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  • Yrjä, Maija (2018)
    After the September 11 attacks in 2001 the President of the United States, George W. Bush, declared a global war on terrorism – and a war to rescue the Afghan women from their terrorist men. Feminist scholars and activists worldwide criticized the Bush government for using feminist rhetoric to justify the war. However, the development of this discourse throughout the tiring years of warfare and the co-optation of the U.S. rhetoric by other coalition partner countries have been overlooked in the research. This thesis examines the gendered narratives and the women’s rights rhetoric of U.S. and German state officials in 2001−2002 and 2007−2008. The theoretical framework of this thesis is located on the diverse and interdisciplinary field of feminist security- and international relations studies. The research questions are: How was the Afghan war justified through gendered narratives and rhetorical tools? How did the deployment of women’s rights rhetoric change during and in-between this period? Were there some distinctions in the use of rhetoric and gendered categorizations between the U.S. and German administration officials, two countries with very different foreign policy traditions? The source material of this thesis consists mainly of speeches, press briefings, debates and statements given by the state officials from the United States and Germany in 2001−2002 and 2007−2008. The speech material was collected from the online databases of the U.S. Department of State, the White House, the German Federal Government and the debate records of the German Parliament. The methodological framework of discourse analysis was used for analysing the rhetoric. Especially two tools of discourse analysis were utilized: the analysis of hegemonic discourses and the analysis of rhetoric and argumentation. By de-naturalizing the hegemonic discourses and identifying simplifying narratives, this thesis aims to reveal how discourses can consolidate power, essentialize gender roles and situate the human subjects through discourse to unequal positions of power. However, women’s rights rhetoric practised by major world leaders is not seen as necessarily positive or negative per se: What matters is the framing and the context of the rhetoric. By analyzing the gendered rhetoric, this thesis intends to find more nuanced ways of using and manipulating gendered categories to legitimize domination and control. In the years 2001 and 2002, the first two years of the war, the Bush administration utilized the image of the masculine hero, who must protect his country under threat. Even though this hero could be a woman or man, the virtues that he represented were congenitally masculine: strength, force, heroism and courage. He had to protect the country from a new type of an enemy: the mad, savage- or even animal-like, women-hating terrorist. His sadistic treatment of women was emphasized to show his barbarism. The depiction of a normal and civilized Muslim man was almost non-existent in the discourse, the image of the terrorist Muslim man was dominant. The corruption and human rights abuses of the Northern Alliance members in the Karzai government were left unaddressed. The role of the American woman in this discourse was to be calm, collected and supportive, as embodied in the First Lady, Laura Bush. The Afghan women were treated as one singular, homogenic group in the discourse – as objects to be saved. In the German discourse the masculine protector was not as celebrated as in the U.S., the discourse of the Afghan women was almost identical. The Gerhard Schröder administration also wanted to carry its responsibility towards the women-liberating West. By 2007−2008 the war had turned out to be tiring and extremely challenging, but the masculine protector was still standing strong in the U.S. discourse. There were no signs of hesitation, regret, admitting mistakes or a change of strategy with Karzai’s government, Northern Alliance and its alleged corruption. The situation of Afghanistan’s women was painted as a success story, with no real need to talk about the still prevailing misogyny. There were no separate big speeches discussing the still existing problems in women’s rights sector. The critical voices from the opposition parties were challenging the discourse of the government led by chancellor Angela Merkel in 2007−2008 in Germany. Yet again the German administration utilized the threat of Afghan women falling back in the hands of Taliban and women being massacred to silence the war opposers. Critical voices coming from Afghan women about the warlordization and corruption of Northern Alliance were still ridiculed or silenced, as demonstrated in the case of the Afghan activist and former parliamentarian, Malalai Joya. The voices of silent and grateful women were however accepted easily as representing “all” Afghan women. This thesis sheds new light on the feminist analysis of the War on Terror by demonstrating how easily Bush administration’s rhetoric was co-opted by another coalition country. The analysis shows that even after seven years of warfare, women’s rights were still strongly utilized in the war legitimizing discourse by both countries under scrutiny. This thesis concludes that the utilization of feminist rhetoric by major world powers should not only be criticized but it could also be used to push forward the implementation of feminist policies. The deconstruction of the hegemonic war narratives and listening also to criticism and contestation could open new discursive spaces for building long-lasting peace in Afghanistan.
  • Rajamäki, Tuuli (2021)
    Huoli Suomen kielivarannosta ja oppilaiden kielivalinnoista on ollut esillä jo pitkään. Tammikuusta 2020 alkaen A1-kieli on varhennettu valtakunnallisesti alkamaan ensimmäiseltä luokalta. Ensimmäisen luokan oppilaat aloittavat siis ensimmäisen vieraan kielensä viimeistään ensimmäisen luokan keväällä. Tässä tutkimuksessa kartoitetaan tätä asetusmuutosta monipuolisten kielivalintojen näkökulmasta seuraavasti: Tutkimuksessa kerättiin saksanopettajien näkemyksiä siitä, miten A1-kielen varhentaminen on tähän mennessä vaikuttanut kielten ryhmien muodostamiseen alakoulussa ja miten kielten ryhmien käytänteet ovat muuttuneet varhentamisen jälkeen. Lisäksi tutkittiin, millaisia käytänteitä kouluissa ja kunnissa on, jotta saksan opetusryhmiä muodostuu A1- tai A2-kielessä. Tutkielman teoriaosassa tarkastellaan varhaista ja varhennettua kieltenopetusta erityisesti Suomen kontekstissa. Lisäksi tässä osassa tarkastellaan saksankielen valintojen tilastoja viimeisen 20 vuoden ajalta; luodaan katsaus niihin koulutuspoliittisiin linjauksiin, jotka ovat osaltaan vaikuttaneet kielivalintojen määrään; tarkastellaan sekä aiempia valtakunnallisia kielihankkeita kuten Kielten kärkihanketta että varhentamispäätöstä; ja tarkastellaan kielivalintoihin vaikuttavia tekijöitä ja kielten ryhmien muodostamisen käytänteitä. Keräsin itse tutkielman aineiston. Tutkimuksen osallistujat olivat alakoulussa opettavia saksanopettajia, jotka opettivat A1- tai A2-saksaa. Opettajat olivat enimmäkseen alakouluista, joissa Vipunen-tietokannan mukaan oli muodostunut A1-saksanryhmiä vuosina 2017 tai 2018. Lisäksi osallistujia haettiin kieltenopettajien Facebook-ryhmistä sekä Suomen Saksanopettajat ry:n sähköpostilistalta. Tutkimukseen osallistujia oli yhteensä 13 ja vastaajat työskentelivät 6 eri kunnassa. Aineisto kerättiin sähköisellä kyselyllä sekä täydentävillä teemahaastatteluilla. Aineiston tarkastelussa käytettiin kvantitatiivista ja kvalitatiivista tutkimusmenetelmää. Kvantitatiivisessa tutkimuksessa eri muuttujia vertailtiin keskenään. Kvalitatiiviseen tutkimukseen käytettiin laadullista sisällönanalyysia Miles & Hubermanin mukaan. Tutkimustuloksista käy ilmi, että opettajien näkemykset varhennetun kieltenopetuksen vaikutuksista ryhmien muodostamiseen ovat vaihtelevia. Kielivalintaan vaikuttavat monet tekijät, joten yksistään varhentamisen vaikutusta oli käytännössä vaikea arvioida. A1-saksan kannalta varhentamiseen liittyi positiivisia kokemuksia esim. kielisuihkutuksista mutta myös haasteita. Opettajat pelkäsivät, että vanhemmat valitsevat englannin yhä useammin toisen vieraan kielen sijaan, kun kielivalinta tehdään entistä nuoremmassa iässä. Lisäksi varhentamisen jälkeen opettajien on pitänyt itse aktiivisesti kehittää uusia käytänteitä kieltenryhmien muodostamiseen. Tämän tutkimusaineiston perusteella se, että kieli alkaa viimeistään ensimmäisen luokan keväällä, saattaa vaikeuttaa monipuolisten kielivalintojen toteutumista. Syynä tähän on se, että kielivalinta käytännössä joudutaan tekemään jo esikoulun puolella. A2-saksan näkökulmasta A1-kielen varhentamisen vaikutus nähtiin vain positiivisessa valossa. Tutkimustuloksista käy lisäksi ilmi, miten monet eri sidosryhmät vaikuttavat A1- ja A2-saksanryhmien muodostumiseen alakoulussa. Sidosryhmiä olivat kieltenopettajat, koulut, kunta, perheet ja yhteisö, esikoulut ja muut sidosryhmät. Muodostumiseen vaikuttivat lukuisat eri käytänteet (kuten kielisuihkut ja kielivalintaillat) ja muut tekijät (kuten kieltenopiskelun perinne tietyssä koulussa tai kunnassa). Kaksi keskeistä yhdistävää teemaa tässä prosessissa olivat yhteistyö ja avoimuus. Yleisimmät tehokkaat käytänteet A1-saksanryhmien muodostamiseen olivat kielisuihkutus esikoululaisille tai ensimmäisen luokan oppilaille sekä kielivalintojen mainonta perheille. Suurimpina haasteina eri kieltenryhmien toteutumiseen ylipäätään nähtiin kuntien taloudellinen tilanne sekä eri toimijoiden asenteet kieltenopiskelua kohtaan. Erityisesti haastatteluissa kävi ilmi, miten alakoulujen kielivalinnat ovat tärkeä osa sekä kielivalintoja yleisesti että Suomen kielivarantoa tulevaisuudessa.
  • Christensen, Henri (2016)
    Walesissa tapahtui vuosina 1904–1905 kirkkohistoriallisesti merkittävä herätys, joka herätti huomiota ympäri Eurooppaa. Useiden tuhansien ihmisten sanotaan kokeneen uskonnollisen herätyksen Walesissa. Herätyksellä oli myönteisiä vaikutuksia niin yksityisten ihmisten elämäntapoihin kuin myös laajemmin yhteiskuntaan. Euroopassa oli tapahtunut 1900-luvun alkuun mennessä suuria mullistuksia: sekularisaatio ja tieteen kehitys olivat kyseenalaistaneet kirkkojen perinteiset opit ja näkemykset, mikä johti kristinuskon ja kirkkokriittisyyden voimistumiseen yhteiskunnissa. Herätyksen puhjetessa erityisesti monet herätyskristityt olivat kiinnostuneita herätyksestä, sillä se näyttäytyi heille vasta-aseena voimistunutta kritiikkiä vastaan. Suomessakin aikalaiset uutisoivat herätyksestä ja kuvasivat sitä niin sanoma- kuin aikakauslehdissä. Useimmat kirkolliset pyrkivät vastaamaan kuvauksillaan myös kotimaan sisällä kasvaneeseen sekularisaatioon ja uskonnonvastaisuuteen. Walesin herätyksestä kiinnostuivat vuosikymmeniä myöhemmin myös helluntailaiset, jotka alkoivat etsiä liikkeen muodostumisen jälkeen omia juuriaan ja identiteettiään. Helluntailiike tulkitsi myöhemmin Walesin herätyksen osaksi omaa historiaansa. He palasivat herätyksen muistelemiseen, vaikka muualla herätyksestä ei enää puhuttu. Tutkimuksessa selvitetään diskurssi- ja tekstianalyysia käyttäen millaisena Walesin herätys 1904–1905 on kuvattu Suomessa eri henkilöiden ja ryhmittymien toimesta, ja mistä syistä sitä on haluttu kuvailla Suomessa. Diskurssi-menetelmän lisäksi tehtävän tavoittamisessa on käytetty historiatieteen menetelmää. Tutkimus liittyy laajempaan aiheeseen siitä, miten Walesin herätystä on käytetty aikalaisten ja myöhempien kuvaajien toimesta. Tutkimus sivuaa historiallista kuva- ja narratiivitutkimusta, sillä tarkoituksena on osittain tutkia sitä mielikuvaa, joka herätyksestä on pyritty antamaan. Helluntailaiset tulkitsevat Walesin herätyksen myös osaksi omaa makrotarinaansa. Tutkimus jakaantuu kahteen osioon tutkittavan aineiston vuoksi. Ensimmäisen osion muodostavat aikalaiskuvaukset vuosilta 1905–1910 eli lähteet, jotka ovat ajallisesti lähellä herätystä. Toisen osion muodostavat myöhemmät, helluntailaiset kuvaukset, jotka ajoittuvat vuosiin 1932–2004. Myöhempien kuvausten diskursiivinen tarkastelu on vielä rajattu vuosiin 1932–1976, sillä kokonaiskuva herätyksen käyttötarkoituksesta hahmottuu jo näiden vuosien perusteella. Tutkimus tuo esiin problematiikkaa Walesin herätyksen käytöstä, kun aikalaiskuvauksia ja myöhempiä kuvauksia verrataan keskenään. Ottaen huomioon Walesin herätyksen taustakontekstin ja herätykseen vaikuttaneiden ryhmittymien ja henkilöiden teologiset näkemykset, on ongelmallista, että helluntailaiset yhdistävät oman liikkeensä Walesin herätykseen. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että aikalaiskuvaajat muodostavat kokonaisuudessaan maltillisen ja kriittisen mielikuvan herätyksestä. Osa aikalaiskuvaajista pyrkii vakuuttamaan, että Walesin kaltainen herätys olisi tarpeellista myös Suomessa. Myöhemmät kuvaukset keskittyvät toistamaan historiankatsauksissaan Walesin herätystä, jotta helluntailiikkeen oma historia ja identiteetti vahvistuisi. Helluntailiikkeen historiantutkimus ja -kirjoitus on ollut viime vuosina murroksessa. Helluntailaiset kuvaukset Walesin herätyksestä toimivat esimerkkinä siitä, että liikkeen tulisi tarkastella omaa historiankirjoitustaan monipuolisemmin – ainakin suhteessa Walesin herätykseen.
  • Hadianpour, Mohsen (2017)
    In recent years, urban scholars and town planners have become interested in the concept of ‘neighbourhood walkability’ and have tried to operationalize and measure it and make cities more walkable. Interest in walkability, and seeing it as a positive urban quality has not yet blossomed among Iranian scholars and town planners the way it has internationally. Iranian urban scholars have scarcely investigated the meaning of walkability in the Iranian urban context, while town planners have failed to significantly improve the walkability of Iranian cities. This thesis is an early attempt to fill this research gap and investigates walkability in Tehran. First, it develops a method to evaluate walkability and an indicator to measure walkability. Second, it applies this method and index to measure the walkability in the neighbourhood of Central Jannat Abad in Tehran. Finally, it explains the low walkability in Central Jannat Abad. The methods applied in this thesis have been analysing statistics, official reports, maps, aerial pictures, and above all by walking, measuring distances and observing the entire neighborhood of Central Jannat Abad, from alley to alley. The findings show that while some characteristics of Central Jannat Abad, such as mixed land use, urban parks, and a sense of safety and closure contribute to the walkability of the neighbourhood, many other factors, such as lack of quality sidewalks and bike paths, an over-abundance of space for cars, aesthetics of the neighbourhood, and the lack of space for social interactions contribute to an overall low walkability of the neighbourhood. This thesis concludes that the privatization of land, along with a long-standing public policy in Tehran prioritizing cars over pedestrians, are the main reasons explaining the poor walkability of the Central Jannat Abad neighbourhood.
  • Kalliola, Ilona (2013)
    The thesis is about the landscape ideas of mountain guides on Mount Kenya in central Kenya. The aim of the thesis is to understand how the guides who walk the mountain for a living experience the landscape. The thesis explores theories of landscape as a view, as a way of seeing and phenomenological theories of experiencing landscape. These different perspectives shed light on how the mountain has been conceptualized at different times and by different groups, which all affect the ideas of the guides. The thesis also describes the occupational culture of the guides and trekking on Mount Kenya in detail. Walking as a way of experiencing the landscape is examined theoretically and through ethnographic material. The ethnographic material was gathered during a three-month fieldwork period from May to July 2010 in Kenya. The fieldwork included interviews with mountain guides and participant observation on two treks to the mountain. A phenomenological approach is used in analysing guides’ practices of moving in the landscape. The guides’ landscape ideas are affected by traditional Gikuyu ideas of Mount Kenya, western cultural ideas of climbing and the landscape, as well as their own experiences of moving in the landscape. The Gikuyu ethnic group traditionally saw Mount Kenya as a sacred landscape feature, but it was not traditionally climbed by them. The western appreciation of walking in the landscape and mountaineering has a cultural history that explorers and settlers brought with them, as they named places, formed trails and made maps of the mountain. Western landscape ideas also affected the formation of the national park. In mountaineering, the journey is often as important as arriving. Sacredness on Mount Kenya is today most relevant in the idea of pilgrimage that many tourists have, of a journey in search of transformation. The guides walk and carry for a living and perceive the landscape through constant movement. They have learned to know the routes and landscape in detail. Stories and memories of events on the mountain are tied to the landscape and shared among those who know the mountain. For a guide, Mount Kenya is often sentimentally significant. The mountain is able to encompass varying landscape ideas and the experience of climbing is not the same for everyone.
  • Pulkkinen, Joonas (2020)
    Tutkielma tarkastelee saksanjuutalaisen filosofin Walter Benjaminin (1892–1940) auran käsitettä. Käsite esiintyy tunnetuimmassa muodossaan Benjaminin esseessä ”Taideteos teknisen uusinnettavuutensa aikakautena” (1935–1940). Aura edustaa esseessä merkitystä, joka ilmentää taidetta koskevaa historiallisteknistä kehitystä. Tämän myötä taide menettää alkuperäisen, uskonnollisen arvon luonteensa, jota kuvaa kulttiarvon käsite. Kopioinnin mahdollisuuden myötä korostuu taiteen näyttelyarvo, joka koskee esimerkiksi elokuvaa ja valokuvausta taidemuotoina. Näyttelyarvo ilmentää taiteen yhteiskunnallista muutosta, jossa taide tavoittaa suuremmat ihmisjoukot ja ero alkuperäisen ja kopioidun taideteoksen välillä muuttuu sosiaalisesti merkityksettömäksi. Tutkielman ensisijainen tutkimuskysymys on, voiko aura muodostaa esseetä laajemman käsitteellisen kokonaisuuden osana Benjaminin myöhäistuotantoa? Tutkielma tarkastelee auran käsitteen luonnetta, pyrkien muodostamaan käsitteestä tulkinnan vaihtoehtona Benjaminin reseptiohistoriassa kannatusta saaneelle käsitykselle aurasta autenttisen taideteoksen synonyyminä. Tutkielman toinen tutkimuskysymys pohtii auran suhdetta nykytaiteeseen. Mitä aura voi mahdollisesti kertoa nykytaiteen piirteistä ja taiteesta nykyisyydessä? Tutkielman kirjallisuus muodostuu Benjaminin myöhäistuotannon primäärilähteistä, Benjaminia käsittelevästä kommentaarikirjallisuudesta, paikkasidonnaista teoriaa käsittelevästä kirjallisuudesta sekä nykytaideteoksia taustoittavista verkkolähteistä. Auran tulkitsemisen kannalta tutkielman keskeisimmät lähteet mainitun “Taideteos-esseen” lisäksi ovat Benjaminin hashiksen käyttöä koskevat muistiinpanot sekä esseet “Pieni valokuvauksen historia” (1931) ja “Silmä väkijoukossa” (1939). Tutkielma käy läpi Benjaminin myöhäiset elämänvaiheet, myöhäisen tuotannon keskeiset teemat sekä esittelee mainittua Benjaminin primäärikirjallisuutta erilisessä luvussaan. Tutkielma käy läpi Theodor W. Adornon esittämän kritiikin koskien auraa “alkuperäisyyden myyttinä”, Giorgio Agambenin Benjaminia koskevan tulkinnan taiteen ja uskonnon välisen suhteen historiallisesta muutoksesta sekä Jacques Rancièren Benjaminia koskevan kritiikin taiteen ja politiikan välisestä suhteesta. Mainitut teemat koskevat myös tutkielmassa käsiteltävää kysymystä nykytaiteen yhteiskunnallisesta ja sosiaalisesta luonteesta. Tutkielman perusteella voidaan väittää, että Benjaminin myöhäistuotannosta on mahdollisuus muodostaa auraa koskien ”Taideteos-esseetä” laajempi tulkinnallinen kokonaisuus. Tutkielma väittää, että aura voidaan käsittää taidetta kuvaavan historiallisen muutoksen ohella myös yksilöllisen havainnon kohteena ja taidekokemuksen piirteenä. Aura muodostaa myös teeman inhimillisen kokemuksen yleisestä historiallisesta muutoksesta. Tutkielma esittää auralla olevan yhteys paikkasidonnaisen taiteen historialliseen kehitykseen ja piirteisiin. Näitä ovat paikkasidonnaisen taiteen tapa irtaantua modernin taiteen keskeisistä ideaaleista koskien taideteoksen muotoa, objektikeskeisyyttä sekä taideteoksen mediumiin liittyviä kysymyksiä. Tutkielman mukaan aura ilmentää myös nykytaiteelle ominaisen näyttelykeskeisyyden luonnetta sekä sopii multimediaalisten paikkasidonnaisten taideteosten tarkasteluun. Auran ajallinen yhteys paikkasidonnaiseen taiteeseen perustuu auran sopivuudessa paikkasidonnaisten taideteosten väliaikaisuudelle.
  • Kahraman, Sefer Faruk (2016)
    This thesis studies the case of waqf land in the Islamic tradition, investigating waqf land use in Bangkok. This thesis takes the form of a case study involving the Islamic charitable practice known as waqf and its influence on the social issues around land and access to affordable housing in Bangkok, Thailand. The point is to find out how the waqf land use on housing address the urban housing question. Waqf is a permanent dedication of ones property for any charitable purposes. It is a form of charity that generally applies to non-perishable properties such as land and buildings. These properties held in trust are meant to serve the public good as well as the social welfare and the empowerment of the local community. Rent theory is the theoretical framework of this thesis. Fundamentally, rent theory is understood as the social relation between the landlord and the tenant. The main feature of rent theory is that private landownership becomes much more detrimental compared to land ownership in rural land. Simply a title of that land on an urban setting gives the landowner the power and ability to extract extreme rents from the residents who make their lives on the land. This means that rent plays a coordinating role in the development of the built environment. Private land ownership privileges power for landowners in validating and determining land use that would benefit them solely, often at the expense of users. Empirical data is collected by semi-structured interviews with mosque committee members who administer and manage donated waqf lands in four separate cases. The main findings are as follows: waqf lands are being used in four ways: mosque, school, cemetery and housing. Among these, waqf lands are most reserved for the use of housing allocated for the poor community. When a land is endowed, it is to be used for the public benefit of the community under the management of the mosque committee as the trustee. The mosque committee considers and evaluates the best possible use of the land to serve the community. The residents are evaluated and selected based on the urgency of their housing need, prioritizing the homeless, disabled and the orphaned. The mosque committee collects little to no rents from the residents. The rents are well below market rates and the money is used to cover utilities or pooled back in to the community functions. The waqf land cases that are investigated in this thesis prove the importance of social relations and communal values.
  • Suomalainen, Janne (2016)
    Waring's problem is one of the two classical problems in additive number theory, the other being Goldbach's conjecture. The aims of this thesis are to provide an elementary, purely arithmetic solution of the Waring problem, to survey its vast history and to outline a few variations to it. Additive number theory studies the patterns and properties, which arise when integers or sets of integers are added. The theory saw a new surge after 1770, just before Lagrange's celebrated proof of the four-square theorem, when a British mathematician, Lucasian professor Edward Waring made the profound statement nowadays dubbed as Waring's problem: for all integers n greater than one, there exists a finite integer s such that every positive integer is the sum of s nth powers of non-negative integers. Ever since, the problem has been taken up by many mathematicians and state of the art techniques have been developed - to the point that Waring's problem, in a general sense, can be considered almost completely solved. The first section of the thesis works as an introduction to the problem. We give a profile of Edward Waring, state the problem both in its original form and using present-day language, and take a broad look over the history of the problem. The main emphasis is on the classical version of the problem, whereas the modern version is described in Section 5 with numerous other variations. In addition, generalizations to integer-valued polynomials and to general algebraic fields are described. Goldbach's conjecture is also briefly illustrated. The elementary solution of Waring's problem is presented in Sections 2 to 4. Historical perspective is carried through the thesis with the profiles of the key mathematicians to the solution. The proof presented is an improved and simplified version of Yuri Linnik's solution of Waring's problem. The second section provides the groundwork, an ingenious density argument by Lev Shnirelman, which is applied to the problem in the so called Fundamental lemma presented in Section 3. The proofs of the intermediate results needed to prove the lemma are presented in the following sections. The third section reduces the proof to an estimation of the number of solutions of a certain system of Diophantine equations. The final argument, longish induction is given at the end of the fourth section. Even though Waring's problem is solved, the progress made in the field is far from being idle. The plethora of variations and generalizations, especially Ideal Waring's problem, Modern Waring's problem and Waring–Goldbach problem are actively studied today. It is surprising how deep a problem with such a seemingly simple assertion can be. Conclusively, the challenge in this branch of mathematics is to develop new mathematical methods to prove and explain what seems so obvious.
  • Keaney, Michael (2012)
    This collection of articles examines aspects of the evolution of the capitalist state following the global crisis of the 1970s up to the Great Recession beginning in 2008. Drawing from the theoretical work of James OConnor, Nicos Poulantzas and the Amsterdam School of global political economy in particular, the articles deal in turnwith key episodes charting the transnationalisation of the state. Precursors to the neoliberal era are explored in detail, with particular reference to the post-1945 history of the United Kingdom, whose economic and geopolitical importance in many ways made it a pivotal actor on the world stage, as both a standard bearer and a laboratory of neoliberal reform. The global hegemony of the United States, which has acted as the main promoter and enforcer of neoliberalism, is examined with particular emphasis on its financial and economic aspects. The key role of the international financial institutions following the Second World War is discussed. The commodification of health care is treated as a case study of how neoliberal transformation has worked in a particular sector. The evolution of the European Union from potential economic fortress to neoliberal standard bearer is also scrutinised. As an introductory overview concludes, following the global financial crisis of 2007 onwards the developmental path charted by neoliberalism has reached an impasse, marked by both the exhaustion of neoliberalism as a policy agenda and orthodox economics as its ideological ballast. Given the continuities of institutions and personnel, however, there is as yet little sign of a significant change of direction.
  • Ahola, Niina (2019)
    This thesis looks at the post-war reintegration of and war trauma in the former Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) rebel force abductees in the Acholi subregion of northern Uganda. The work’s focus is on how the former LRA abductees make meaning of their subjective experience of trauma according to the Acholi world view and how these experiences guide their search for healing. These questions are examined in the context of three healing practices from which the formerly abducted research participants have sought help for their war-related psychological symptoms: public healthcare and non-governmental psychosocial trauma counselling, local ajwaka spirit mediums, and Pentecostal and Charismatic Christian churches. The research for this thesis is based on three-month-long ethnographic fieldwork consisting of participant observation, semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and other informal interactions in the Acholi districts of Gulu and Nwoya between October and December 2017. The core research participants are 20 formerly abducted LRA combatants (ten males and ten females aged between 24–55 years) who have returned back to civilian life before the northern Uganda conflict ended in 2006. Furthermore, medical professionals, trauma counsellors, ajwaka spirit mediums, Charismatic Christian pastor, and relatives of the core research participants were interviewed for this study. This thesis is built around medical anthropological theories of trauma and anthropological theories of subjectivity, where the former LRA abductees’ symptoms are approached through a three-dimensional theoretical framework of inner subjectivity, structural subjugation, and intersubjective relations. This thesis proposes that the war-related symptoms find their meaning through inner and bodily experiences, personal convictions, and subjective world views of their sufferers, which steer the former LRA abductees towards their preferred healing practices. However, these experiences are shaped by external constraints related to economic and sociopolitical subjugation under state rule, hierarchical social structure as well as intimate intersubjective power relations and cultural norms that can either enable or challenge the former abductees’ access to healing. The findings of this thesis suggest that even though the three healing practices approach war-related symptoms from ontologically different angles, they all offer meaningful tools to repair broken social relationships and retether the former abductees back to their social worlds in ways that can reduce trauma symptoms and foster healing. However, for various reasons the administered treatments sometimes fail, which forces symptom-sufferers to move beyond their preferred healing practices to find relief from their war-related symptoms. This thesis argues that the search for healing is full of uncertainty about the cosmological origin of symptoms, social tensions, and opaque motives of helpers. Thus, the healing process is dependent on intersubjective entanglements with kin, treatment providers, illness agents, and healing powers alike, which suggests that different forms of relationality lie at the centre of healing from war trauma. In conclusion, this thesis proposes that the gap between the former LRA abductees and the wider Acholi community has narrowed over the years since the conflict ended, but for some research participants the ongoing experiencing of war-related psychological symptoms still prevent them from fully participating in the Acholi society, which continues to hinder their reintegration. Until recently, the study of trauma in northern Uganda has revolved around the study of local spirits and Acholi rituals. The present study contributes to the broadening of the scope of the study of trauma among the Acholi towards other healing practices and provides a critical and multifaceted review of how the formerly abducted Lord’s Resistance Army combatants conceptualise their experience of war-related psychological symptoms from their socio-cultural perspective in post-war northern Uganda.
  • Valta, Juho (2020)
    Tämän maisterintutkielman pyrkimyksenä on tutkia, kuinka Yhdysvaltain talouspakotepolitiikka kehystetään ja moraalisesti oikeutetaan tai tuomitaan yhdysvaltalaisessa valtavirtamediassa. Aikaisempi viestinnän tutkimus on perehtynyt varsin niukasti talouspakotteita koskeviin mediasisältöihin. Tämä on ongelmallista, sillä talouspakotteet ovat yksi kansainvälisen valtapolitiikan yleisimmistä painostuskeinoista, joilla on rauhanomaisesta maineestaan huolimatta taipumus aiheuttaa mittavaa kärsimystä niiden kohteena olevien valtioiden siviiliväestölle. Median rakentamilla mielikuvilla voi olla merkittävä vaikutus kansalaisten tapaan suhtautua hallintojensa harjoittamaan pakotepolitiikkaan, minkä vuoksi on tärkeää, että viestinnän tutkimus perehtyy siihen, kuinka talouspakotteiden eettiset ongelmat huomioidaan niitä koskevissa mediasisällöissä. Tämä pätee erityisesti yhdysvaltalaiseen mediaan, sillä Yhdysvallat voi merkittävänä talousmahtina vaikuttaa ratkaisevasti muiden valtioiden talouksiin talouspakotteiden avulla. Tutkielma hyödyntää aineistonaan The New York Timesissa vuosina 2017-2019 julkaistuja mielipidekirjoituksia, jotka käsittelevät Yhdysvaltain Irania ja Venezuelaa vastaan harjoittamaa talouspakotepolitiikkaa. Aineiston analyysiin sovelletaan oikeutetun sodan teorian ja kehysanalyysin muodostamaa teoreettis-metodologista viitekehystä, jota hyödyntämällä tutkielma pyrkii vastaamaan kolmeen tutkimuskysymykseen: (1) Millaisia kehyksiä The New York Timesin kirjoittajat käyttävät Venezuelan ja Iranin vastaisia talouspakotteita koskevissa mielipidekirjoituksissaan? Miten ne eroavat toisistaan? (2) Miten kehysten avulla oikeutetaan tai tuomitaan Iraniin ja Venezuelaan kohdistetut talouspakotteet? (3) Kuinka kirjoittajien argumentaation voidaan nähdä ilmentävän oikeutetun sodan teorian periaatteita? Kehysanalyysin myötä 71:stä Iran-pakotteita koskevasta mielipidekirjoituksesta nimetään viisi säännöllisesti esiintynyttä kehystä: ”väylä konfliktin eskaloitumiseen”, ”roistovaltion hillitsemiskeino”, ”uhka Yhdysvaltain kansainväliselle maineelle ja asemalle”, ”lahja Iranin taantumuksellisille” ja ”palvelus Iranin kansalle”. Venezuela-pakotteita koskevasta 38 kirjoituksesta nimetään kolme säännöllisesti esiintynyttä kehystä: ”yhteisrintaman ase”, ”riittämätön painostuskeino” ja ”kohtalokas strateginen virhe”. Siinä missä kirjoittajat suhtautuivat Venezuelan vastaisiin pakotteisiin pääosin suopeasti, oli kirjoittajien suhtautuminen Iranin vastaisiin pakotteisiin enimmäkseen negatiivinen. Venezuela-pakotteiden välttämättömyyttä perusteltiin Venezuelan sisäpoliittisilla ongelmilla, kuten maan hallinnon kansalaisilleen tuottamalla kärsimyksellä, johon Yhdysvaltojen ja sen liittolaisten oli kirjoittajista velvollisuus puuttua pakotteiden avulla. Iran-pakotteiden vastustus taas perustui pelkoon pakotepolitiikan mahdollisista vastavaikutuksista, jotka voisivat olla Yhdysvaltojen ja sen liittolaisten kannalta vahingollisia. Kummankaan maan tapauksessa pakotteiden vaikutukset kohdemaiden kansalaisten hyvinvointiin eivät valtaosin olleet tekstien argumentaation keskiössä ja kuvaukset pakotteiden konkreettisista seurauksista kohdemaissa jäivät usein varsin abstrakteiksi. Kirjoittajien argumentaation voitiin nähdä ilmentäneen oikeutetun sodan teorian periaatteitta niin Venezuelaa kuin Iraniakin koskeneissa teksteissä. Venezuela-pakotteisiin suopeasti suhtautuneiden kirjoittajien teksteissä oli havaittavissa eritoten ”oikeutetun tavoitteen”, ”oikean intention”, ”legitiimin auktoriteetin” ja ”realistisen onnistumisen mahdollisuuden” periaatteiden elementtejä. Venezuela-pakotteisiin kriittisemmin suhtautuneissa teksteissä havaittiin taas ”erottelun”, ”välttämättömyyden” ja ”kohtuullisuuden” periaatteiden piirteitä. Iranin tapauksessa kirjoittajien argumentaatiossa korostuivat ”oikeutetun tavoitteen”, ”oikean intention”, ”legitiimin auktoriteetin”, ”välttämättömyyden” ja ”realistisen onnistumisen mahdollisuuden” periaatteet, joiden piirteitä oli havaittavissa niin pakotteita vastustaneissa kuin puolustaneissakin puheenvuoroissa.
  • Alinikula, Akseli (2017)
    Pro gradu –tutkielmassani tutkin, miten nk. Washingtonin konsensus ohjasi Kansainvälisen valuuttarahaston (IMF) toimittamaa avunantoa Ukrainalle vuosina 1991–1992. Washingtonin konsensuksella tarkoitetaan englantilaisen taloustieteilijän John Williamsonin vuonna 1990 kirjoittamassa artikkelissa ”What Washington Means by Policy Reform” kuvattuja talouspoliittisia suuntaviivoja, joiden katsotaan yleisesti tiivistäneen 1980–1990-lukujen uusliberaalin talousideologian, jota ”washingtonilaiset” instituutiot ja organisaatiot, IMF mukaan lukien, edustivat. Apututkimuskysymyksinä ovat: Mitä Ukrainasta rahastossa tiedettiin ja miten rahasto onnistui Ukrai-nan taloudellisen tilan arvioinnissa? Tutkielman lähdeaineistona käytän Williamsonin Washingtonin konsensusta ja IMF:n asiakirjoja vuosilta 1991–1992. Materiaali sisältää IMF:n johdon kokousten pöytäkirjoja, johdolle laadittuja raportteja, talouskatsauksia, annettuja tiedotteita ja tilastomateriaalia. Tarkastelen IMF:n materiaalia managerialistisesta näkökulmasta, eli tulkitsen IMF:n ylimmän johdon kommenttien ja mielipiteiden edustavan IMF:n kantaa organisaationa. Tutkielmassani esitän, kuinka IMF pyrki vaikuttamaan Ukrainaan yhteistyön alusta lähtien Washingtonin konsensuksen hengessä. IMF:n ehdotti Ukrainalle politiikkasuosituksia, jotka ovat lähes sellaisenaan kopioita Williamsonin kuvaamista talouspoliittisista linjauksista. Poikkeuksellisesti IMF kuitenkin ehdotti Ukrainalle puolustusmenojen myös karsimista, vaikka Washingtonin konsensuksessa maanpuolustus kuvataan alana, joka on IMF:n mandaatin ulkopuolella. IMF hankki tieota Ukrainasta vain pintapuolisesti ja toimi organisaationa hierarkkisesti ja formaalisti, mikä esti rahastoa tulkitsemasta maan tilannetta oikein. IMF:n ei ymmärtänyt Ukrainan sosiaalisten olojen nopeaa heikkenemistä, maata kohdanneen hyperinflaation syitä eikä maassa vaikuttaneen varjotalouden merkitystä. Ukraina pääsi IMF:n jäseneksi varapääministeri Volodymyr Lanovyj’n laatiman, Washingtonin konsensuksen hengen mukaisen taloudellisen strategian avulla. Strategia jäi kuitenkin pelkästään muodollisuudeksi, sillä Ukraina ei tosiasiallisesti implementoinut strategiaa eikä muutenkaan noudattanut IMF:n ohjeita ja neuvoja tutkielman aikarajauksen sisällä. Washingtonin konsensus ohjasi IMF:n ohjeistusta ja avunantoa Ukrainalle, mutta rahaston vaikutus jäi kuitenkin Ukrainan itsenäisyyden alkutaipaleella vähäiseksi. Ukrainan talouden romahdus johtui siten pääosin IMF:stä riippumattomista syistä.
  • Logacheva, Evanfiya (2019)
    Twitter has become a staple social media platform for millions of English speakers of different socioeconomic categories, which makes it a valuable source of research material for linguistic analysis. There has not been many quantitative studies of structural language features in digital communication that use a representative sample of online users, which is why this investigation attempts to contribute to the body of research with an exploratory analysis of a Twitter corpus. Researchers have previously identified numerous linguistic phenomena, for example, creative abbreviations, non-standard capitalization, punctuation and spelling, which appear with varying frequencies in different types of computer-mediated communication. Although such features are not limited to digital platforms, they often function as expressivity devices and contribute to the speechlike quality of written language in text-based electronic media. This study presents a quantitative analysis of common typographic and orthographic characteristics of the language of Twitter with the goal to identify the reasons for their popularity. Since this work also seeks to evaluate Twitter from the point of view of spoken and written discourses, the investigation additionally focuses on the lexical density of tweets and the distributions of parts-of-speech and personal pronouns. The findings are compared to previous research results that were obtained from studying instant and text messaging, emails and discussion forums. The analysis of the language of Twitter suggests that the use of characteristic formal features is frequently dictated by the need to express emotions and emulate nonverbal cues in the communication environment lacking sound. Additionally, certain cases of nonstandard typography and orthography are caused by the character limitation of the platform and users trying to minimize the number of keystrokes. The distributions of major word classes and personal pronouns show that Twitter, unlike instant and text messaging, serves other purposes besides personal communication, for example, news reporting, social networking, political campaigning and advertising, in this sense, it is similar to emails and electronic forums.
  • Jaeschke, Eric (2014)
    The pocosins of the North Carolina Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) region play a vital role in controlling hydrologic patterns and determine wetland development and ecosystem structure and function. However, these low-lying, shallow water table forested watersheds have received little research attention due to the relative scarcity of long-term monitoring data, watershed delineation challenges and scarcity of unmanaged sites. Without holding anthropogenic activities constant, specific hydrological processes such as runoff generation, are difficult to describe because of drainage network influence on soil water storage. The principal goal of this study was to develop and test a water balance framework for investigating runoff characteristics and the active watershed area contributing to runoff of a managed pocosin watershed in the ACP. Using a water balance approach, the first objective was to calculate monthly and annual water balances with particular emphasis on deriving, mathematically, the area contributing to runoff. The second objective was to explore the concept of variable contributing area by converting discharge measured at the outlet to runoff using a watershed area. The watershed area needed to produce runoff values that result in closure of the water balance equation represents the variable runoff contributing area. The calculation was done for different temporal periods: monthly, seasonal, and annual and runoff contributing area values compared to the topographically defined watershed area. The results of the study indicated that water balance components were generally in good agreement and closure tended to occur at longer time scales, decreasing for shorter periods. Lack of system closure at shorter temporal scales suggested that the contributing area to runoff varied and differed from the topographically defined watershed area. Active contributing area clearly varies temporally but on average is estimated to be approximately 600 hectares. Regression predicted watershed size was smaller than expected which could have been due to the difference between measured and predicted streamflow. The extent at which the active contributing area fluctuates depends on the compounding uncertainty of water balance components.
  • Juurinen, Iina (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2009)
    Water-ethanol mixtures are commonly used in industry and house holds. However, quite surprisingly their molecular-level structure is still not completely understood. In particular, there is evidence that the local intermolecular geometries depend significantly on the concentration. The aim of this study was to gain information on the molecular-level structures of water-ethanol mixtures by two computational methods. The methods are classical molecular dynamics (MD), where the movement of molecules can be studied, and x-ray Compton scattering, in which the scattering cross section is sensitive to the electron momentum density. Firstly, the water-ethanol mixtures were studied with MD simulations, with the mixture concentration ranging from 0 to 100%. For the simulations well-established force fields were used for the water and ethanol molecules (TIP4P and OPLS-AA, respectively). Moreover, two models were used for ethanol, rigid and non-rigid. In the rigid model the intramolecular bond lengths are fixed, whereas in the non-rigid model the lengths are determined by harmonic potentials. Secondly, mixtures with three different concentrations employing both ethanol models were studied by calculating the experimentally observable x-ray quantity, the Compton profile. In the MD simulations a slight underestimation in the density was observed as compared to experiment. Furthermore, a positive excess of hydrogen bonding with water molecules and a negative one with ethanol was quantified. Also, the mixture was found more structured when the ethanol concentration was higher. Negligible differences in the results were found between the two ethanol models. In contrast, in the Compton scattering results a notable difference between the ethanol models was observed. For the rigid model the Compton profiles were similar for all the concentrations, but for the non-rigid model they were distinct. This leads to two possibilities of how the mixing occurs. Either the mixing is similar in all concentrations (as suggested by the rigid model) or the mixing changes for different concentrations (as suggested by the non-rigid model). Either way, this study shows that the choice of the force field is essential in the microscopic structure formation in the MD simulations. When the sources of uncertainty in the calculated Compton profiles were analyzed, it was found that more statistics needs to be collected to reduce the statistical uncertainty in the final results. The obtained Compton scattering results can be considered somewhat preliminary, but clearly indicative of the behaviour of the water-ethanol mixtures when the force field is modified. The next step is to collect more statistics and compare the results with experimental data to decide which ethanol model describes the mixture better. This way, valuable information on the microscopic structure of water-ethanol mixtures can be found. In addition, information on the force fields in the MD simulations and on the ability of the MD simulations to reproduce the microscopic structure of binary liquids is obtained.
  • Muukkonen, Satu (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2007)
    In Cambodia, water has a special purpose as a source of life and livelihoods. Along with agriculture, fishing and forest use, industry, hydropower, navigation and tourism compete for the water resources. When rights and responsibilities related to essential and movable water are unclear, conflicts emerge easily. Therefore, water management is needed in order to plan and control the use of water resources. The international context is characterized by the Mekong River that flows through six countries. All of the countries by the river have very different roles and interests already depending on their geographical location. At the same time, water is also a tool for cooperation and peace. Locally, the water resources and related livelihoods create base for well-being, for economical and human resources in particular. They in turn are essential for the local people to participate and defend their rights to water use. They also help to construct the resource base of the state administration. Cambodia is highly dependent on the Mekong River. However, Cambodia has a volatile history whose effects can be seen for example in population structure, once suspended public institutions and weakened trust in the society. Relatively stable conditions came to the country as late as in the 1990s, therefore Cambodia for example has a weak status within the Mekong countries. This Master s thesis forms international, national and local interest groups of water use and analyzes their power relations and resources to affect water management. The state is seen as the salient actor as it has the formal responsibility of the water resources and of the coordination between the actions of different levels. In terms of water use this study focuses on production, in management on planning and in power relations on the resources. Water resources of Cambodia are seen consisting of the Mekong River and Tonle Sap Lake and the time span of the study is between the years 1991 and 2006. The material consists of semi-structured interviews collected during summer 2006 in Finland and in Cambodia as well as of literature and earlier studies. The results of the study show that the central state has difficulties to coordinate the actions of different actors because of its resource deficit and internal conflicts. The lessons of history and the vested interests of the actors of the state make it difficult to plan and to strengthen legislation. It seems that the most needed resources at the central state level are intangible as at the village level instead, the tangible resources (fulfilling the basic needs) are primarily important. The local decision-making bodies, NGOs and private sector mainly require legislation and legitimacy to support their role. However, the civil society and the international supporters are active and there are possibilities for new cooperation networks.
  • Eränen, Ilona (2016)
    Kaikissa kunnon juhlissa on kakku. Tämä pro gradu -työ on tutkielma kakusta symbolina ja osana erilaisia suomalaisia nykypäivän rituaaleja. Kakkuun ja sen merkityksiin tutustutaan antropologisen ruoka-, symboli- ja rituaalitutkimuksen näkökulmasta. Lisäksi sukulaisuudentutkimuksen kautta tutkielmassa perehdytään siihen, mitä merkityksiä eri toimijoiden rooleilla näissä rituaaleissa ja näiden rituaalien taustalla on. Tärkeänä osana tutkimusta perehdytään myös tapoihin puhua kakusta ja selvitetään, mitä kakun diskurssi kertoo kakulle asetetuista vaatimuksista ja odotuksista, sekä millaisia arvoja ja rakenteita kakku paljastaa yhteiskunnasta. Keskiössä ovat myös merkitykset, joita kakun itsensä rakenteelle, eli ulkonäölle ja sisällölle, annetaan. Tutkielmassa esitellään tapaus, jossa keväällä 2015 Vauva.fi-sivuston keskustelufoorumilla joukko anonyymejä kirjoittelijoita keskustelee erään äidin ruokablogissaan esittelemästä lastenjuhlien syntymäpäiväkakusta. Kakku oli valmistettu vesimelonista ja sai foorumilla ristiriitaisen vastaanoton. Tämän verkkokeskustelun kautta etsitään vastausta siihen, miksi kakku on niin tärkeä osa juhlia, ja miksi vesimeloni syntymäpäivä-kakussa herätti niin paljon emootioita keskustelufoorumilla. Lisäksi kakkua ja sen ympärille rakentuneita rituaaleja analysoidaan myös osallistuvan havainnoinnin avulla lasten syntymäpäivillä ja häissä. Kotimaiseen leivontakulttuuriin tutustutaan Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran keruuaineistojen kautta, ja löydöksiä peilataan siihen, miten kakku nykyään näyttäytyy sosiaalisen median kiillotetussa maailmassa. Tutkielmassa kakkua analysoidaan historiallisesti ja kulttuurisesti rakentuneena merkitysjärjestelmänä. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä on käytetty muun muassa Mary Douglasin ja David Suttonin teorioita ruokasysteemeistä sekä Sherry Ortnerin symboliteoriaa. Kakun ympärille rakentunutta rituaalia sekä kakun fyysistä ja symbolista rakennetta puretaan Roy Rappaortin, Roy Wagnerin ja Gilbert Lewisin rituaali- ja traditiotutkimusten näkökulmasta. Anne Allisonin ideologisen vallankäytön teorian avulla analysoidaan kakkuun liittyviä ideologisia ja sosiaalisia rakenteita ja sääntöjä. Tämä tutkielma ei kerro vain kakusta, vaan ruoasta ylipäätään: tutkielmassa selviää, että ruokalajien ja ruokakulttuurin on tulkittava itseään uudelleen pysyäkseen elinvoimaisena, ja niin kakun kuin muunkin ruoan käyttöä, ohjaavat ruokakulttuurin rakenteet, jotka määräävät minkälaisia muutoksia yksilöt saavat ruokiin ja aterioihin tehdä. Kakun tapauksessa, kommunikoidakseen kakulle tärkeää symboliikkaa, on kakun kuitenkin pysyttävä sekä fyysisesti että symbolisesti tunnistettavana, tai muuten se epäonnistuu kakkuna olemisessa. Tutkimuksen johtopäätös on, että vesimeloni raaka-aineena rikkoi vielä toistaiseksi liian monia syntymäpäiväjuhliin ja syntymäpäiväkakkuun liittyviä konventioita, eikä enää onnistunut sisältämään syntymäpäiväkakulta vaadittua symboliikkaa, jolloin kakusta tuli monella tasolla epäpuhdas juhlan symboli.
  • Stuart, Elliot (2013)
    The primary characteristic of urbanisation is the addition of hard surfaces to catchments, which affects water and habitat quality in urban streams and alters natural hydrological processes by reducing infiltration, evapotranpiration and efficiently conveying storm runoff to streams, gathering a variety of urban polluants along the way. This is typical of the 'urban stream syndrome'. Catchment imperviousness (especially Effective Impervious Area or percent connectivity) can be used as one of the primary indicators of the severity of this phenomenon. This research was initiated through a collaboration between the City of Helsinki and the University of Helsinki to determine the baseline water quality of Hakuninmaanoja, a small urban stream in Helsinki, Finland, and the imperviousness of its catchment, where a pilot ecological housing development 'Kuninkaantammi' (KUNTA) will be built beginning in 2013. The purpose of the project is to assess the current characteristics of the catchment prior to the development in the headwaters of the stream. An automatic water quality monitoring station was built on the lower part of the stream approximately 200m upstream of its junction with Mätäjoki, the second largest river of Helsinki. Water Sensitive Urban Design can be used as part of a holistic stormwater treatment train to limit newly created imperviousness, and minimise the connectivity of the necessary remainder, allowing stormwater runoff to be reused, infiltrated and treated through soil media, or slowed down enough to attenuate the urban hydrograph. Some of these features such as raingardens, green roofs and detention ponds will be included in the KUNTA development for this purpose. A detailed calculation of catchment imperviousness was completed via field survey and land use categorization methods. Total Impervious Area (TIA) was determined to be 22%, Effective Impervious Area 15% and catchment wide runoff coefficient given by land use categorisation method to be 0.32. TIA is expected to increase to 30% following development of KUNTA, however EIA is not expected to increase in proportion with TIA due to planned Water Sensitive Urban Design features. Yearly runoff volumes based on each method of calculating imperviousness were estimated, as well as for the future following KUNTA development. Water quality in the stream currently is quite satisfactory in relation to other streams in Helsinki, however the urban stream syndrome is already evident with particular concern regarding temperature, sediment and peak flow fluctuations. Effective Impervious Area should be used in urban planning of new and existing developments rather than TIA because it will give much greater accuracy of runoff volumes and infiltration rates by taking into account unconnected impervious surfaces. Strengthening local solutions to reduce connectivity should be a municipal priority. Water quality monitoring will continue at the site until after KUNTA has been built, and further research should focus on determining the technical performance of stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) at the site.
  • Silvennoinen, Emmi (2015)
    Infiltration rates in urban areas are low due to a high proportion of impervious structures. Impermeability results in increased rates of urban runoff, which often leads to degradation in receiving waters. Stormwater retention in urban areas can be increased, for instance, with green, vegetated roofs. While impervious, normal roofs produce the runoff immediately, studies with green roofs have shown that they cause delays in peak runoff and reduce the runoff rate and volume by water retention and attenuation. The water retaining capacity of green roofs vary due to local weather conditions and roof characteristics. Several studies and experiments considering stormwater management and other ecosystem services that green roofs provide have been performed worldwide, mainly in temperate regions, while more studies are needed in cold climates especially to quantify the performance of green roofs in winter. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of various types of precipitation events on runoff rates, timing and water retention in locally built new green roofs from late summer to early winter in southern Finland. Data on precipitation and green roof runoff as well as soil temperature and humidity were monitored automatically. Green roofs included a) precultivated readymade vegetation mats and b) built on site novel substrate mixture with plug plants and seedlings. My principal aim was to study the capability of green roofs in retaining and attenuating water in relation to the intensity and duration of precipitation, the length of the antecedent dry weather period as well as to temperature and moisture of the green roof substrate. I hypothesised that green roofs retain low intensity events better than high intensity events and more effectively in dry and warm than in wet and cold weather, being negligible at temperatures below 0 °C. Furthermore, I studied whether retention capacity can be improved by the amendment of biochar. Finally, readymade green roofs with dense vegetation was hypothesised to have better retention capacity than the newly created roofs with very sparse vegetation but only in summer due to evaporation. Based on cumulative runoff, green roofs retained 52 % of rainfall, which is close to the retention capability found in previous studies. Retention was generally higher at warm temperatures and for biochar-amended roofs, in agreement with my hypothesis. Against expectations, roofs with readymade vegetation mats had lower retention than those built on site. In summer and autumn, before freezing temperatures occurred, results were generally according to the hypotheses and previous research: retention rates decreased as rain depth or rain peak intensity increased. When the amount of rain preceding the measurement event was low, and the substrate moisture content was low, retention was better. During wintertime, results were contrary to my hypotheses: Total retention rates increased with the amount of rain and rain intensity, or when substrate moisture content increased. However, a long antecedent dry weather period resulted in better retention, especially during winter. Mean peak flow attenuation for rain events in this study was 64 % and results are in accordance with my hypothesis and previous research. Furthermore, delay times from when the rain event started to when runoff started and from rain peak to runoff peak were detected in this study, mean values of more than 1 h being comparable to what has been reported in the literature. Results from my thesis can be used to improve hydrological models for local stormwater management purposes. Furthermore, results can be compared with those of other ecological stormwater treatment methods. Possible future research topics include the functioning of green roofs during different seasons and especially during freezing and melting periods with assumedly complex hydrological interactions.
  • Nurminen, Tiina (2013)
    Hannukainen is an old mining area, at commune of Kolari in western Finnish Lapland. Rautaruukki Oy and Outokumpu Oy mined iron, copper and cold from the area in 1978 - 1990. Area is located in the Pajala-Kolari shear zone. Kaunisvaara mining project at Sweden is related to the same shear zone. Northland Mines Finland Oy is planning to restart mining of IOCG-type ore at Hannukainen area within the next couple of years. Quaternary deposits or water resources in Hannukainen area has not been examined in detail before. The mine development site is surrounded be three rivers, Valkeajoki in east, Kuerjoki in west and Äkäsjoki in south. The stratigraphical and hydrostratigraphical field studies in Hannukainen area were made in summer 2011. Stratigraphy of the Quaternary deposits was observed from the sections of Laurinoja open pit and from test pits dug to the area. Permeability of the sediment units were measured by using ring infiltration tests and calculated from grain size evaluations made from sediment samples. Groundwater was observed by evaluating the quality and representativeness of the groundwater monitoring wells, groundwater level measurements and also laboratory analyzes of main ions, trace-elements and isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen. In addition to chemistry samples, electric conductivity, pH, temperature and ratio of oxygen was measured with YSI multielectrode probe from rivers and open pit ponds. Groundwater - surface water interactions were observed by taking chemistry samples, measuring river bed temperatures and by installing minipiezometers. Quaternary deposits are mostly glaciofluvial and fluvial sands and gravels instead of tills. Sorted sandy sediments related to the braided river bars formed by Muonio Ice lake spillways are found from the present valleys of River Äkäsjoki, Valkeajoki and Kuerjoki. Sand and gravel sediments have good permeability and they host considerable amounts of water. Fine sediment units are thin and as discontinuous layers they host perched groundwater and confined groundwater. From the observed 23 groundwater monitoring wells only three represented the whole saturated aquifer and altogether six were other vice usable. The most remarkable problems were the lack of installation information and shortness of monitoring wells compared to the thick quaternary deposits in the area. Acid Mine Drainage -effect (AMD) of the old open pits, waste rock area and ore deposit itself could be detected from the groundwater monitoring wells in the old mining area and from the groundwater discharging to the river Äkäsjoki. Isotope ratios, river bed temperatures and hydraulic head difference in mini- piezometers reveal that groundwater is discharging from the mine development site to the rivers surrounding it. Hannukainen area is a challenging environment for mine siting. Hydrostratigraphy in the area is complicated, permeability of the Quaternary deposits is generally good, aquifer is multileveled and rivers surrounding the area get a significant amount of their water from groundwater forming in the mine development site. Most of the present groundwater monitoring wells are unusable, and in order to monitor the groundwater reliably some new monitoring wells should be installed. Major flow direction of surface and groundwater are from the mine development site to the rivers surrounding it. Classified groundwater areas should be outlined again, because present linings do not relate to true aquifers. Location of tailings area planned to the mine development site has been reconsidered.