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Browsing by department "Institute of Behavioural Sciences"

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  • Fager, Fanni (2016)
    Continuous professional development plays a key role in today's organizations. With skilled personnel companies try to maintain a good market position. In the aviation industry maintaining professional skills is a premise for the security values and for succeeding in the profession. The purpose of this study is to identify pilots' views on the formation of workmanship and also what meanings they give to simulation pedagogy. My goal is to find out how pilots explain their workmanships' formation, and also how they explain the importance of simulation training in terms of their profession. I did the implementation of the study with qualitative research methods. I collected data by interviewing five commercial airline pilots between the ages of 25-42. I believed that theme interview left enough space for the interviewee's own interpretation as well as give an opportunity to express their own opinions and experiences. Analysis of the data was content analysis. The pilots' perceptions of workmanship formation are explained through new experiences and routine. Expertise, in turn, is defined as a kind of special qualities and problem solving. Pilots see the workmanship as well as expertise through the formation of experiences ja training. The analysis highlighted the view of simulation training as an important element towards expertise. Simulation Training as a whole was seen as sustaining the skills as well as growing the professional skills. Criticism towards simulation pedagogy came up when pilots were talking about debriefing situations. Feedback and is not always seen as valid to meet the educational performance.
  • Rantala, Emilia (2019)
    The research focuses on the views and experiences of professional youtubers and about where they have acquired their knowledge and skills. Also, how they develop their expertise is at the heart of the review, as there is no actual training in the profession of a youtuber. The aim of the study is to outline the different dimensions of knowledge and the areas that a person needs in his / her work. The context of the research is competence, competence development and new work. The labor market of the future requires updating skills, and through this research it is possible to look at the demands of the skills of such a new work represented by the youtubers in this study. The material consists of four interviews in which the most successful tubers in Finland tell about their own work and describe the related skills and areas of expertise. The analysis proceeds according to content analysis, where I summarize the categories of different competencies emerging from the interviewees' stories. On the basis of the analysis, four top classes describing the skills of professional youtubers were gathered: Technical skills, self-management skills, professional skills and networking skills. Under these four upper classes, there are even more sub-categories that define the skills required in the work of youtubers. The categories of competence are not intended to cover the skills and requirements of the entire profession, but to gain access to the individual's own expertise and development. Through the results, it is also possible to get more information on about the youtubers work, that represents new manifestations of worklife. The results show how new ways of working have come to stay and there is no return to the old bureaucratic organization style of work in these young people's expectations. Expertise and its development were seen as a self-contained factor. The future as a professional youtuber was seen as unstable, but still unlimited and bright. New forms of work and the changing attitudes of young people towards work require more research at a single level. New larger phenomena are often formed through micro-phenomena and when these micro-phenomena can be accessed early enough, greater changes could be better anticipated.
  • Huovilainen, Tatu (2016)
    Background and aims. Most of the knowledge about neurocognitive processes of reading is based on artificial reading paradigms, such as serial presentation of isolated words or linguistic violation paradigms. The main aim of this thesis was to develop a novel approach to study the neural processes of reading. Specifically, a naturalistic reading task was employed due to concerns for ecological validity, that have been raised about the effects of task on the reading processes. A combination of methods was used to overcome difficulties introduced by this unconstrained reading approach. The second aim was to apply this novel paradigm to test if early differences in the neurocognitive processing of words from different word classes can be found during naturalistic reading. Early processing differences between word classes have been observed before, but they might be task-specific or due to processing related to linguistic violations. Methods. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and eye movements were recorded simultaneously while participants (8, 4 males) silently read a biographical novel presented on a computer screen. The eye movement recording was used to relate the MEG recording to specific word fixation events during reading. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to remove eye movement artifacts from the MEG recording and to extract activations of individual cortical areas. An automatic parser was used to extract word class information for all the words in the reading material. Event-related fields (ERFs) evoked by fixations on nouns and verbs were compared using nonparametric cluster-based permutation tests in time window of 0–250 ms after the fixation onset. Results and conclusions. The novel combination of methods used in this study proved to be a promising approach to examine neural processes of reading. In comparison to mainstream methodology of cognitive neuroscience of reading, the present approach has several theoretical and practical advantages. Statistically significant differences between nouns and verbs were found in the sensors above the left temporal cortex, in the 138–164 ms and 184–206 ms time windows after the fixation onset. The results confirm some of the earlier findings that were based on non-naturalistic reading settings and suggests that syntactic and/or semantic information is accessed remarkably early in the course of normal reading.
  • Hietamäki, Maija (2015)
    Study aims: Parents' role has been emphasized in children's speech therapy in recent years. There has, however, been very little research done on parents' experiences of their children's speech therapy. By learning more about parents' perceptions of speech therapy it is possible to increase the acceptance of therapy, develop therapy practices and the training of professionals. This study concentrated on stuttering children's speech therapy because there is very little research done on the topic and the role of parents is especially important in the speech therapy of stuttering children. The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge of parents' experiences of stuttering children's speech therapy as a part of daily life. Methods: The method in this study was a semi-structured interview. Altogether eight interviews were done in which seven mothers and one mother-father pair was interviewed. All the stuttering children were boys, aged 7 to 17 years. The interviews were done during May-June 2014. Theory bound content analysis was used in the study. Results and conclusions: For the parents speech therapy and the cooperation with the speech therapist was mainly a positive experience. The biggest challenge was the lack of therapy resources. The parents had mainly been successful in combining family life and therapy although the hurry of everyday life in families with small children was evident. Supporting children's speech fluency was seen as challenging. Some of the advice received in supporting the child's speech fluency had been seen helpful for the parents while some others were questioned. The parents would have wanted more guidance from the speech therapist in supporting the child's speech fluency in everyday life. Acceptance and commitment therapy was seen as more helpful than speech therapy in helping the parents come to terms with their child's stuttering and in supporting the child's speech fluency. Parents saw the peer support as especially helpful. The child's age had a bearing on the parents' experiences of their own role, on how well family life could be combined with therapy and on which of the ways to support the child's speech fluency were seen as helpful. The lack of therapy resources and especially the regional differences in therapy resources was evident in this study. On the basis of this study it can be stated that the parents of stuttering children experience their role in speech therapy as an important one. The role of parents is also experienced as challenging due to the lack of therapy resources and the hurry of everyday life. There should be more emphasis in speech therapy on parental guidance and on considering the family's overall situation. The lack of therapy resources, however, makes increasing the parental guidance difficult. More research is needed on parents' experiences of their stuttering children's speech therapy in order to take the parents' perspective better in to consideration in speech therapy.
  • Vuori, Ella (2016)
    Study aims: The impact of stuttering on an individual's life is obvious. Although quite a lot of studies have focused on the observable factors of stuttering, the features that occur under the surface have received less attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that stuttering has on the quality of life of adults who stutter. In addition this study aimed to explore the connections between demographic and stuttering related factors and quality of life. Methods: This study was carried out as a survey via Helsinki University's web questionnaire. The participants were recruited from the Association of the Finnish Stutterers. Participation was requested from adult stutterers and a total of 40 stutterers participated in the survey. The IBM SPSS Statistics 22 program was used for quantitative analysis of the data. Means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages were computed from the multiple-choice questions. The relationships between background information and quality of life were examined using the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and the Spearman correlation. The qualitative analysis was based on the classification of recurring themes in the answers for the open-ended questions. Results and conclusions: Stuttering seemed to be in some kind of a relationship with all the aspects of life such as the quality and quantity of communication, social life, mental health, education and work life. The effects varied between individuals both in volume and in direction. The severity of stuttering, the age at formal diagnosis of stuttering and many demographic factors such as age, marital status and educational level were connected to how the participants thought stuttering had affected their quality of life. However gender did not seem to affect their views of their quality of life. The findings of this study increase the knowledge about stuttering's diversity and its wide-ranging consequences. These results can be applied in developing the clinical practice of stuttering therapy.
  • Nilsson, Beata (2016)
    Wellbeing and satisfied employees is the fundament of a successful work place. It promotes health of employees, work atmosphere, engagement, development and productivity. The aim of the present study is to analyze job satisfaction among research and education personnel at The University of Helsinki. The job satisfaction was studied through analyzing the balance between effort and reward, the experience of job demands, control and social support and the effects of saving measures on work motivation. The data for the present study was gathered though an electronic survey and analyzed statistically during spring 2016. The measurement used was the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI), a questionnaire created on the theoretical base of the Job Demand, Control and Social support model (JDCS) and the job satisfaction questions were also created on a theoretical base. The results were analyzed with a statistical program, IBM SPSS Statistics 22. Results of the present study showed that the job satisfaction among the participated employees were very high. The employees also experienced somewhat high levels of demands, a high amount of control and social support. A very significant part of the respondents experienced a disadvantageous balance between effort and reward in their work. In addition almost 70 % pointed out that the saving measures had effected their work motivation negatively. There were statistically significant differences between men and women. Women experienced their work more disadvantageous than men. The teaching- and research personnel experienced a very high level of job satisfaction and their work could be characterized as an active type of work providing fruitful conditions for learning and development. On the other hand there were several factors that form a risk for the employees well-being and therefore causes a threat to the active nature of work if the present conditions continues unchangeable.
  • Sarparanta, Saana (2015)
    Objective: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are serious psychiatric disorders highly prevalent in clinical settings, characterized by multiple forms of distress, functional decline, and increased risk of suicide. MDD and BPD often co-occur and the co-occurrence of the disorders is associated with the course of MDD. Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) refer to maladaptive internalized representations of the self in relation to others that develop early in life. EMSs are associated with depressive and BPD symptomatology and symptom severity. However, the associations between EMSs and psychiatric comorbidity have rarely been studied. The aim of the present study was to provide new insight into the comorbidity of BPD and MDD by focusing on the associations between EMSs and BPD symptomatology among depressed inpatient population. Methods: The sample consisted of 43 adult inpatients (29 women and 14 men). BPD symptomatology was measured via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and EMSs via Young Schema Questionnaire-S2-Extended self-report questionnaires. A three-level linear regression model was created to predict self-reported BPD symptomatology: In level 1, linear regression analysis was conducted for each individual EMS separately, EMSs entered as predictors for BPD symptomatology. In level 2, gender, age, education level and employment status were added to the model as covariates. In level 3, also current level of depressive symptoms measured via Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale was added to the model as a covariate. Results and conclusions: Higher scores on 10 of the 18 EMSs were significantly positively associated with elevated self-reported BPD symptomatology. However, only one EMS, Unrelenting Standards and Hypercriticalness, was independently positively associated with self-reported BPD symptomatology and explained variance over the effect of current depressive symptom state, gender, age, education level and employment status. According to the findings of the present study, Unrelenting Standards and Hypercriticalness may act a specific cognitive risk factor for elevated BPD symptomatology and symptom severity among depressed individuals.
  • Dahlgren, Anna (2016)
    Objectives: 18 percent of Finnish children have some kind of articulation problems when starting their school path. Lack of speech therapists and unequal spread of these professionals has reduced possibility to receive speech therapy for mild problems. Instead resources are allocated for clients with severe speech and language disorders. In some municipalities parents and special education teachers are already responsible for the remediation of articulation problems. The aim of this study was to identify if Äännekoulu-website ( can help to rehabilitate articulation problems and if the site will meet the needs of the parents struggling with their children' articulation problem. Methods: The study was qualitatively centred mixed method design that had also some quantitative elements. 21 children between the ages of 5 and 7 with /r/ articulation problem participated in this study. Children were tested three times. Children's spontaneous development of /r/ was controlled by having one month break after the first testing. After the second test families received the right to use Äännekoulu practice materials. Families were instructed to use the site for two months just as regular paying customers would do. Outcome of the intervention was observed during the third test. Families were also given a phone call after one and a half months of the last test to explore the possible changes in the /r/ articulation. In addition families were asked to keep a record of their home practices and answer in a survey concerning the Äännekoulu intervention period. Results and conclusions: Six families dropped out from the intervention. Five children found the right /r/ spontaneously. 12 families participated in the remediation period and one child found the missing /r/. Nine children had no changes in their articulation. From these nine children three continued their practice after the real intervention. During one month of practice two out of these three children found the /r/ completely and one learned to do long /r/-vibration. Families didn't practice a lot and they were unsatisfied with the amount of practice. According to the parents health issues within the family, burdensome family situations, lack of time, child's unwillingness to complete assignments, technical difficulties and laziness were the biggest barriers for practicing. Families considered Äännekoulu to be a good way to practice. Families were pleased about the nice games and the possibility to practise whenever and wherever since the exercises were available online. Unfortunately families trained impractically without knowing it and actually reinforced the incorrect articulation. Parents thought that the visual look of Äännekoulu should be revised and some of them also longed for more diverse games. Still the most crucial target for development in Äännekoulu is the instructions of the assignments. The model of the site hasn't been clear to the users even though families didn't consider the website to be confusing. It's clear that the the instructions have been insufficient since only one family realised how to progress accordingly. On the basis of this study it can be stated that speech therapist's guidance is significant when rehabilitating articulation problems. In the future it would be beneficial to explore, what kind of home instructions help families to execute their role in a best way possible, what is the role of a speech therapist in the future especially when considering telepractice or other technological services and can Äännekoulu fulfill the gap in the field of articulation remediation.
  • Solén, Taiga (2015)
    When studying hypnosis, it often needs to be known whether the subjects are hypnotizable or not. Hypnotizability can be predicted by suggestibility, which in turn can be estimated with various scales. Different scales yield different estimates of suggestibility. This creates a risk of incorrect comparison of the scores. The comparability of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (WSGC) has not been studied much. Suggestibility is sometimes measured repeatedly with different scales and the order of their administration can affect the scores. This effect has not been studied on the HGSHS:A and the WSGC. This study aims to analyze whether 1) the scores yielded by these scales are affected by the order of their administration, 2) the scores are comparable and 3) corresponding suggestions and types of suggestions are passed equally often. It is expected that the order of administration does affect the scores and even more so for HGSHS:A, 2) the HGSHS:A score is higher than the WSGC and 3) the corresponding suggestions are not passed equally often. 58 subjects were studied, (67% female, 33% male). Both scales were administered to each subject. Half of the subjects were first administered the HGSHS:A and the other half the WSGC. The order of administration did affect the HGSHS:A score but not the WSGC. The hypothesis of the HGSHS:A score being higher was confirmed and the comparability of the scores proved to be less than desirable. There were no significant differences between passing the corresponding suggestions. These results imply that repeated testing might be futile if the right scale is chosen. It is recommended to use the WSGC even for subjects with not former experience of hypnosis. Alternatively, certain suggestions could be used separately to overcome the problems related to the common scales. Specific suggestions are recommended for assessing certain types of suggestibility. Furthermore, a summary of what to take into account when assessing the comparability of different studies is provided.
  • Finskas, Anna-Maria (2016)
    The purpose of this study was to find out whether the values of Finns with children differ from the values of Finns with no children. The data consisted of a Finnish sample of European Social Survey during the years 2002-2012, including Schwart's Human Values Scale with 21 sections measuring the ten distinct values. From the ten values was then further calculated the two distinct value dimensions "self-transcendence" and "conservation". Having children was positively related to conservation values. Especially among younger participants having children was related to higher conservation compared to young participants with no children. Participants under 30 years of age valued self-transcendence more than participants of the same age group with no children. Finns with children valued benevolence, conformity, tradition and security more than those with no children. Finns with no children valued self-direction, stimulation and hedonism values more than those with children. Being a parent was related to the values that aim for corporate goals. On the other hand, Finns with no children appreciated values that enhance the goals of oneself. For a young parent it is helpful to be aware of his/her goals and values, but also of the expectations and values of the environment. More research on the topic is needed to better understand the changes and challenges regarding parenthood and to develop best possible ways of support for families that are facing a new life situation.
  • Mäki, Mikaela (2019)
    Aims. This study investigated how values are associated with subjective well-being, (e. g. life satisfaction, self-esteem and depressive symptoms) among young adults. Schwartz (1992) value theory was used as the theoretical framework of the study. Previously it has been found that values are associated with subjective well-being, however, the results of the previous studies have been mixed. Thus, the present study examined these associations further. Methods. This study is a part of FinEdu longitudinal study, in which participants were 28 years at the time of the study (N = 551). The participants filled in a questionnaire concerning values, life satisfaction and depressive symptoms. The data was analysed using hierarchical regression analysis. Results and conclusions. The results showed that of the ten values, universalism and conformity were statistically and significantly associated with life satisfaction and depressive symptoms among young adults. No statistically significant associations emerged between values and self-esteem. It can be concluded that more research would be needed to examine the associations between values and subjective well-being. Research should include a comprehensive value scale and specific questions relating to the topic.
  • Laakso, Hanna (2015)
    Objective: Cognitive impairment as a consequence of a stroke is common. Advanced age increases the frequency of poststroke cognitive deficits. Particularly executive dysfunction has an important role in poststroke disability. Complex by their nature, however, measuring executive function is difficult. The Hayling test, Design fluency task and Questioning task are some of the less common assessment methods of executive functions, and thus, they are not widely studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of these tests in elderly patients three months after ischemic stroke. Performances on these tests were compared to conventional assessment methods of executive functions, and their predictive value on functional disability in follow-up was examined. Methods: 62 stroke patients and 39 control subjects, aged 55-85, underwent comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examinations three months after the index stroke. Executive functions were studied with the Trail Making test, Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting test, Verbal fluency task as well as with the Hayling test, Design fluency task and Questioning task. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and the Lawton's Instrumental activities of daily living -scale (IADL) were used to assess functional abilities at three months, and the mRS after 15 months follow-up. Results and conclusions: The Hayling test and Questioning task and the four conventional tests of executive functions differentiated stroke patients from healthy controls. Furthermore, the executive functions predicted functional dependence in the elderly stroke patients. The Hayling test was most consistently associated with functional disability as evaluated with mRS and IADL three months after the stroke, and predicted functional disability as evaluated with mRS at 15 months follow-up. Of all executive functions tests, the Hayling test proved to be the most constant predictor of functional abilities in elderly stroke patients. However, there is no golden standard for measuring executive functions, and in the future, more sensitive methods are needed. Nevertheless, the present study confirms the importance of assessing executive functions in clinical populations, when predicting functional disability even in the long-term.
  • Komulainen, Kaisla (2015)
    Adolescent delinquency is a prevalent concern, which carries with psychological and societal costs. Deviant peer affiliation and criminogenic attitudes, as well as personality traits are known to be associated with delinquency, but their interlinked effects are less studied. The present study examines the role of personality in a deviant socialization context. Specifically, I examine whether peer deviance and criminogenic attitudes (1) mediate and/or (2) moderate the associations of the Five-Factor Model personality traits with delinquency. The data included respondents (n=4855) to the cross-sectional Finnish Self-Report Delinquency Study 2012, aged 14-17 years. Delinquency was assessed on the basis of 17 different deviant behaviors; the reported frequencies of engaging in each of them were scaled using a graded response model. Peer deviance and criminogenic attitudes were assessed via respondents' selfreports; two distinct attitudinal indicators (deviant and neutralizing attitudes) were included. Personality was assessed with a 15-item BFI-S questionnaire. A structural equation model was conducted to examine the mediation pathways. The moderation effects were examined with linear regression analysis. Delinquency was associated with higher extraversion, lower agreeableness, lower conscientiousness, and lower neuroticism. Peer deviance and criminogenic attitudes partially mediated the associations of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness with delinquency. The association between neuroticism and delinquency was fully mediated via criminogenic attitudes. Peer deviance strengthened the associations of low neuroticism, low agreeableness, and low conscientiousness with delinquency. Deviant and neutralizing attitudes strengthened the associations of high extraversion and low agreeableness with delinquent conduct. The findings suggest that personality may provide novel insights into the etiology of delinquency in a context of deviant socialization. Implications of the personality-based approach and directions for further research are discussed.
  • Martikainen, Silja (2010)
    This thesis examines the associations between personality traits and sleep quantity and quality in young adults. Additionally the possible effects of birth status on these associations are examined. The data used in this thesis is part of a birth cohort study (Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults). The personality traits are based on the five-factor model of personality. The sleep quantity and quality are based on actigraphy assessments. Four hypothesis were made about the personality and sleep associations: (1) neuroticism is related to a lesser quality of sleep, (2) there will be more significant associations between personality traits and sleep quality than between personality traits and sleep quantity, (3) the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) as well as, (4) the Small for Gestational Age (SGA) status will affect the associations. Linear regressions were used to study the associations between personality traits and sleep quality and quantity. Whenever an association was significant, it was tested whether this association was moderated first, by the VLBW and second, by the SGA status of the participant. The results were mostly in line with previous research especially demonstrating the negative association between neuroticism and the quality of sleep and suggesting that vulnerability to stress decreases sleep quality. Also it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with better sleep quality and extraversion was associated with lower sleep quantity. In addition SGA status moderated the personality and sleep associations. It is proposed that there are two factors behind the interaction. First, prenatally developing mechanisms have an effect on the development of sleep as well as personality. Second, differences in the postnatal environment, for instance the parenting practices, can account for this finding. Future research could focus especially on what kind of prenatal disturbances SGA infants have in the development of mechanisms related to sleep and personality. Also focusing on the differences in parental interaction might shed more light on the results.
  • Ehrnrooth, Anna (2016)
    Goals As the proportion of the elderly population increases, studying biomarkers of cellular aging have become an important focus of research. However, these risk factors of age-related diseases have been difficult to identify. Recently an estimator of cellular aging, based on DNA methylation levels, the DNAm age, has been developed, and it has been linked to risk for both greater mortality and physical and mental health diseases. Effects of early life stress and later health on DNAm age have not yet been studied together. We set out to study, if early life stress and later quality of life and depression each separately or in combination associate with DNAm age. Methods The participants comprised Finnish males, of which 83 were separated from their families during the World War 2, and 83 non-separated controls belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Genome-wide methylation profiles, Rand-36 quality of life and BDI-1 depression inventory were assessed during years 2001-2004. DNAm age was estimated using the Horvath procedure. Associations of separation status, Rand-36 scores and BDI scores on DNAm age were studied with linear regression after adjusting for chronological age, cell type counts, tobacco smoking and frequency of alcohol consumption. Results and conclusions The separation status did not associate with the DNAm age. The Rand-36 Bodily Pain –scale associated differently with DNAm age in the separated group compared to the non-separated group. In analyses stratified for separation status, mild-severe depressive symptoms associated with lower DNAm age in the separated group. Similarly, lower quality of life on Rand-36 Role Functioning-scale and Emotional and Role Functioning Physical -scale associated with lower DNAm age in the separated group. Results are in line with previous studies, which have shown that early life stress doesn't associate with the DNAm age, but the cumulative total life stress and later adulthood diseases do associate with the DNAm age. This study brings novel information of the associations of early life stress and later depression symptomatology and psychosocial quality of life on the DNAm age, and suggests the early life stress and later depression and poorer psychosocial quality of life to have a cumulative effect on the DNAm age. More studies and longitudinal follow-up is needed to clarify the role of DNAm age as a biomarker of cellular aging, especially when examining the effects of early life stress exposure and later health together.
  • Jaskari, Johanna (2015)
    Aims. The purpose of this qualitative study was to systematically analyze how university teaching and learning vary in one Finnish university. My research questions were "How do students' approaches to learning vary?" and "How do teachers' approaches to teaching vary?" In this systematic review, I used the relational model of learning and teaching in universities as a theoretical framework. This model provides a tool to analyze the variation in students' approaches to learning and teachers' approaches to teaching in different teaching-learning environments. The quality of what students learn is linked to the variation in how students learn and how university teachers teach in teaching-learning environments in universities. The quality of learning and teaching is also connected with the allocation of resources and funding in universities and global university rankings. Methods. By using the method of systematic review, I analyzed the variation in teaching and learning in a data sample of 23 high-quality peer-reviewed academic articles. The research context of the studies, which concerned teaching and learning in universities, was the University of Helsinki. Results and conclusions. In this review, students' learning varies mainly in how the students approach their learning (i.e. as surface or deep approaches to learning). Students' learning is modified by the students' learning strategies (e.g. as systematic or critical studies), study orientations (i.e. reproduction- or meaning-oriented learning), and study orchestrations (i.e. different profiles of approaches to learning). Teaching varies mainly in how the teachers approach their teaching (i.e. as teacher- or student-focused approaches to teaching). Teaching is modified by the teachers' conceptions of teaching, teaching strategies (i.e. content- or learning-focused approaches to teaching), and amounts of pedagogical training (that affect the approaches to teaching). Both learning and teaching vary in different teaching-learning environments (both within courses and between disciplines). Both students' and teachers' conceptions of knowledge (e.g. as integrated or fragmented knowledge; declarative or procedural knowledge) affect their approaches to learning and teaching. This systematic review synthesizes what we know about learning and teaching in one university in Finland. This knowledge provides guidelines on how the quality of learning and teaching can be improved both in policy and practice largely in universities in Finland. Essentially, learning is based on good teaching that is focused on the students' learning.
  • Kemppi, Annette (2018)
    The purpose of this work was to clarify how lecturers and university lecturers in Finland's third-stage educational institutions experience the use of learning platforms in their education work. I wanted to investigate if there is a connection between perceived control of data and openness for learning new skills, trust in authority and experienced stress levels at work. The subject is relevant because the use of digital aids in support of teaching has expanded in recent years, but the consequences of this have remained obscure as few scientists in the past have been sufficiently involved in research of digital teaching to successfully produce objective knowledge of the phenomenon. This survey was quantitative and aimed at describing Finnish university lecturers’ experiences using digital learning platforms in teaching. Learning platforms are tools for designing, producing and managing online courses. Data was collected by a questionnaire sent to the lecturers in four different colleges. The questionnaire contained 31 multiple choice questions in perceived openness, stress, trust and subjective control. The collected material was analyzed using SPSS. The results indicated that universities need more specific training programs in using learning platforms. Non-commercial platforms were used more often than commercial ones. The frequency of use and time of commercial learning platforms was less than for non-commercial ones. Lecturers seem to prefer to use non-commercial platforms. This can be linked to data security and the trust that authorities handle data carefully was high in all reference groups investigated. Openness and stress correlated positively and the more open the informant was towards the platforms the more they used different platforms actively, which increased the stress. It is important to remember that the stress can also be perceived as positive. Another interesting find was that there were no statistically significant differences between any of the background variables in terms of subjective control.
  • Ikonen, Jessica (2015)
    Purpose. The aim of this study was to introduce the perceptions and opinions Finnish teachers have about the supporting and the meeting of bilingual pupil's language identity in the Finnish-Swedish schools in the Helsinki metropolitan area; the intention was to examine how the Finnish teachers describes the Finnish-Swedish schools relation against bilingualism. The intention was also to examine the meaning and purposes Finnish teachers personally give to supporting of a bilingual identity in the Finnish-Swedish schools. The intention was also to examine how Finnish teachers relate to the discussion of the bilingual school. The study contributes to form a view of how the Finnish-Swedish school in the metropolitan area currently meets and works with the progressively increasing bilingualism and to introduce how the Finnish teachers sees the role of the Finnish-Swedish school as an supporter of all its pupils languages and identities. Method. The study is written from the perspective of Finnish teachers and the material is gathered by interviewing seven teachers. The interview method used is the qualitative semi-structured interview. The material was analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Results. From the results it appears that the meeting of bilingualism in the Finnish-Swedish schools in metropolitan area varies between schools and occurs either in a more or less secluding or integrative way so that bilingualism in some schools appear to be more of a negative and repressed and in some schools more of a positive and accepted phenomenon. Supporting bilingualism in the Finnish-Swedish schools in general are rather scarce and the bilingual identity and the Finnish receive slightly conscious or deliberate attention or place in the school. Finnish teachers advocates for a more active work around bilingualism in the Finnish-Swedish school and opinions that the Finnish-Swedish school should actively strive to improve both the work around and attitude against bilingualism in school. The Finnish teachers relates against the idea of the bilingual school with a certain reservation and do prefer a retention of the monolingual schools, but wants a more active working around bilingualism in the monolingual Swedish-speaking schools. The bilingual schools could not replace the monolingual schools as a national solution, but the bilingual school model is considered to act as an alternative for some language groups in some parts of the country.
  • Mikkola, Katri (2016)
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder of executive functions, which affects the social, occupational, educational, and personal life of the individuals concerned. The main characteristics of this disorder are age inappropriate inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The research on adult ADHD is still scarce, especially concerning the neural networks of attention. Childhood ADHD has been associated with impairment in two of the attentional network subsystems alerting and executive control, leaving the third subsystem, orienting of attention, intact. Research on adult ADHD and the subsystems of attentional network is contradicting. The aim of this study was to investigate neural activation of these attentional networks during highly demanding attentional tasks in adults with ADHD. The first hypothesis was that the ADHD group have decreased activity in the frontoparietal network during orienting of attention in contrast to the control group. The second hypothesis was that the ADHD group have decreased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and precuneus during divided attention in contrast to the control group. Both the ADHD group and the control group included 16 participants, aged 25 – 56 across all participants, whose brain activation was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging during the attentional tasks. The tasks included divided and selective attention. Both conditions included task-irrelevant novel distractors. The results supported both hypotheses. The ADHD group had decreased brain activity in the frontoparietal network during top-down controlled and bottom-up triggered attention. Decreased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus was observed during divided attention in the ADHD group. Furthermore, the default-mode network was hyperactivated in the ADHD group. Activation of this network has been related to increasing task demands and failure of maintaining an alert state. Thus, adult ADHD seems to associate with abnormally functioning attention networks. Moreover, the results indicated that in addition to dysfunctional alerting and executive control, adults with ADHD have also impaired orienting of attention. These dysfunctional attentional networks may have a connection with the inattentive symptoms of adult ADHD.
  • Hemgård, Julia (2017)
    Along with the technological development, and the transition to knowledge society, our way working has changed. Due to digital solutions and advanced technology employees have the ability to work in a much more flexible work environment. Activity-based working gives employees the opportunity to choose how and where they work. At activity-based workplaces, no one has their own desk. Instead, the concept of free seating is used. Activity-based working creates options and independence for employees, but at the same time activity-based working can be perceived as challenging. In the thesis, a phenomenographic approach was used, and as a researcher, I focused on employees' different conceptions of activity-based working. The purpose of the study was to get a deeper understanding about employees' conceptions of activity-based working, and moreover, how the way of working influences the organisational culture and work identity. The theoretical framework consisted of earlier studies about activity-based working, as well as theories regarding organisational culture and work identity. The data were gathered during spring 2017, and involved 9 interviews with 9 employees, who work at activity-based organisations. The method of analysis was the phenomenographic approach. The employees sense, that activity-based working influences organisational culture, and work identity positively, as well as negatively. It appeared that employees find activity-based working as motivational. In addition, the employees find that activity-based working bring openness to the work culture, and enhance the communication. The employees also sense that activity-based working affects work identity, and that the work role becomes more dynamic and task orientated. However, some employees perceived activity-based working as challenging, and that it causes a formal work environment, constructed by unintended social structures. The results also showed conceptions of activity-based working causing anonymous work identity. Over all, the study proves that the conceptions of activity-based working, and how it affects organisational culture and work identity, differ. Yet, even though the results reveal conceptions of activity-based working coursing formal work environment, and anonymous work identity within the workplace, the employees value activity-based working and the ability to choose where and how they work.