings can support principals’ wellbeing and possible buoyancy-based intervention studies.
  • To, Ming-Chee (2023)
    This study examines the use of emotional abstract words in conversation between individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Language Development (ASD-TL) and Neurotypical Development (ND). To understand ASD's word application in the daily context, this study evaluates word usage through conversations. In view of the severity differences within ASD, ASD-TL without language delays may provide insight into the impact of social impairment on their use of abstract words. This study employs the concept of embodied theory, and compares word application between two groups based on emotion-referring words. This study applied a mixed-methods approach by conducting ten face-to-face Finnish conversations with Finnish-speaking males (n = 20), each group with an ASD-TL and a ND. First, a quantitative comparison was conducted between the two groups regarding the frequency and variety of the target words, and then a qualitative analysis was conducted to gain further insight into their usage. As a result, ASD-TLs used emotional words 22 times in a total of 12 words variety, while NDs used them 30 times in a total of 10 words variety. ASD-TL applied these words for expressing feelings and desires, as well as for asking questions and clarifying specifics as if the NDs. Therefore, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the frequency and variety of abstract words. In conclusion, this study indicates that people with ASD-TL are capable of communicating abstract language as ND people, which helps to reduce the stigma associated with ASD of having difficulties understanding and expressing feelings. To gain a deeper understanding of ASD's daily language application, future research should examine idiomatic expressions and eye-gazing patterns in between online and face-to-face conversations.
  • Boyajian Adjounian, Angela (2024)
    A high level and intensity of competition among hotel workers seeking higher job positions, emotional labor, and the need for new knowledge and skills are some of the job stressors that directly and intensively impact employees’ occupational wellbeing. The Human Resources sector is widely recognized as one of the foremost assets within tourism and hospitality organizations, extensively examined by numerous scholars. However, the impact of organizational training on employees' organizational wellbeing has been relatively understudied. The purpose of this study is to expand studies in the field of hospitality in Finland and contribute to understanding the training methods used in chain hotels in Helsinki and the relationship between job training and employees’ occupational wellbeing. The results of the current thesis indicate a positive but statistically insignificant association between job training satisfaction and wellbeing in the workplace. Components such as gender, age, years of working, and occupational status including department, were determined statistically insignificant in their relationship between job training and wellbeing in the workplace. The study also found that managers in this industry have received more training than subordinates. Additionally, one-on-one training and self-study, including video-based training, were provided more frequently than other training methods to trainees. Analyses of the findings led to conclusions and suggestions for researchers and professionals in the field of Human Resource Development. These suggestions included providing more training that is focused on employees' wellbeing, and conducting qualitative research to examine the effectiveness of current training methods.
  • Lehner, Sophie (2023)
    Objectives. The purpose of this thesis was to explore how students perceive queer in/visibility in higher education. Queer is defined as a concept that includes queer pedagogy, queer theory, as well as queer as an identity. Previous research has shown that queering educational institutions was not sufficiently happening. This study aims to give an overview of the current state of queer visibility in higher education by investigating how students in one education faculty perceive queer in higher education. The major question driving the inquiry was if and in what way queer was visible or invisible to the students. Methods. The study was conducted by applying a thematic analysis to participants responses to a writing prompt. The thematic analysis was operationalised through inductive and deductive coding. The deductive coding was based on the theoretical concepts of invisibility as well as on the Ward-Gale model. Inductive coding was used to complement the analysis. Results and conclusions. The results of the study show a profound invisibility of queerness in higher education and limited visibility. Queer visibility was mostly connected to individual students’ visibility and the queer community. There is a clear lack of visibility in staff, curriculum, and higher education structures. The outcomes demonstrate the harm this can do on students’ well-being. Some participants portray being queer as something that is hard but also that it could have been easier if there had been more education on the topic. The study initially aimed to expand the Ward-Gale model; however, the results demonstrate that elements of the existing model are not being implemented in the higher education institution that served as the site of this study. I suggest that further research needs to be done on this topic and strongly urges institutions of higher education to increase queer visibility. Furthermore, I suggest implementing teacher trainings, making use of queer teaching materials, encouraging teachers to queer their teaching style, and organising queer events. One way to begin enhancing queer visibility is to implement the Ward-Gale model that is presented in this study. The article will be submitted for publishing to the European Journal of Higher Education.
  • Puumalainen, Julia (2023)
    Objectives. The social role of children has been established over the years and the strengthening of children’s participation is strictly based on international human rights obligations such as the Constitution Law and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Several theorists such as Hart (1992), Shier (2001), Lundy (2007) and Turja (2011) have also defined children’s participation creating different models. Although the importance of children’s participation and hearing children’s opinions are emphasized in several studies and reports (E.g., Karlsson, 2012; Stenvall, 2021; Turja, 2011; Weckström, 2021), it is not always implemented appropriately. The aim of this study is to describe children’s participation experiences and opportunities to participate in decision making. This study focuses on children in ECEC and in 6th grade in three municipalities with different demographical locations and population. Another purpose is to examine the role of adults in participation through children's narratives. In particular, the research makes use of Lundy's (2007) and Turja's (2011) participation models, where participation is seen as a multidimensional entity. The research focuses on the experiences of children in ECEC and children in the 6th grade of primary school to see how age affects those participation experiences. In addition, the review considers the effects of geographical location on the realization of equal participation. Methods. This thesis has been done as part of a sub-study belonging to a larger multidisciplinary research project that was commissioned and funded by the Ministry of Education: 'Multidisciplinary research project on the effects of demographic trends to education' and the sub study 'Equity, children's rights, and the child impact assessment.’ This study was carried out in workshop interviews with children and the data was analyzed using theory-based content analysis. Results and conclusions The data revealed many factors strengthening and weakening children's participation. The results of this study are linked to environments and communities. Children's participation is formed, and it culminates in community and respectful interactions.