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  • Pitkänen, Olli (2021)
    Faba bean (Vicia faba) is considered as promising protein plant for increasing protein self-sufficiency. Still, raw faba bean has not been as good protein feed for dairy cows as rapeseed meal. This experiment was conducted to test industrially heat-treated and dehulled faba bean as replacement for rapeseed meal in dairy cows either alone or with rumen-protected methionine. The experiment was designed as three times repeated 4 × 4 latin square. Cows were fed ad libitum total-mixed-ration, which consisted of timothy and meadow fescue silage, cereal based concentrate, and isonitrogenous protein component. The four feedings were control feeding without protein concentrate, rapeseed meal feeding, faba bean feeding, and faba bean feeding with rumen-protected methionine. Feed and nutrients intake and apparent whole-tract digestibility, milk yield and its composition, ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids and ammonia, and plasma amino acids and metabolites were measured. Results were statistically analysed using the Mixed-procedur of SAS-program. Protein feeds increased dry matter intake 1.3 kg/d and milk yield 1.2 kg/d compared to control feeding (dry matter intake 22.5 kg/d and milk yield 30.7 kg/d), and they increased milk protein concentration and protein and fat yields compared to control. Substitution of rapeseed with faba bean decreased dry matter intake but milk yield and milk protein and fat concentration remained unchanged. Rumen-protected methionine increased milk protein concentration but did not have any effect on milk, protein or fat yields. Amino acid intake increased when protein feeds were fed, and cows given rapeseed had higher amino acid intake compared to those given faba bean. Essential amino acid concentration in plasma was higher with increased feed protein level but there were no differences between rapeseed and faba bean diets despite difference in amino acid intake. Rumen-protected methionine increased plasma methionine concentration (30.8 mmol/l compared to 18.2 mmol/l) but had no effect on concentrations of other amino acids. According to this study industrially heat-treated faba bean would be comparable protein feed to rapeseed meal but the results should be interpreted cautiously due to low production responses to protein supplementation. Rumen-protected methionine had quite small impact on milk yield, and more information is needed concerning its use to balance amino acid supply on cows fed faba bean.
  • Wahlberg, Leena (2020)
    Tavoitteet: Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan virolaisten puhuman suomen prosodisia piirteitä suomalaisiin verrattuna. Kummatkin ovat kvantiteettikieliä ja sukukieliä, mutta virolaisten puhuman suomen tunnistaa silti kuulonvaraisesti vierasperäiseksi. Viron kolme kvantiteettia voisi olettaa ilmenevän jollain tavalla heidän lukemassaan suomen kielessä. Tarkoituksena on kehittää tutkijaa helpottava visuaalinen tarkastelutapa kielierojen löytämiseksi puheenanalyysiohjelma Praatin avulla. Päätutkimuskysymyksenä oli voidaanko virolaisten puhumista suomen sanoista löytää sellaisia perustaajuus- ja intensiteetti- sekä kestoeroavaisuuksia, että ne näkyvät akustisissa mittauksissa eivätkä jää vain kuulijan mielipiteen varaan. Menetelmät ja aineisto: Tutkimuksessa on käytetty Usix-hankkeen (nro 3204/31/01) Puhujantunnistus-alihankkeessa äänitettyä materiaalia (Helsingin yliopiston hanke nro 460325). (TEKESin rahoituspäätökset 40285/00, 40406/01 ja 40238/02, Helsingin yliopiston hanketunnus 460325.) Näkökulmaksi on valittu instrumentaalis-foneettinen tarkastelutapa. Puhujiksi valittiin kuusi suomalaista ja kuusi virolaista puhujaa. Koehenkilöt lukivat saman tekstin ja se äänitettiin laadukkaalla mikrofonilla studio-olosuhteissa. Koeaineistoksi valittiin erityisesti vierasperäisiltä kuulostavat sanat virolaisilta puhujilta ja sen jälkeen vastaavat suomalaisilta. Tutkittavia sanoja oli lopulta 32 puhujaa kohden. Näistä sanoista piirrettiin Praat-ohjelmalla visuaalinen esitys. Kuvantamistavassa on spektraaliset ominaisuudet nähtävissä yhtä aikaa perustaajuus- ja intensiteettitiedon kanssa. Perustaajuus ja intensiteettimittauksia tehtiin sanoista, tavuista ja ensitavun ytimestä. Praat-ohjelman tuottama tieto saatiin puoliautomaattisesti tilasto-ohjelmiin. Prosodisia muutoksia pyrittiin kuvaamaan absoluuttisten arvojen lisäksi tasainen, laskeva ja nouseva -malleilla, joiden arviointi perustui puolisäveliin. Lisäksi tehtiin joitakin kestomittauksia ensitavun vokaaleista tavutyypeittäin. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset: Praat-ohjelman tuottama kuvantamistapa on informatiivinen ja toimii tutkijan apuvälineenä. Virolaisten puhujien lukema suomi on kaikilta osiltaan perustaajuudeltaan vaihtelevampaa suomalaisiin verrattuna. Tavutasolla muutoksen suunta on joko nouseva tai laskeva, kun se suomalaisella on ennemmin tasainen. Ero voi tapahtua tavun ytimen tasolla, mutta on selvimmin havaittavissa hieman pidemmästä jaksosta. Yksittäisissä sanoissa on kestoeroa hitaamman lukemisen vuoksi, mutta sitä ei pystytty tässä tutkimuksessa yhdistämään taustakielten erilaiseen kvantiteettiin. Jatkossa olisi kiinnostavaa tehdä laajemmat tilastolliset analyysit ja pohtia myös muita kieliä puhujan lähtökieleksi. Kielenopetusnäkökulmasta voisi tarkastella puhujia, jotka jo osaavat kieltä jonkin verran ja haluavat oppia parempaa ääntämystä.
  • Lohi, Noora (2020)
    Aikaisemmassa tutkimuksessa on huomattu, että osa autismin kirjon diagnoosin saaneista puhujista tuottavat prosodialtaan epätyypillistä puhetta. Tällaisia puhetyylejä on subjektiivisten havaintojen perusteella ainakin kolme. Tässä tutkielmassa oli tavoitteena selvittää, löytyykö näitä puhujatyyppejä datasta, ja onko sen selvittämiseen kehitetty metodi toimiva. Lisäksi autistista puhetta verrattiin kontrolliaineistoon. Puheen prosodia pitää sisällään puheen suprasegmentaaliset, eli tavua pidempikestoiset elementit. Prosodian avulla puhetta jäsennellään järkeviksi informaatiokokonaisuuksiksi, ja sen keinoin puhuja voi ilmaista tunnetilojaan ja asenteitaan. Toisin sanoen puheen prosodisten piirteiden oikeaoppinen tuottaminen sekä havaitseminen on tärkeää keskustelijoiden välisen yhteisymmärryksen kannalta. Autismin kirjo kattaa monta neurokehityksellistä häiriötä, joille kaikille on ominaista kommunikoinnin haasteet. Autististen henkilöiden on todettu käyttävän puheessaan poikkeavia prosodisia piirteitä. Heidän puhettaan on kuvailtu perinteisesti joko monotoniseksi tai laulumaiseksi. Aineistona käytettiin autististen poikien (n = 7) autenttisista ryhmäterapiatilanteista nauhoitettuja äänitallenteita, sekä tutkimusta varten konstruoitua äänitallennetta neurotyypillisesti kehittyneiden suomenkielisten varhaisnuorten poikien (n = 6) keskustelutilaisuudesta. Tutkimus oli kvantitatiivinen, ja se koostui akustisesta analyysistä sekä tilastollisesta tarkasteluosuudesta. Äänitallenteista eroteltiin puhunnokset puhujan mukaan, ja puhunnoksista mitattiin perustaajuuden muutoksen määrä ajassa, perustaajuusvaihtelu, puhunnoksen pituus, fonaation kesto, puhenopeus sekä narinan suhteellinen osuus. Ensin autismikirjon poikien puhetta verrattiin keskenään perustaajuuden muutoksen (per sekunti) ja perustaajuusvaihtelun suhteen. Näiden tulosten perusteella heidät jaettiin kolmeen ryhmään, joiden eroja lähdettiin tarkemmin selvittämään sekä pääkomponenttianalyysin keinoin että tarkastelemalla eroja tilastollisin keinoin. Tämän lisäksi autismikirjon ryhmän tuloksia verrattiin kontrolliryhmän tuloksiin. Tutkimuksessa saatiin selville, että autistikirjon puheaineistosta löytyi kolme prosodisesti erilaista puhujatyyppiä, ja uusi metodi, jossa verrataan puheen perustaajuuden muutosta ajassa perustaajuuden vaihteluun, vaikuttaa tulosten perusteella lupaavalta. Lisäksi autismikirjon ja kontrolliryhmän välillä löytyi tilastollisesti merkitseviä eroja kaikkien muiden muuttujien paitsi puhenopeuden suhteen. Jatkossa tutkimusta voisi kehittää suuremmalla otoskoolla, ja lisäämällä akustisia muuttujia aineistoon. Olisi myös mielenkiintoista tutkia, erottaako naiivi kuulija prosodiatyypit toisistaan, ja mikä hänen havaintoonsa vaikuttaa. Lisäksi on epäselvää, onko ilmiö universaali vai kielikohtainen.
  • Strömberg, Lisbeth (2020)
    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, and it poses multiple health risks for both the mother and the child. The prevalence of GDM is increasing globally and effective interventions are needed to reduce the associated risks. Mobile health (mHealth) solutions have a great potential in answering this need since they are cost-effective and able to reach large groups of people. mHealth solutions might be especially effective for management of chronic conditions that require patient behavior change. Investigating intervention acceptability has an important part in the process of developing successful interventions. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the prospective acceptability of an mHealth intervention for GDM from the perspective of its potential recipients. The thesis also seeks to find out whether there are any associations between technological experience and perceptions of intervention acceptability as well as ways in which the intervention acceptability could be improved. The thesis utilizes data collected in the first phase of the eMOM GDM study, a research project with the aim of developing an mHealth intervention to support the self-management of GDM. The application acceptability was studied with semi-structured interviews with 10 women currently diagnosed with GDM. Previous technological experience was self-reported by the participants in a background questionnaire. Theory-driven content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. The results show that the intervention has high prospective acceptability from the perspective of the potential participants. For most of the domains of acceptability there is still room for improvement, and several ideas for further improving the intervention’s acceptability are discussed. The results could also indicate a possible relationship between technological experience and mHealth intervention acceptability. This thesis contributes to the development of an intervention by providing insight on the factors influencing intervention acceptability and ideas on how to improve it. The results also provide valuable information for developing future mHealth solutions for GDM. The potential association between technological experience and intervention acceptability are interesting regarding all mHealth intervention development and should be studied further.
  • Halonen, Pyry (2022)
    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men and the risk evaluation of the cancer prior the treatment can be critical. Risk evaluation of the prostate cancer is based on multiple factors such as clinical assessment. Biomarkers are studied as they would also be beneficial in the risk evaluation. In this thesis we assess the predictive abilities of biomarkers regarding the prostate cancer relapse. The statistical method we utilize is logistic regression model. It is used to model the probability of a dichotomous outcome variable. In this case the outcome variable indicates if the cancer of the observed patient has relapsed. The four biomarkers AR, ERG, PTEN and Ki67 form the explanatory variables. They are the most studied biomarkers in prostate cancer tissue. The biomarkers are usually detected by visual assessment of the expression status or abundance of staining. Artificial intelligence image analysis is not yet in common clinical use, but it is studied as a potential diagnostic assistance. The data contains for each biomarker a visually obtained variable and a variable obtained by artificial intelligence. In the analysis we compare the predictive power of these two differently obtained sets of variables. Due to the larger number of explanatory variables, we seek the best fitting model. When we are seeking the best fitting model, we use an algorithm glmulti for the selection of the explanatory variables. The predictive power of the models is measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve. The data contains two classifications of the prostate cancer whereas the cancer was visible in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The classification is not exclusive since a patient could have had both, a magnetic resonance imaging visible and an invisible cancer. The data was split into three datasets: MRI visible cancers, MRI invisible cancers and the two datasets combined. By splitting the data we could further analyze if the MRI visible cancers have differences in the relapse prediction compared to the MRI invisible cancers. In the analysis we find that none of the variables from MRI invisible cancers are significant in the prostate cancer relapse prediction. In addition, all the variables regarding the biomarker AR have no predictive power. The best biomarker for predicting prostate cancer relapse is Ki67 where high staining percentage indicates greater probabilities for the prostate cancer relapse. The variables of the biomarker Ki67 were significant in multiple models whereas biomarkers ERG and PTEN had significant variables only in a few models. Artificial intelligence variables show more accurate predictions compared to the visually obtained variables, but we could not conclude that the artificial intelligence variables are purely better. We learn instead that the visual and the artificial intelligence variables complement each other in predicting the cancer relapse.
  • Isler, Corinne (2016)
    The phenomenon of prostitution has been controversial in many countries, including Switzerland. Policy regimes on prostitution differ drastically between countries. In recent years, there have been two opposing trends regarding the reform of prostitution laws. Some countries, such as Germany and the Netherlands, have moved towards legalisation and normalisation of the sex industry. Prostitution is thereby regarded as a normal trade and feminist supporters of this model focus mainly on legal rights and improved working conditions for people who sell sex. In contrast, other countries, including Sweden, Norway, Iceland and most recently France, have adopted a policy regime based on the assumption that prostitution per se is a form of violence against women and should thus be eradicated. In Switzerland, prostitution has been de facto legalised since 1942 and the cantons and municipalities can adopt their own policies regarding the regulation of the industry. The City of Zurich adopted a new Prostitution Industry Regulation in 2011, which brought a number of changes regarding licencing procedures and zoning laws for street prostitution and brothels. This research aims at examing the ways in which prostitution has been framed by different socio-political actors in Switzerland and the City of Zurich in particular. For this purpose I analyse a number of official documents published by the Swiss government and the City of Zurich as well as NGO papers regarding prostitution, all published between 2010 and 2015. The analysis draws on the methodological approach of critical frame analysis, which adopts a constructivist perspective on policy problems. It is assumed that different ways of constructing a problem also lead to different suggestions for solutions. For Switzerland and Zurich, two main frames could be identified and I outline their central features as well as their internal inconsistencies. Despite the differences between these two frames, they have some important aspects in common. Both frames take a clearly normalising perspective on prostitution and accept the sex industry as a social reality that cannot and should not be eradicated. Fragments of an abolitionist perspective on prostitution are present in only one of the studied documents. Voices that take a critical perspective on prostitution itself seem to be strongly marginalised in Switzerland.
  • Horsmanheimo, Laura (2023)
    Pohjoismaissa kaupallinen seksiala on kooltaan suhteellisen pieni, mutta symboliselta merkitykseltään mittava. 1990-luvulla suomalaisen tasa-arvopolitiikan agendan kärkeen noussut seksinmyynti herättää ristiriitoja ja voimakkaita tunteita, jotka kytkeytyvät yhteiskunnassa vallitseviin arvoihin. Perinteisesti ”naisystävällisiksi” mielletyt Pohjoismaat ovat toimineet pioneereina kaupallisen seksin asiakkuuden kriminalisoinnissa, sillä radikaalifeministien argumentteihin kytkeytyen seksinmyynnin on katsottu esineellistävän naisvartaloa ja ylläpitävän epätasa-arvoa. Tutkielma liittää 2010-luvun prostituutiopolitiikkakeskustelun feminismin uusiin aaltoihin. Niiden myötä intersektionaalisuuden ja queer-teorian nousu ovat vauhdittaneet erilaisuutta huomioimattoman universaalin hyvän määrittelemisen sekä auttaja- ja uhripositioiden ylläpitämisen kyseenalaistamista. Jälkiperustahakuiseen ja -strukturalistiseen teoriaperinteeseen kytkeytyvässä tutkielmassa analysoidaan suomalaisen prostituutiopolitiikan valmistelussa samaistumisen ja ulossulkemisen kautta muodostuvia hegemonisia ja vastahegemonisia käsityksiä seksialasta. Merkitysten tuottamista tarkastellaan vastakkainasettelun, performatiivisuuden ja affektiivisuuden käsitteitä hyödyntäen. Tutkielma analysoi oikeusministeriön vuonna 2014 keräämää lausuntokokoelmaa hallituksen esitysluonnoksesta seksikaupan kohteena olevien henkilöiden hyväksikäyttöä rajoittavan lain uudistamisesta. Lainsäädäntöprosessin seurauksena Suomen rikoslain 20 luvun 8 pykälää kiristettiin niin, että ihmiskaupan tai parituksen kohteelta seksin ostamisesta tuli rangaistavaa myös tilanteissa, joissa ostajan ”olisi syytä epäillä” myyjän olevan seksikaupan uhri. Tutkielmassa vastataan seuraaviin kysymyksiin: 1) Mitkä arvot ja päämäärät määritellään prostituutiopolitiikan uudistusprosessissa ensisijaiseksi? Minkä tai kenen esitetään uhkaavan niitä? 2) Miten lausuntokokoelma muotoilee hyväksyttynä pidettyjä sukupuolen ja seksuaalisuuden toteutustapoja? Miten hallitsevaksi nousseita käsityksiä vastustetaan? Analyysi tehdään kehittäen jälkiperustahakuiseen teoriaan kytkeytyvää retoris-performatiivisen diskurssianalyysin menetelmää. Tekstiaineiston pohjalta luodaan kaksi mallia, jotka havainnollistavatkeskustelun vastakkainasetteluita ja merkityksenmuodostusprosesseja. Aineiston analyysi osoittaa, että huomattava osa lausunnon antaneista tahoista esittää kaupallisen seksin kysynnän sallimisen johtavan ihmiskauppa- ja paritusrikollisuuden esiintymiseen. Lausunnoissa muodostuva vallitseva käsitys kiinnittää asiakkaisiin negatiivisia tunteita ja muodostaa itsestään tasa-arvoista ja tehokasta hyvinvointi- ja oikeusvaltiota vaalivan ryhmän, jonka arvoja seksinostajat uhkaavat. Seksinosto halutaan kieltää joko kokonaan tai hallituksen esittämässä mittakaavassa. Seksimarkkinoiden moniulotteisuus jätetään piiloon, kun seksinmyyjistä kehystetään kuva yksinomaa haavoittuvaisiksi uhreiksi. Lausuntokokoelman puheenvuoroista käsitystä haastamaan nousee vastahegemonia, joka kritisoi seksialan yksinkertaistamista kysynnän ja tarjonnan väliseksi suhteeksi ja esittää ostajat pääsääntöisesti yhteistyökykyisinä asiakkaina hyväksikäyttäjien sijaan. Inklusiivisuutta painottava puhe ottaa huomioon sekä seksinmyyjien että -ostajien asemien moninaisuuden ja kyseenalaistaa seksinostokiellon laajentamisen tarkoituksen-mukaisuuden. Seksinmyyjien toimijuutta vahvistavissa puheenvuoroissa esitetään huoli palveluntarjoajien oikeudellisesta asemasta Suomessa, jossa näennäisesti seksinoston osittain sallivan lainsäädännön katsotaan tekevän lähes kaikesta kaupallisen seksin ostamisesta lainvastaista, sillä hyväksikäytöksi nimitetään muilla aloilla normaaliksi liiketoiminnaksi miellettyjä käytäntöjä. Vastakkainasettelusta huolimatta keskustelun sävy on vuosituhannen vaihteen politiikkaan verrattuna maltillisempi ja konsensuaalisempi. Tutkielma argumentoi, että ihmiskauppaa ja paritusta ylläpitävästä seksinkysynnästä on tullut kohde, jonka vastustamisen valtaosa toimijoista mieltää luonnolliseksi vallitsevien yhteiskunnallisten arvojen puitteissa. Kiinnittämällä ongelma seksinostajiin kaupalliseen seksiin liittyvät moniulotteiset haasteet voidaan sivuuttaa osoittamalla, että yhteiskunta on hoitanut moraalisen velvollisuutensa seksinostoa rajoittamalla. Samalla kaupallinen seksi esitetään vallitseviin arvoihin sopimattomana ja marginalisoidaan seksinostajia- ja myyjiä. Tutkielman päätelmät resonoivat aiemman seksityötutkimuksen kanssa osoittaen, että kaupallista seksialaa koskevaa politiikkaa muotoilee ensisijaisesti yhteiskunnan yleisiin intresseihin ja vallitsevaan moraalikäsitykseen sidottu käsitys sallitusta seksuaalisuudesta ja ideaalista sukupuolesta, jolloin alalla toimivien kokemuksille ei jää merkittävää sijaa heitä koskevien päätösten teossa.
  • Puustinen, Henna (2016)
    Biodiversity conservation has several impacts to human livelihoods. Especially in the Global South rural people depend closely on the biodiversity and on diverse ecosystems and changes in the environment can have significant impacts on local livelihoods. Protected Areas have become one of the main global strategies in the aims to conserve the world's biodiversity and in securing human livelihoods. Besides nature conservation, Protected Areas are expected to create benefits to the surrounding communities. However, impacts from Protected Areas have proved out to be the opposite in many occasions. Establishment of Protected Areas has often restricted local people's access to natural resources and hence, caused changes in livelihoods. Other costs from conservation include for instance damages caused by the increased amount wildlife. The aim of this case study has been to research the impact of biodiversity conservation on local communities. The study focuses on examining the Protected Area impacts on local livelihoods in Welioya in southern Sri Lanka. The research data was collected in areas located near to the Protected Area border. The study was conducted using qualitative research practices and the methods included semi-structured interview, open conversation and observation. The target group consisted of local people and in addition, local actors were interviewed to get information related to the local forests and Protected Areas. Employing the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and concepts of boundaries and social equity this study tries to understand the relation of conservation and local livelihoods. Biodiversity conservation and the existence of Protected Areas has both positive and negative impacts to local people and their livelihoods in Welioya. The main benefit from the Protected Areas are gained through the preservation of ecosystem services. Local livelihoods highly rely on cultivation of rice and cultivation depends on the preservation on the forest ecosystem and area's water resources. Some local people also get benefits by collecting forests products such as firewood, fruits and medicinal plants from the forests. The study reveals that some human activities are practices illegally inside the Protected Areas. The most costs from the Protected Area are related to the restricted access to cultivation land and to forest resources. In addition, there is an obvious human-elephant conflict that features the study area. Even though Protected Areas create significant benefits to local livelihoods, the results of this case study indicate that the sustainability of local livelihoods appears to be unsure. Also, the presence of people in Protected Areas in Welioya is evident although almost all human activities inside the area have been prohibited. Consequently, local people are concerned about the preservation of forests. When considering the future of local livelihoods, deforestation and planned projects can have a remarkable influence on the forests and hence, on the local livelihoods. In order to reach the conservation goals in Welioya, management of the Protected Areas should be clarified, the role of different conservation actors specified and local people should be increasingly included in conservation management.
  • Van Kooten, Sebastiaan Cornelis Antonius (2022)
    Over the past century, several protection schemes have been introduced in Finland, among which more recently the Natura 2000 programme. As of date, no large scale analysis of the economic effects of protection programmes exist in Finland, even though protection schemes can have large distorting effects. This thesis utilised over 1 million property transactions in Finland from the period 1990-2020 in a hedonic pricing model to analyse the net economic effects of environmental protection. Difference-in-Differences analyses were applied to assess the effects on productive and environmental value of property transactions. This thesis has provided quantified estimates of the economic effects on different stakeholder groups. Average productive value was found to decrease by 15.46% inside protected areas, whereas environmental value increased by 6.76% inside and bordering a protected area. Forest land and land acquired for protection were most reduced in value, whereas residential houses and cottages were found to profit from protection. A net realised welfare gain of €1,127,000,000 was estimated over the period 1990-2020 for the Natura 2000 programme. Besides the net societal welfare gain, distributional disparities were found across stakeholder groups and spatial locations. This research calls for the accurate inclusion of all interests to guarantee net gains for all stakeholders in future protection programmes.
  • Laukkio, Lotta (2015)
    In 23 September 2009 the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea, shortly the Rotterdam Rules, was signed. Its success is yet a mystery because only three states have ratified the Rules. This is mainly due to the growing liabilities of the carrier side and higher limitation of liability. The new definition maritime performing party has raised questions and criticism, too. The definition of a maritime performing party develops the third party protection to a wider scope than before. This article will enlighten the actual impact of the maritime performing party to the Finnish Maritime Code. How do the Rotterdam Rules change the position of a non-contractual third party? What changes will the rules on maritime performing party bring to Finnish maritime law as part of the Nordic maritime legislation? There are three existing conventions on carriage of goods by sea. The Hague Rules do not cover the issue of a sub-carrier at all but the Hague-Visby Rules added an article that allows agents and servants of the carrier to enjoy the benefits of the contract of carriage if the shipper claims damages directly from a sub-carrier. The Hamburg Rules took third party protection a bit further by including independent contractors to the sphere of the protection of third parties. The same result can be attained through a so called Himalaya clause that means a contract clause benefitting a third party. The Rotterdam Rules define a maritime performing party as any sub-carrier performing the carrier’s duties in port area or at sea. The definition expands the scope of the sub-carrier’s that can be covered and it would include sea carriers, stevedores, terminal operators, agents, lightering companies, freight forwarders, and all modes of inland carriers when used exclusively in the port area. The Finnish maritime code resembles the Hamburg Rules concerning the protection of third parties; a shipper can bring a direct action against a third party that is protected with the carrier’s defences and limits of liability. Under the Finnish maritime code the third parties can be sea carriers and stevedores. If the Rotterdam Rules were implemented in Finland, the coverage of the maritime code would be clearer and wider.
  • Myyrä, Antti (2019)
    Distributed systems have been a topic of discussion since the 1980s, but the adoption of microservices has raised number of system components considerably. With more decentralised distributed systems, new ways to handle authentication, authorisation and accounting (AAA) are needed, as well as ways to allow components to communicate between themselves securely. New standards and technologies have been created to deal with these new requirements and many of them have already found their way to most used systems and services globally. After covering AAA and separate access control models, we continue with ways to secure communications between two connecting parties, using Transport Layer Security (TLS) and other more specialised methods such as the Google-originated Secure Production Identity Framework for Everyone (SPIFFE). We also discuss X.509 certificates for ensuring identities. Next, both older time- tested and newer distributed AAA technologies are presented. After this, we are looking into communication between distributed components with both synchronous and asynchronous communication mechanisms, as well as into the publish/subscribe communication model popular with the rise of the streaming platform. This thesis also explores possibilities in securing communications between distributed endpoints and ways to handle AAA in a distributed context. This is showcased in a new software component that handles authentication through a separate identity endpoint using the OpenID Connect authentication protocol and stores identity in a Javascript object-notation formatted and cryptographically signed JSON Web Token, allowing stateless session handling as the token can be validated by checking its signature. This enables fast and scalable session management and identity handling for any distributed system.
  • Gilkey, Nathaniel (2016)
    Minority shareholder protection is an important aspect of the modern market. It allows the infusion of capital into the market and wealth generation. But one must come to accept that the minority shareholder has less protection when they deal with a SOE even within the established markets of the United States and Nordic countries. This lower protection stems from the state having competing goals in regard to the market. For the state does not just care about wealth creation but other factors such as employment and economic development. These goals will in many cases cause the state to undertake policies that could run counter to the goals of traditionally run corporations. Whenever there is massive change in markets governments have been tempted to manage the change. This market management might increase again due to the rapid changes of the digital age and its impact on traditional businesses. How countries respond will always be different. Thus stakeholders should be wary of attempting to apply their own corporate cultural interpretations to the actions of governments. For government action is guided by the public interpretation of the role of government and its power. Fundamental differences exist in how the public views government involvement including the degree of trust and acceptance for government involvement in enterprises and market dynamics. The minority investor needs to understand their limitations and be willing to accept the inherent risks in this environment recognizing there is little legal recourse especially across countries.
  • Jelenciakova, Katarina (2015)
    The thesis discusses the trade mark protection of scents, colours, sounds, touch and tastes. Commercial use of human senses as brands allows the traders to benefit from their stimuli on consumers. Since the technological progress allows the traders to use the senses as conveyors of their business ideas a demand for trade mark protection of sensory marks has formed. Prior to satisfying the demand on the side of proprietors, the lawmakers have to take into account the interests of the competitors and consumers as well. Therefore, the legislative solutions have to bear in mind and balance between all three positions and ensure free competition and prevent protection of such marks that give unjustified advantage to one entrepreneur. Moreover, the trade mark protection of senses gives rise to many discussions questioning their eligibility of being graphically representable or having a distinctive character. The EU legislation does not expressly exclude trade mark protection of sensory marks, but the case law hints that the registration is not granted without a (not always successful) struggle. The hypothesis was formulated as follows: Sensory marks in general can enjoy the same trade mark protection in the EU as other more traditional trade marks pursuant to fulfilment of the strict registration criteria. However, for some of the sensory marks – scent, touch and taste marks the requirements imposed by the current EU legislation and case law represent an insurmountable obstacle. The proposed reform of the EU legislation can facilitate the registration of the sensory marks to a certain extent, but it will not eliminate all the issues the respective sensory mark has to overcome. The research questions that were discussed in the thesis are the following: (i) Are sensory marks protectable under EU law? (a) Are they registrable? (b) What are the issues? (ii) Is having a requirement of graphic representation hindering the registration of sensory marks? The thesis is divided into six main chapters, where the first focuses on what can be protected as the as a trade mark on the EU level (CTM) and across the Member States. The chapter further discusses the exclusive character and functions of trade marks and potential US influence alongside with general issues relating to registering sensory marks in the USA and in the EU. Each of the remaining five chapters focuses on a type of mark, which can be perceived by using one of five human senses – scent, sight, hearing, taste and touch. Each of the ‘sense chapters’ encompasses an overview of the legislation and most important case law in the field of trade mark law relating to registration of the respective sense. Special attention is being paid to EU and US legislation and case law relating to registration of the respective sense at OHIM, USPTO and national register authorities. In the following subchapters, the attention is drawn to the practical issues arising from the endeavour to protect sensory marks and registration thereof. The focus is aimed on the main issues the applicant has to overcome when claiming trade mark registration of a sensory mark resulting from the requirements of law and the nature of the respective sense. Subsequently, each ‘sense chapter’ further elaborates how the proposed changes in the EU legislation could affect registrability and protection of the respective sensory mark in the EU. The focal aim is to assess the potential impact of the proposed abandonment of the graphic representation requirement on the registration process and popularity of sensory marks applications. The last chapter is dedicated for conclusions summarizing whether sensory marks are protectable in the EU, whether the trade mark reform would affect their position and whether the reform would in fact mean converging of the EU and US approaches on the matter.
  • Laakso, Kristian (2018)
    Palautusjuoma on harjoittelun jälkeen nautittava nestemäinen elintarvike. Sille ei ole virallista määritelmää, mutta sen tarkoituksena on sisältää tärkeitä ravintoaineita kuten aminohappoja ja hiilihydraatteja, jotka käynnistävät urheilusuorituksesta palautumisen. Palautusjuomat voidaan jakaa karkeasti juomajauheisiin ja valmiisiin juotaviin tuotteisiin. Kasvipohjaisen palautusjuoman pohjana voisi toimia kasviproteiiniuute. Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia erilaisten uutto-olosuhteiden vaikutusta kvinoaproteiinien uuttumiseen. Uute, jossa olisi korkein proteiinisaanto, voisi toimia teoreettisen palautusjuoman pohjana. Muuttujina käytettiin liuotin/siemen (w/w) -suhdetta (10:1 ja 20:1), liuotinta (pH 6,71 ja 9; NaCl-pitoisuus [0 mol/l ja 0,03 mol/l]) ja liuottimen lämpötilaa (25 °C ja 40 °C). Uuttoaika oli kaikissa näytteissä 30 min. Proteiinisaantoon tilastollisesti merkitsevästi vaikuttavat muuttujat (p < 0,05) olivat liuottimen pH ja lämpötila. Tämän tiedon perusteella uutetta valmistettiin lisää kahdeksan litraa, jonka muuttujien arvoina olivat pH 9, NaCl-pitoisuus 0 mol/l, 40 °C liuotin/jauho (w/w) -suhde 10:1. Uute ultrasuodatettiin 20 kDa:n cut off -arvon kalvolla ja suodatuksesta otettiin talteen retentaatti ja permeaatti. Retentaattia sumutuskuivattiin 984 g ja kuiva-ainesaanto oli 0,84 %, eli 8,2 g jauhetta. Proteiinisaanto oli 29,8 %. Sumutuskuivauksesta saadusta jauheesta määritettiin proteiinipitoisuus, kuiva-ainepitoisuus ja vaahtoavuusominaisuuksia. Pakkaskuivatusta retentaatista tehtiin viskositeetti ja saponiinipitoisuusmääritykset. Lisäksi pakkaskuivatusta retentaatista ja permeaatista tehtiin SDS-PAGE elektroforeesi, jotta nähtäisiin, miten proteiinit jakautuivat ultrasuodatuksessa permeaattiin ja retentaattiin. Sumutuskuivatun kvinoajauheen proteiinipitoisuus oli 39,1 %. SDS-PAGE -määrityksestä saadun proteiiniprofiilin perusteella proteiinit jäivät retentaattiin ja ultrasuodatus onnistui hyvin. Retentaatti sisälsi kvinoalle ominaisia proteiineja: globuliineja (55 kDa) ja chenopodiineja (31–33 kDa). Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella työssä käytetyistä hiotuista kvinoan siemenistä uuttui vain vähän proteiineja, mikä johti matalaan proteiinipitoisuuteen sekä uutteessa että jauheessa. Siemenet eivät soveltuneet matalan proteiinipitoisuuden vuoksi palautusjuoman raaka-aineeksi, mutta vaahdonmuodostusominaisuuksien perusteella kvinoa kuitenkin vaikuttaa lupaavalta raaka-aineelta elintarviketeollisuuteen, erityisesti leipomoteollisuuteen. Raaka-aine vaatii kuitenkin lisätutkimusta, ja tulevaisuudessa määrityksiä voisi mahdollisesti tehdä hiomattomista siemenistä, jolloin proteiinipitoisuus olisi lähtökohtaisesti korkeampi.
  • Kolu, Anna-Maija (2013)
    Spray drying is one way to dry protein medicines and it has many advantages compared to other drying methods, for example it is a fast process. In spray drying high temperature and mechanical stress can inactivate the protein. Disaccharides are generally used as protective agents of protein in spray drying because they have an ability to protect the structure of the protein during drying and storage. Aim of this research was to study the stability of the protein during spray drying and storage by using β-galactosidace as a model protein. Aim was also to characterize the physical properties of trehalose and melibiose and to study how well they protect the protein. Some of the central matters to be examined were the glass transition temperature, crystallinity, water activity, yield of the spray dried powder and protein activity. Especially studying the properties of melibiose in spray drying was important because it has not been used before. The study also included the optimization of the process parameters to be suitable for the product. Trehalose and melibiose transformed to an amorphous form during spray drying. Both XRPD and DSC showed an amorfous form. Trehalose and melibiose proved to be good protective agents for the protein during spray drying and storatge probably because they remained their amorphous structure. β-galactosidase remained activity very well. Optimizing of the process parameters was successful because protein remained its activity and still the powder was quite dry and yield was good. The changes in the structure of the protein were studied with FT-IR but the amount of the protein was too small. Problems caused by the spray drier may have an effect to the results, but on the other hand the spray dryer was made to work optimally.
  • Kelokari, Satu-Helmi (2022)
    Proteiinihukkaa aiheuttava suolisairaus (PLE, protein-losing enteropathy) on useaan eri sairauteen liittyvä tila. PLE voi aiheuttaa lapsilla vakavaa hypoalbuminemiaa ja sairaalahoidon tarvetta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli saada tietoa proteiinihukkaa aiheuttavasta suolisairaudesta lapsipotilailla Suomessa. Tutkimuksella haluttiin kartoittaa PLE:n etiologisia tekijöitä, riskitekijöitä, käytettyjä hoitoja ja potilaiden ennustetta. Tutkimus suoritettiin retrospektiivisenä kohorttitutkimuksena ja tiedot kerättiin sairauskertomusmerkinnöistä vuosilta 2004-2019. Potilaita etsittiin diagnoosikoodeilla, jotka todennäköisesti assosioituisivat PLE:hen, sillä PLE:lle ei ole omaa diagnoosikoodia ICD-10-luokituksessa. Kohorttiin valittiin haun tuottamasta aineistosta potilaat, joilla oli sairauskertomustekstien ja laboratoriotulosten perusteella PLE. Kohortista rajattiin ulos tulehduksellista suolistosairautta sairastavat potilaat. PLE-potilaita löytyi 49, joista 71,4 % oli poikia ja 28,6 % tyttöjä. Etiologinen tekijä PLE:n taustalla jäi epäselväksi 30,6 % potilaista. Merkittäviä etiologioita tässä aineistossa olivat ruoka-aineallergian aiheuttama enterokoliitti (8,2 %), eosinofiilinen gastroenteriitti (6,1 %), infektio (12,2 %) ja yksikammioinen sydänsairaus (8,2 %). Riskitekijöistä atopiaa oli 38,8 %:lla ja edeltävä infektio raportoitiin 20,4 %:lta potilaista. Oireista turvotus mainittiin 46,9 %:lla potilaista ja ripuli 53,1 %:lla. Potilaista 61,2 % sai albumiini-infuusioita hoitona PLE:n aiheuttamaan hypoalbuminemiaan. Potilaista 42,9 % sai immunoglobuliinikorvaushoitoa. Kylusdieetti oli hoitomuotona 22,4 %:lla potilaista. Seurannan kesto oli keskimäärin 6 vuotta ja 6 kuukautta (mediaani). Seurannan päätepisteessä potilaista 42,9 % katsottiin parantuneiksi ja 57,1 %:lla PLE joko jatkui tai potilas oli menehtynyt (n=3). Tutkimuksella saaduista tiedoista voi olla hyötyä PLE-potilaiden tunnistamisessa ja sopivien hoitomuotojen kehittämisessä.
  • Rimmi, Noora (2019)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää kuluttajien käsityksiä ympäristöystävällisestä ruokavaliosta sekä suhtautumista kasvisruokaan ja kasviproteiineihin. Erityisesti tutkimuksessa kiinnitettiin huomiota siihen, mikä on ruoan ympäristövaikutusten merkitys ruokaa valittaessa. Tämän lisäksi haluttiin selvittää, kuinka kuluttajien asenteet ja arvot mahdollisesti vaikuttavat ruoan valintaan. Selvittämällä kuluttajien ruoan valinnan taustalla vaikuttavia arvoja ja asenteita saatiin selville kuluttajien kasvisruokaan ja kasviproteiineihin liittämiä käsityksiä. Tutkimuksen lähestymistapa oli kvalitatiivinen tutkimus ja tutkimusmenetelmänä käytettiin teemahaastattelua. Teemahaastattelujen avulla haluttiin selvittää kasvisruokavalioon liitettäviä käsityksiä ja suhtautumista sekä näihin vaikuttavia arvoja ja asenteita. Tarkoituksena oli saada tietoa ja ymmärrystä, siitä millaisia tulkintoja ympäristöystävälliseen ruokavalioon liitetään ja miten ne vaikuttavat ruoan valintaan. Tutkimuksessa haastateltiin yhtätoista eri-ikäistä kuluttajaa. Haastattelurunko muodostettiin teoreettisen viitekehyksen pohjalta. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys rakentui ostopäätösprosessista sekä ruoan valinnan erityispiirteistä. Tällä pyrittiin tarkastelemaan ruoan valinnan kokonaisuutta ja valintahetkeen vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Tutkimuksen perusteella kasvisruokavalioon sekä uusiin kasviproteiinituotteisiin suhtaudutaan pääosin positiivisesti. Tiedon ja tietoisuuden lisääntyessä myös ympäristö näkyy aiempaa enemmän ruokaan liitettävissä arvoissa ja asenteissa. Kuitenkaan kaikkien kohdalla ajatukset ja toiminta eivät vielä kohtaa ruokaa ostaessa. Tiedon määrän kasvu ja tietoisuuden lisääntyminen ovat toisaalta luoneet myös epävarmuutta valintoihin sekä siihen, mihin tietoon voi luottaa. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella suurimpia esteitä kasvisruokavalion noudattamiselle oli sen koettu vaikeus. Liharuoat koetaan helppoina ja turvallisina vaihtoehtoina, kun taas tieto ja taito valmistaa kasvisruokia voivat olla puutteelliset. Lihan hyvä maku ja rakenne nousivat vahvasti esiin, kun pohdittiin lihan korvaamista kasviproteiineilla.
  • Hovi, Marianne (2012)
    The burden of diabetes is increasing globally as the number of people with diabetes reaches over 220 million. Over 90 per cent of these people are suffering from type 2 diabetes. This condition is primarily defined by the chronic increase in blood glucose level or hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and is usually associated with abnormal insulin secretion. Insulin resistance is a state where normal amount of blood insulin is inadequate to increase glucose uptake in the most important target tissues of insulin. Numerous reports demonstrate that oversupply of lipids leads to loss of insulin activity and the formation of type 2 diabetes. Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes comprise a family of serine/threoninekinases, which have a regulatory role in a multiple cellular processes. PKC!-isozyme activity is known to play a role in insulin resistance and therefore in type 2 diabetes. Free fatty acid (FFA) induced insulin gene function inhibition is associated with phosphoinositide dependent kinase1 (PDK1) independent phosphorylation of PKC!-isozyme in the most important insulin target tissues. Phosphorylated PKC!-isozyme causes insulinreceptor gene expression inhibition. Present study is part of a VHH-antibodies related research where the goal is to characterize these antibodies and to find out their effects on protein kinase C. VHH-antibodies are Ilama derived antibodies which contain a single heavy-chain variable domain, that is fully capable of antigen binding. In this work, we studied VHH-antibodies binding to PKC!-isozyme and its functional domains. PKC!-isozyme and its domains were produced in Sf9-insect cells. The binding was studied using Western blot and immunoprecipitation assays. In addition, the binding of 368 VHHantibodies to PKCε-isozyme's domain 2 were studied. With Western blot, it was discovered that E7-VHH-antibody binds to PKCε-isozyme full length and to domain 3. Other VHHantibodies tested in Western blot did not bind to PKCε-isozyme. Seven VHH-antibodies bound to PKCε-isozyme in immunoprecipitation. All of these VHH-antibodies bound to the full length and to domain 3, but not to other domains. In radioligand binding assays none of the VHH-antibodies bound to domain 2 that is the binding site to the endogenous PKCε-isozyme activator diacylglycerol (DAG). The results gathered with these three different methods were in line with each other. As the results gained from Western blot and immunoprecipitation show, all the VHH-antibodies, that bind to PKCε-isozyme, bind to its domain 3. With this study, we succeeded to gather new information about the binding of VHH-antibodies to PKCε-isozyme and its domains. The exact binding site has not been studied with so many VHH-antibodies before this study. Moreover, we also exploited methods that have not been used in this context before.
  • Heikkilä, Aki (2015)
    Lead molecule search is the first part of drug design. This process can be done using computerized docking of ligands into target proteins. Usually this requires expensive software and powerful computer systems specifically made for the process. There are however some programs that are available for free and can be run on home computers. The purpose of this Master's Thesis was to see how these free software can be used for the task of docking and also to create a method or a guideline for such work. Protein kinase C (PKC), a popular target for drug design, was chosen as a target of inhibitor design. PKC is part of a larger family of serine/threonine kinases and formed of 10 isoforms all with different effects on cellular functions. The large amount of related kinases and the similarities in their sequences make finding selective inhibitors a difficult process. Homology models of all PKC isoforms in three known conformations solved by x-ray diffraction (pdb: 1XJD, 2I0E and 3A8W) were created using Modeller. Into these models a set of possible ligands from the free database of molecules ZINC was docked using Autodock Vina utilizing a script created for docking multiple ligands into multiple targets. The dockings resulted in some interesting results. Six molecules were recognized as possible lead molecules for further research. None of these molecules had any patents or previous results of protein kinase inhibition connected to them. The most interesting result was the finding that coluracetam, a nootropic drug of the racetam family, might be a protein kinase inhibitor. Racetams are usually considered drugs that lead to PKC activation. It has been proposed that inhibitors may prolong the lifetime of kinases in the cells leading to increased activity in the long term. In our opinion coluracetam might prove to be a good tool for studying the complex way kinase activity is modulated. The methods and scripts used in this work will be released for free use.
  • Piipponen, Anna-Maria (2021)
    Some diets strain the environment more than others and have disadvantageous effects on population health. Ecological impact of animal protein production is often particularly high; it bears about three quarters of the greenhouse gas emissions of food. Consequently, ecological impact of plant-based protein sources, pulses and nuts, is generally considered small. The food consumption varies between different sociodemographic groups, and unhealthy diets, that are significant exposers for many lifestyle diseases, are more common in certain population groups. To improve the population health and reduce the ecological impacts of food consumption, it is important to recognize the population groups whose diets reveal disadvantageous food consumption. Utilizing Finnish loyalty card data (LoCard-data), this study investigates the sociodemographic variables related to daily consumption of three separate protein sources: meat, milk products and plant proteins. Customer responses to a questionnaire on their food consumption preferences and demographics were used. The probability of consuming different protein sources on daily basis was obtained using logistic regression model. In other words, daily consumption of meat, milk products and plant-based protein sources was explained by the following independent variables: age, sex, education, income, household size and place of residence. Statistically significant association was found between the daily meat consumption and all the independent variables in both unstandardized and standardized models. In the unstandardized model, sex was not associated with daily consumption of milk products, and income was not associated with daily consumption of plant-based protein sources. However, in the standardized model, the association of the daily milk product consumption and sex became significant, whereas the association with education and urbanization level was not statistically significant. Association of the daily plant protein consumption with income and region was insignificant. In the standardized model, the probability of daily meat consumption increased with age, income and household size or when the respondent was male or had a low level of education. The probability of daily milk product consumption increased with age, income and household size or if the respondent was female. The probability to consume plant proteins on daily basis was in association with female sex, older age, having a higher education and a bigger household. The results are largely in line with other studies. However, contrary to most of the studies, the greater age was associated with daily consumption of all the examined protein sources. Future studies are needed to examine sociodemographic factors related to consumption of milk products and plant protein sources in total, but also related to consumption of different meat and milk products. Moreover, it is important to investigate the motives, attitudes and cultural meanings of the food choices as those cannot be captured with this approach. Differences in food cultures may impact on the results as well, which increases the need for additional research.