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  • Duplouy, Lucie (2016)
    Found together in nature, the isolation of rare earth elements (REEs) has always been challenging. Their separation usually involves processes including solvent extraction, precipitation and ion exchange. Zeolites are well-known for their ion exchange capabilities that would be potentially applicable for the REEs separation. This study primarily investigated the ion exchange behavior of REEs onto several types of zeolites, namely the Ferrierite, the Faujasite and the Linde Type L. These zeolites were chosen because of their altered framework type and controllable charge density through synthesis. The commercially available zeolites were systematically characterized by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Lanthanum was chosen as the model REE. The pH-uptake behavior of La on zeolites was studied extensively. Results showed that among all our selected zeolites, only LTL gave reasonable amount of La ion exchange capacity (0.16 mmol/g at pH 3). Subsequently, the ion exchange isotherm of La on LTL was described at pH 3. The isotherm followed Langmuir type with a maximum capacity of 0.25 mmol/g. An equimolar ternary mixture of lanthanum, neodymium and dysprosium was used to test the selectivity of LTL zeolite towards different REEs. Results suggested that the uptake sequence followed La > Nd > Dy, which indicated the decrease of capacity with increased atomic number. Almost all the REEs could be leached off from the REE loaded zeolites with a pH 1.51 nitric acid solution.
  • Yliniemi, Juha-Sakari (2005)
    This thesis is a preliminary phonological description of the Tibetan-related Denjongka language of Sikkim, India. Because the language has not been much researched and the previous studies have focused on other issues than phonology, the present paper is the first of its kind. The data for this thesis was gathered in Gangtok, the capital of Sikkim, from March to May 2004. I had four language informants from four different locations in Sikkim who spoke different dialects of Denjongka. One of the informants, from whom I recorded c. 900 words and 530 sentences, was used as the main data source for the analysis. First, I will give some ethnographic background information on the people who speak Denjongka. Next, I will discuss first the segmental and then the suprasegmental phonology of the language, which were analysed much in line with American structuralism. I also used acoustic analysis enabled by the Praat-program. Eight vowel phonemes were found. The phonemic status of /E/, however, is still suspect. I present some preliminary evidence for roundedness, frontness and height assimilation among the vowels. In the interpretation adopted in this analysis, there are no diphthongs in Denjongka. Forty consonant phonemes were found: 17 plosives, 7 affricates, 5 fricatives, 5 nasals, 4 liquids and 2 approximants. Denjongka plosives and affricates have four-way aspiration/voicing distinction: voiceless aspirated, voiceless unaspirated, voiceless slightly aspirated (devoiced), and voiced unaspirated. Two voiceless nasals and two voiceless liquids were found. Two phonation types were found to be contrastive, lax/breathy and tense/creaky. Nasalisation and length in vowels are phonemic. Denjongka is an incipient tone language. Tonal phenomena, which involve mainly pitch and phonation type, are complex. Pitch is most of the time predictable from the initial consonant and the phonation type. In some cases, however, pitch is the only contrastive feature between words. The description of Denjongka in this paper differs from the traditional four-tone system, which has been used in many descriptions of Tibetan-related languages. In the four-tone system, pitch is contrastive both in the high and low register, whereas in the present analysis pitch has been established to contrast only in the high register. Lastly, the appendices include a comparative word list of the four Denjongka dialects studied in this thesis.
  • Wilde, Christopher P. (2001)
    The purpose of this research was to analyse the phonological system of the Limi dialect of Humla Bhotia. Humla Bhotia is a Tibeto-Burman language that is spoken by approximately 4000 5000 people in the far northwestern Humla province of the Kingdom of Nepal. The language has not previously been the subject of analysis. The data base for this thesis was collected on two different dialects of Humla Bhotia in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, from February to May 2000. I had three language informants who speak Humla Bhotia as their mother tongue. One of the informants speaks the Upper Humla dialect and the other two informants speak the Limi dialect. In this thesis I have concentrated on the phonology of the dialect of Limi but occasionally I also make reference to the Upper Humla dialect. The Limi data base consists of 600 words elicited in isolation, sentences where words have been checked for consonantal and pitch variation, and five texts comprising 117 sentences. Firstly, I have studied the geographical location, population and dialects of Humla Bhotia. Five dialects were identified: Limi, Upper Humla, La Yakba, Nyinba and Humli Khyampa. Information on the dialect areas is based on the accounts of seven mother tongue speakers of the language and on Nancy Levine s (1988) anthropological research of the ethnic group Nyinba. Secondly, I have analysed the phonological system of Limi from the viewpoint of American stucturalism much along the lines followed by Pike 1966 [1947] ja 1967 [1948]. In defining the prosodic elements I have also used acoustic analysis. In the Limi dialect there are 7 vowel phonemes. No vowel clusters occur within the same syllable. In this preliminary analysis 29 contrastive plosives, 8 affricates and 5 6 fricatives were found. The data also revealed 4 nasal phonemes, two rhotic phonemes, one lateral phoneme and two central approximants. Further research is however called for to check the phonemic status of these segments. Four contrastive prosodic elements were encountered: nasalisation, length, phonation type and pitch movement. There are two contrastive types of phonation: tense and lax. Many words were found with a third type of phonation, modal phonation. How modal phonation relates to the prosodic system is unclear at this stage and is therefore left for further research to determine. There are two contrastive pitch movement tonemes: a rising toneme and falling toneme. The falling toneme occurs in free variation with a level pitch contour. Rising appears to be linked with lax phonation and falling with tense phonation.
  • Flinkkilä, Eerika (2015)
    The objective of this review is to summarize the current scientific evidence on the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal infection and immune response on the offspring's risk for mental disorders. Studies were searched from PubMed database with the following keywords: Mental Disorders AND Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects AND Infection AND Inflammation. Prenatal exposure to maternal influenza appears to increase the offspring's risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, although the studies are not fully consistent. Prenatal exposure to maternal fever seems to be related with elevated autism risk in the offspring. No replicated findings of an association between prenatal infectious exposure and other mental disorders exist. Evidence for the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal infection on risk for mental disorders exists for several different infections, and it is likely that the genetic liability to these disorders operate in conjunction with the exposure. Therefore, genetically sensitive study designs are needed.
  • Huhtala, Ea (2015)
    Objectives. Exposure to maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in the offspring, ranging from restrictions on fetal growth to long-term psychological impairments. Growing evidence suggests that prenatal maternal stress may also play a role in the onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, results from previous studies have not been uniform and methodological shortcomings may have impacted the findings. The aim of this study is to examine whether exposure to prenatal maternal stress is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in the children, and whether the associations are timing-specific and independent of postnatal maternal and paternal stress. Methods. The current study sample consisted of 2,304 mother-child dyads participating in the PREDO project who were recruited from maternity clinics at 12 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation. The women filled out a reliable and valid stress self-report questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), every two weeks throughout pregnancy, a total of 14 times. Child ADHD symptoms were reported by the mothers at child age of 1–5 years with the Conners' 10-item scale, concurrently with a repeated assessment of maternal stress. Paternal stress was evaluated with the PSS at child age of six months. The associations between prenatal stress and child ADHD symptoms were analyzed statistically using multiple linear regression, controlling for multiple sociodemographic and perinatal confounders and for postnatal levels of maternal and paternal stress. Results and conclusions. Prenatal maternal stress was associated with significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms in the offspring. Mid- to late-pregnancy stress had the strongest associations with child ADHD symptoms, while early-pregnancy stress showed a slightly weaker, yet significant, effect. The associations between prenatal stress and child ADHD symptoms were partially mediated by postnatal maternal stress. Nevertheless, even after controlling for postnatal maternal stress, the independent effects of prenatal stress remained significant. Adjusting for postnatal paternal stress had no impact on the effect sizes. The sex of the child moderated the association between first trimester prenatal stress and child ADHD symptoms, so that prenatal stress during the first trimester independently predicted higher levels of ADHD symptoms among boys, whereas, among girls, no significant associations were found for early-pregnancy stress after postnatal maternal stress was accounted for. Overall, the current findings are in line with the fetal programming hypothesis and highlight the importance of prenatal environmental factors in the etiology of childhood ADHD.
  • Viitaharju, Janika (2020)
    OBJECTIVES. The association between prenatal maternal stress and adverse health and developmental offspring outcomes has been long known but explanations for this association remain insufficient. One of the most recent suggestions is gut microbiota. Only a few studies with many limitations have concentrated on the association between prenatal stress and offspring gut microbiota. The aim of this study is to conduct a large scale study with follow-up covering the whole infancy, and to test whether the association differs between girls and boys. METHODS. This study’s sample consists of 825 mothers and their infants from HELMi cohort. Prenatal maternal stress is measured with self-report questionnaire, and infant gut microbiota from fecal samples. 16S rRNA sequencing is used in analyzing the microbiota. RESULTS. High stress group had lower alpha-diversity than low stress group at 3 weeks. No differences were found in richness and beta-diversity. Several phylum, family, and genus level bacteria were associated with prenatal stress. Regarding sex differences, no differences were found in richness or in alpha- or beta-diversity. However, in phylum, family, and genus level bacterial relative abundances, more associations were found in boys than in girls. CONCLUSION. Overall the findings in this study were contradicting compared to previous findings. There was indication that there is no clear association between prenatal stress and infant overall microbiota composition. Also, the association regarding bacterial abundances could decline over age, and the association might be stronger in boys. However, not very consistent conclusions can be made based on research conducted so far.
  • Hinnelä, Kaisa (2015)
    Prenatal screening for fetal abnormalities is part of prenatal care in Finland. Participation is voluntary, but most pregnant women choose to take part. Earlier studies have indicated imperfections in the way pregnant women are being informed about the screening process. This study examines the experiences of women who have been offered further examinations after an initial abnormal screening result. The study population consists of 168 women who attended further examination appointments at the Women's Hospital in Helsinki during autumn of 2014. Data were collected using questionnaires that contained a mixture of closed- and open-ended questions. The results show that the information given at the initial screening appointment is often unclear or insufficient. Many women are not aware of the risks and possible negative outcomes of participating in prenatal screening. Providing understandable and thorough information at every point in the screening process is essential, especially when informing a pregnant woman about a possible fetal abnormality.
  • Rintanen, Antti (2019)
    Pitkälle edenneen nivelrikon vakiintunut hoito on tekonivelleikkaus. Tekonivelinfektiot ovat harvinaisia mutta kalliita sekä inhimillisesti raskaita tekonivelleikkauksen komplikaatioita, jotka aiheuttavat merkittäviä kansanterveydellisiä kustannuksia. Tekonivelinfektioille tunnetaan useita riskitekijöitä. Potilaan ihon kunnon merkitystä leikkaushetkellä tekonivelinfektioiden esiintyvyyteen on tutkittu vain vähän. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli selvittää tekonivelpotilaan ihon kunnon vaikutusta tekonivelinfektioiden esiintyvyyteen ja miettiä voisiko infektioriskiä arvioida preoperatiivisesti niinkin yksinkertaisella keinolla kuin huolellisella ihon kunnon arvioinnilla. Tutkimukseen kerättiin kaikki Helsingin ja Uudenmaan Sairaanhoitopiirin tekonivelyksikössä leikatut lonkan ja polven tekonivelpotilaat. Tutkimukseen valittiin 1671 potilasta. Potilaiden ihon kunto arvioitiin prospektiivisesti leikkaussalissa preoperatiivisesti. Potilaista kerättiin tiedot tunnetuista tekonivelinfektioiden riskitekijöistä potilasasiakirjoista. Potilaita seurattiin noin viiden vuoden ajan. Tekonivelinfektio toimi päätemuuttujana ja se diagnosoitiin sekä määriteltiin kansainvälisten kriteerien mukaisesti. Potilaiden ihon kunto luokiteltiin alakategorioihin ennalta määriteltyjen kriteerien mukaisesti. Potilailla, joilla todettiin normaalista poikkeava ihon kunto, todettiin 3-4 kertaa suurempi riski saada syvä tekonivelinfektio sekä 33% suurentunut riski saada pinnallinen tekonivelinfektio 5 vuoden seurannan aikana. Huono ihon kunto lisäksi tekonivelinfektioiden riskiä erityisesti miehillä jopa 11-kertaiseksi naisiin verrattuna. Löydös on kliinisesti merkittävä ja mahdollistaa yksikertaisen ja halvan tavan löytää merkittävästi kohonneessa tekonivelinfektioriskissä olevat potilaat preoperatiivisesti. Tätä tietoa hyväksikäyttämällä voidaan yksiköissä vähentää tekonivelinfektioihin liittyviä kustannuksia ja inhimillistä kärsimystä. Se miten miten näiden kohonneessa riskissä olevien potilaiden infektioriskiä voidaan laskea normaalitasolle jää myöhemmissä tutkimuksissa selvitettäväksi.
  • Savolainen, Jyri (2019)
    Aorttaläpän ahtauma on yleisin sydämen läppäsairaus länsimaissa. Väestön yhä ikääntyessä potilaiden määrä kasvaa merkittävästi tulevina vuosina. Lääkkeellistä hoitoa aorttaläpän ahtaumaan tai sen estoon ei ole. Aorttaläppä voidaan korvata biologisella tekoläpällä avoleikkauksessa ja nykyisin valtimoteitse asennettavia TAVI-läppiä asennetaan enenevissä määrin suuren leikkausriskin potilaille. Tässä retrospektiivisessä kansallisessa monikeskustutkimuksessa kerättiin tiedot 721 potilaasta, joille oli asennettu avokirurgisesti ja isoloidusti biologinen aorttaläppäproteesi. Potilaiden taustatiedot kerättiin neljästä suomalaisesta yliopistosairaalasta osana CAREAVR-projektia (1). Tämän tutkielman tarkoitus oli selvittää potilaiden preoperatiivisen munuaisfunktion vaikutusta ennalta valittuihin päätetapahtumiin, joita olivat uusi eteisvärinä, merkittävät verenvuodot, aivoinfarkti tai TIA-kohtaus sekä kuolleisuus. Aiempaa tutkimustietoa munuaisfunktion vaikutuksista kuolleisuuteen ja muihin päätetapahtumiin aorttaläppäleikkauspotilailla on ollut saatavilla niukasti, ja tutkimusasetelmat ovat olleet suurelta osin puutteellisia mm. seurannan järjestymisen osalta. Tutkimusasetelmassa potilaat jaettiin preoperatiivisen munuaiskerästen suodatusnopeuden (eGFR) perusteella kahteen ryhmään käyttäen jakoa eGFR<60 ml/min ja eGFR≥60 ml/min. Näiden kahden potilasryhmän taustatiedot taulukoitiin systemaattisesti. Seuranta-aika kuolleisuudelle oli 8,4 vuotta (kvartiilivälin pituus [IQR] 6,5–10,3 vuotta) ja muille päätetapahtumille 4,7 vuotta (IQR 2,9–6,9 vuotta). Heikentynyt suodatusnopeus eGFR<60 ml/min lisäsi yhden muuttujan mallissa selvästi kuolleisuutta, hieman yli 70 % pitkäaikaisseurannassa. Eroa näytti tulevan jo ensimmäisinä kuukausina leikkauksen jälkeen ja tästä eteenpäin hiljalleen lisääntyen (HR 1,709, 95% LV 1,342–2,175, p<0,0001). Preoperatiivinen eGFR ei ennakoinut muiden päätetapahtumien ilmaantuvuutta.
  • Savander, Monica (2016)
    Tutkielman aiheena on pre pack -menettelyiden soveltuvuus suomalaiseen konkurssioikeuteen. Pre pack-menettelyllä tarkoitetaan liiketoiminnan kauppaa, josta sovitaan ennen konkurssi- tai saneerausmenettelyn aloittamista. Järjestelyn yhteydessä koko velallisen liiketoiminta, tai ainakin huomattava osa siitä myydään ulkopuoliselle, kolmannelle osapuolelle heti konkurssiin asettamisen jälkeen. Pre pack -menettelyt ovat yksi saneerauskonkurssin muoto, jotka ovat saaneet esimerkkinsä Iso-Britanniasta ja Yhdysvalloista, missä pre pack -menettelyt ovat säänneltyjä insolvenssimenettelyitä. Suomen konkurssilaki ei sisällä pre pack -menettelyä tai muita ennen konkurssia tapahtuvia menettelyitä koskevia säännöksiä. Suomalaiset insolvenssialan toimijat ovat kuitenkin soveltaneet ja käyttäneet pre pack -menettelyitä tai niiden variaatioita 1990-luvulta alkaen. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on kartoittaa minkälaisia pre pack -menettelyitä taikka niiden variaatioita Suomessa sovelletaan ja systematisoida minkälaisia ongelmia pre pack -menettelyitä toteutettaessa on kohdattu. Tutkimusta varten on toteutettu empiirinen tutkimus eli insolvenssialan eri toimijoiden haastattelu. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa tuodaan esille pre pack -menettelyn toteuttamisen edellytykset ja hyödyt verrattuna likvidaatiokonkurssiin. Toinen tutkimuksen keskeinen tarkoitus on analysoida pre pack -menettelyiden soveltuvuutta suhteessa konkurssilakiin sekä systematisoida sitä, miten pre pack -menettely haastaa konkurssilain tavoitteita. Tutkimuksessa otetaan kantaa pre pack -menettelyissä mahdollisesti aiheutuvaan pesänhoitajan esteellisyyteen, joka voi aiheutua helposti pesänhoitajaehdokkaan osallistuessa pre pack -neuvotteluihin. Tämän lisäksi tutkimuksessa käydään läpi miten pre pack -menettelyt sopivat konkurssilain arvoperiaatteisiin, velkojien yhdenvertaisuuden periaatteeseen sekä läpinäkyvyyden periaatteeseen. Tutkimuksessa käsitellään myös pre pack -menettelyiden kannalta läheiselle myymisen problematiikkaa; käyvän hinnan määrittelemistä, kun velallisyhtiön liiketoiminta myydään toimivana kokonaisuutena sekä velkojien päätöksentekomenettelyä liiketoiminnan myynnistä. Tutkimuksen lopussa ehdotetaan, miten mahdollinen esteellisyyskysymysongelma voitaisiin ratkaista de lege ferenda, jotta pre pack -menettelyt toimisivat tehokkaammin. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa esitetään kannanotto realisaatiosaneerauksen käyttömahdollisuudesta pre pack -menettelyiden toteuttamiseksi. Tutkimus osoittaa, että pre pack -menettelyt ovat sallittuja nykyisen konkurssilain mukaan, mikäli sen pakottavat vaatimukset otetaan huomioon. Vaikka pre pack -menettelyt madaltavat likvidaation ja rehabilitaation erottelua insolvenssioikeudessa, ne eivät ole järjestelmänvastaisia.
  • Albadry, Dalal (2014)
    Bierol, tetramer lignin model compound was synthesized from guaicylglycerol-ß-guaiacyl ether (Erol) by oxidative dimerization using Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) / H2O2 biomimetic oxidation system. Starting material Erol, a (β-O-4) type lignin model compound was synthesized in 80% overall yield in six steps from acetovanillone. The reactions progresses were associated with thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the purity of each product was obtained by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis techniques. The 1H and 13C NMR characteristics of the resulting products were studied using 1H and 13C NMR spectra as well as 2D NMR, in particular (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence) HSQC. The objectives of this series of investigation was three-fold: (a) to synthesize dimeric lignin model compounds (ß-O-4), (b) to synthesize tetrameric lignin model compounds, (c) to study 1H and 13C NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopic characteristics of compounds. The research conducted in this project was successful as the model compounds were synthesized and characterized. Accordingly, the results were discussed in terms of signal assignments that confirmed the molecules structures. The general knowledge of lignin, e.g. chemical structure of lignin, the synthetic methods for synthesizing (ß-O-4) type model compounds, the different methods for lignin oxidative degradation and the various methods of lignin analysis were reviewed.
  • Haapalainen, Joonatan (2022)
    Traditional 2D cell cultivating vessels and experimental models cannot often simulate natural chemical and physical environment of different cell types. For example, availability of oxygen, chemical gradients, messaging molecules, fluid pressure, flow and surface topography are factors that may affect significantly in cell differentiation, growth, cellular structure, and metabolism. Modular bioreactors like Quasi-Vivo® -system can be used to simulate these factors. Liposomes are particles of phospholipid bilayer with aqueous space enclosed within. They can be modified in numerous ways, like loading them with hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules, changing their transition temperature or coating them according to different needs. Doxorubicin is effective and widely used cytostatic agent, but when administered as a free drug it has often severe side-effects, like cardiotoxicity. Goal of this thesis is to determine appropriate manufacturing parameters and verify adequate shelf-life of ICG-Doxorubicin liposomes, that they are applicable for future in vitro experiments. Then survival of HepG2 cell line under flow in Quasi-Vivo®-equipment is determined, after which A549 and HepG2 will be then combined into one two-cell model. Finally, a simple illumination experiment in this cell model with previously made liposomes is conducted, and the effect in whole system is examined. Using protocol presented in this thesis it is possible to produce successfully and repeatedly liposomes with both ICG and doxorubicin encapsulation over 70%. Their shelf-life was at least 14 days when stored in 4°C protected from light. This was determined to be sufficient for in vitro testing. Cultivating A549 and HepG2 cell lines combined in the same system with shared media and fluid flow conditions was successful. Neither of the cell lines show significant difference in viability when compared to static control. When light-activating liposomes are administered to the system and then illuminated, from preliminary results we can see significant difference in drug effect. Both illuminated chambers and off-target chambers connected via Quasi-Vivo® show increased suppression, which shows promise that this in vitro model would be useful for future experiments.
  • Featherstone, Graham Anthony (2016)
    In this thesis, the synthesis of titanium dioxide and sodium doped titanium dioxide nanofibers was undertaken through the use of the relatively new methods of solution blow spinning and electroblowing. These techniques are initially compared to other modern methods of nanofiber synthesis such as electrospinning, drawing, melt spinning and dry spinning. These techniques are evaluated based on production rate and the diameter of the formed nanofibers. This comparison shows that electroblowing and solution blow spinning are efficient high throughput methods for the formation of unordered nanofiber mats with diameters similar to those obtained in electrospinning. The formation of titanium dioxide nanofibers due to its role as a catalyst was of particular interest. Solution blow spinning and electroblowing are methods which employ the use of a high-velocity gas in order to stretch and elongate a viscous polymeric solution. While solution blow spinning relies entirely on the use of high-velocity gas, electroblowing additionally charges the elongated nanofibers which aids in the collection of the spun fibers, and this also affects the morphology of the final nanofibers. Inorganic nanofibers are obtained by adding a titanium dioxide precursor to the polymeric solution, which, upon calcination, forms solid titanium dioxide nanofibers. Dopants may also be added to the solution which allows for the formation of doped titanium dioxide nanofibers. Various solution and process parameters were studied in-depth in order to develop a full understanding of their effects on the diameters of the synthesized nanofibers. These parameters include the pressure of the gas, the feed-rate of the polymeric solution through the needle tip, the voltage applied to the needle tip, the concentration of the polymer and the distance from needle to the collector. After process and solution optimization, production rates of 0.39 g/h and 0.55 g/h were obtained for the titanium dioxide and sodium doped titanium dioxide nanofibers, respectively. With these optimized parameters, the average titanium dioxide fiber diameters measures 182 nm while the average sodium doped titanium dioxide diameters measured 184 nm. Crystallization studies were also conducted on the calcinated nanofibers. Both high-temperature in situ XRD studies as well as room temperature measurements on calcinated samples were done in order to cross-compare results and eliminate any errors associated with each individual method. The titanium dioxide nanofibers demonstrated a very defined crystallinity in which the fibers shifted from anatase to a predominantly rutile phase between the temperatures of 410 to 1050 °C. However, the sodium doped fibers demonstrated a mixed phase crystallinity in which no crystal structure was discernible.
  • Nyström, Martina (2014)
    This study looks at how national readiness policies to implement Reductions from Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and carbon enhancement (REDD+) in Peru reflect previous governance modes of international forest governance. While tropical developing countries have been eager to pursue REDD+ readiness activities there is a gap in knowledge of how these policies reflect and link to previous content areas of international forest governance with current research focusing on experiences from pilot projects, the role of REDD+ in international climate negotiations and the mechanism’s potential risks and opportunities. Following McDermott’s (2014) categorization of modern international forest governance into three distinct but overlapping eras this case study analyses how sustainable forest management (SFM), illegal logging and governance are incorporated in Peru’s key national readiness policy papers, the R-PP and FIP, and by doing so explores some of the strengths and weaknesses of these documents and the ongoing national REDD+ process. The data consist of two key national readiness policy papers, the Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) submitted to the Forest Carbon Partnership Fund and the Forest Investment Plan (FIP) submitted to the Climate Investment Funds. Due to delays in the preparation of the national REDD+ strategy it was not included in the data. In order to gain more nuanced information on the ongoing REDD+ process in Peru seven semi-structured interviews were done with key informants in Lima during March-April in 2014. Both the documents and interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings of this study reveal that SFM and principles of good governance are included in the policy papers as important intervention areas while illegal logging and forest law enforcement are largely overlooked. However, the ways how to achieve SFM and ‘good governance’ are vague and links to other sectors and national development plans are not explicit, which raises the question of the effectiveness of planned interventions. While REDD+ is figured to play an important role in international climate negotiations, the results of this study show that more detail need to be given to assess and strengthen the links to other initiatives and mechanisms in order for REDD+ to achieve efficient, effective and equitable outcomes.
  • Vilmi, Hanna (2020)
    Tämä tutkielma esittelee prepositioiden käyttöä varhaiskeskiaikaisissa latinankielisissä asiakirjois-sa, jotka ovat peräisin Toscanan alueelta Italiasta ja ajoittuvat 700-luvun alkuun. Työssä sel-vitetään, missä määrin prepositioiden käyttö noudattaa klassisen latinan perinteitä ja toisaalta millaisia italian kielen piirteitä siinä on jo nähtävissä. Aineisto on koottu L. Schiaparellin vuosina 1929–1933 editoimasta kokoelmasta Codice diplomatico longobardo, josta on valittu 20 asiakirjaa. Nämä kuuluvat vanhimpiin kyseisellä alueella säilyneistä asiakirjoista. Tutkimus keskittyy asiakirjojen vapaasti muotoiltuihin osiin, joissa kirjureiden käyttämän kielen variaatiot tulevat parhaiten esiin. Asiakirjojen kieli on myöhäislatinaa, mutta kirjurit pyrkivät noudattamaan klassisen latinan perinteitä. Tulokset jaotellaan semanttisten roolien perusteella sen mukaan, mitä prepositioita kirjurit ovat käyttäneet kyseisen roolin ilmaisemiseen. Aineiston perusteella kyseisen ajan asiakirjoissa käytettävät prepositiot voi jakaa karkeasti kolmeen ryhmään, joista ensimmäisen muodostavat ne prepositiot, jotka kuuluvat klassiseen latinaan ja joiden käyttö on säilynyt samantapaisena italiaan. Näitä ovat esimerkiksi sijainti-ilmaisuissa in ja ad sekä kohdeilmaisuissa contra, liittolaisilmaisuissa cum ja lähdettä kuvaava de. Toiseen ryhmään sisältyvät ne prepositiot, joiden käyttötapa muuttuu selvästi verrattuna klassiseen latinaan. Näitä ovat esimerkiksi super, joka vaikuttaa tässä aineistossa korvaavan preposition post sekä iuxta, jota ei enää tässä aineistossa käytetä sijainti-ilmaisuissa. Kolmannessa ryhmässä ovat ne prepositiot, jotka kuuluvat klassisen latinan sijaan italiaan. Tällainen on esimerkiksi da, jota käytetään enimmäkseen lähdeilmaisuissa, joissa se vaihtelee preposition a kanssa. Tutkimuksen perusteella 700-luvun alussa Toscanan alueen asiakirjalatinassa käytetään prepositioita vielä monin paikoin klassisen perinteen mukaisesti, mutta niiden käyttötavoissa on jo nähtävissä odotettua runsaammin romaanisten kielten piirteitä.
  • Kaidesoja, Milla (2017)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on kategorisoida ja analysoida suomea äidinkielenään puhuvien englannin kielen ajanilmauksissa tekemiä prepositiovirheitä. Ajanilmauksissa esiintyvien prepositiovirheiden yksityiskohtaisen tarkastelun lisäksi kategorisoin kaikki tutkimassani aineistossa esiintyvät prepositiovirheet luokkiin paikanilmaukset, ajanilmaukset ja muut ilmaukset. Tämän lisäksi jaan kunkin kategorian prepositiovirheet sen mukaan ovatko ne substituutiovirheitä, additiovirheitä vai omissiovirheitä. Substituutiovirheet viittaavat virheisiin, jossa käytetään kontekstiin nähden väärää prepositiota. Additiovirheet viittaavat virheisiin, joissa on lisätty prepositio kontekstiin, johon se ei kuulu. Omissiovirheet taas viittaavat virheisiin, joissa prepositio on virheellisesti jätetty pois. Ajanilmauksissa esiintyviä prepositiovirheitä tarkastelen lähemmin erittelemällä niissä useaan otteeseen esiintyvät virhetyypit sekä analysoimalla mahdollisia syitä virheiden esiintymisen taustalla. Tutkittavana materiaalina on 90 YKI-korpuksesta poimittua esseetä, jotka ovat vaikeustasoltaan keskitasoa (asteikolla aloittelija-keskitasoinen-edistynyt). Jyväskylän yliopiston ylläpitämä YKI-korpus koostuu englannin Yleisen kielitutkinnon vuosina 2010–2015 suorittaneiden kokelaiden koesuorituksista. Tutkielma on soveltavaa kielentutkimusta ja osa vieraan kielen oppimista tutkivaa tieteenalaa (Second Language Acquisition). Metodologiani nojaa virheanalyysin (Error Analysis) metodologiaan eli tutkielmani vaiheet ovat virheiden tunnistaminen esseistä, virheiden luokittelu ja virheiden mahdollisen syyn analysoiminen. Toista kieltä äidinkielenään puhuvan verrokkiryhmän puuttuessa kokelaiden äidinkielen vaikutuksesta virheisiin ei voi tehdä varmoja päätelmiä, mutta perustuen tiettyihin suomen sijapäätteiden ja englannin prepositioiden välisiin vastaavuuksiin teen tutkielmassani päätelmiä siitä, mitkä virheet mahdollisesti ovat näitä nk. interferenssivirheitä. Tuloksien mukaan substituutiovirheet ovat yleisin virhetyyppi tarkasteltaessa kaikkia prepositiovirheitä sekä tarkasteltaessa paikanilmauksissa esiintyviä prepositiovirheitä. Tämä tulos oli odotettavissa aiemman tutkimuksen perusteella. Yllättävää oli kuitenkin huomata, että ajanilmausten kohdalla substituutiovirheet, additiovirheet ja omissiovirheet olivat suurin piirtein yhtä yleisiä. Ajanilmauksista löytyi muutamia toistuvia virhetyyppejä, kuten preposition lisääminen temporaalisen substantiivilausekkeen eteen (kuten *on next week) sekä preposition poisjättäminen ilmaistaessa päivämäärää. Joidenkin virhetyyppien mahdollista yhteyttä kokelaiden äidinkieleen ei voinut määritellä, minkä johdosta interferenssivirheiden määrä jäi hieman epäselväksi. Riippuen määrittelytavasta interferenssivirheitä löytyy ajanilmauksista joko 19 % tai 55 %. Näistä kahdesta tulos 55 % on lähellä aiemmissa tutkimuksissa saatuja tuloksia.
  • Leivo, Marcus Johannes (2020)
    Problems which ask to compute an optimal solution to its instances are called optimization problems. The maximum satisfiability (MaxSAT) problem is a well-studied combinatorial optimization problem with many applications in domains such as cancer therapy design, electronic markets, hardware debugging and routing. Many problems, including the aforementioned ones, can be encoded in MaxSAT. Thus MaxSAT serves as a general optimization paradigm and therefore advances in MaxSAT algorithms translate to advances in solving other problems. In this thesis, we analyze the effects of MaxSAT preprocessing, the process of reformulating the input instance prior to solving, on the perceived costs of solutions during search. We show that after preprocessing most MaxSAT solvers may misinterpret the costs of non-optimal solutions. Many MaxSAT algorithms use the found non-optimal solutions in guiding the search for solutions and so the misinterpretation of costs may misguide the search. Towards remedying this issue, we introduce and study the concept of locally minimal solutions. We show that for some of the central preprocessing techniques for MaxSAT, the perceived cost of a locally minimal solution to a preprocessed instance equals the cost of the corresponding reconstructed solution to the original instance. We develop a stochastic local search algorithm for MaxSAT, called LMS-SLS, that is prepended with a preprocessor and that searches over locally minimal solutions. We implement LMS-SLS and analyze the performance of its different components, particularly the effects of preprocessing and computing locally minimal solutions, and also compare LMS-SLS with the state-of-the-art SLS solver SATLike for MaxSAT.p
  • Partovi, Fariba (2021)
    Utilization of pesticides in the modern agriculture is often indispensable for gaining good crops. However, pesticides are abundantly being used in too hight quantities which leads to potential health risks for the consumers. Currently there are no pre-screening methods for monitoring the levels of pesticides in food, but only a negligible small percentage of all goods are being tested using the laborious standardized methods. This master’s thesis is an investigation, that was carried out in the wet laboratory of KARSA Oy Ltd, on 10 different pesticides: Glyphosate, Thiabendazole, 2-phenylphenol, Chlorpyrifos, Fludioxonil, Chlormequat, Bupirimate, Diflubenzuron, Fenpyrazamine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Pesticides were ionized using straight radiation chemical ionization (SRCI) in positive and negative modes without any added reagent and also using bromide, nitrate, acetonylacetone and acetone as reagents. Charged target molecules and adducts were detected using Thermo fisher Iontrap/Orbitrap (LTQ Orbitrap velos pro upgraded) mass spectrometer. After the initial method development and scoping measurements pesticides were studied both individually and as a mixture of all 10 pesticides. Sample solutions were first injected with syringe so that the solvent and targets evaporated at the same time inside the desorber heating block of SRCI inlet. In these syringe injection measurements, the desorber temperature was set at 150 °C. Mass range at 125–750 has been used for all the pesticides except for Chlormequat (100–750). After the syringe injection measurements, the mixture of 10 pesticides was analysed by TCM filters. Target solutions of 1 µl volume were placed on filters and after the solvents had evaporated the filters were heated from room temperature to 245°C using the same setup as with the syringe injections. In conclusion, with syringe injections 7 pesticides out of 10 were detected using positive and negative mode without any added reagent. The highest target intensities were recorded from TCM filters. Overall, applying the SRCI-Orbitrap setup for pesticide pre-screening from target solutions resulted in the detection of 9 pesticides out of 10.
  • Sartanen, Juha (2016)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin preseniliini 1 ja preseniliini 2 –geenien merkitystä seeprakala-alkioiden kehityksessä ensimmäisten kolmen kehityspäivän ajan. Geenien translaatio estettiin morfolino-oligonukleotidi-injektiolla, jonka jälkeen alkioiden somiittien määrää, sydämen sykettä ja aivojen kokoa seurattiin sekä tutkittiin Notch1a mRNA:n ilmentyminen kunakin päivänä in situ hybridisaatiolla. Tässä työssä ei huomattu eroja ryhmien välillä somiittien määrässä, aivojen koossa eikä sykkeessä varhaiskehitysken aikana. Sen sijaan saatiin viitteitä Notch1a:n ekspression kasvusta preseniliini 1 morfanteilla ja päinvastoin ekspression laskusta preseniliini 2 morfanteilla. Hiirimalleilla ja seeprakaloilla saadut erilaiset tulokset preseniliinien kehityksellisestä merkityksestä antavat viitteitä preseniliini 2:n suuremmasta osuudesta seeprakalojen kehityksessä.
  • Pesonen-Wen, Huifang (2022)
    The increasing research on foreign language teaching anxiety (FLTA) illustrates the emotional and professional challenge that preservice EFL teachers experience. This study investigates the sources and the level of FLTA which is experienced by preservice EFL teachers in Finland. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1) determine the severity of FLTA among preservice EFL teachers in Finland through applying the questionnaire design of foreign language teaching anxiety scale (FLTAS); (2) identify other potential sources of FLTA among preservice EFL teachers through analysing the open-end question. Explanatory theories which relate to FLTA are scrutinized. Research background of preservice EFL teachers’ education in Finland is described. In this mixed-method research, 32 preservice EFL teachers with different cultural backgrounds residing in Helsinki area have participated in this study by completing the questionnaire. The findings of this study show that the level of FLTA among preservice EFL teachers is moderately high in this research. FLTA demonstrates a high correlation with the factor of fear of negative evaluation and lack of students’ interest and the length of teaching experience. The length of teaching experience is found to mitigate FLTA. This research also finds that Finnish-speaking preservice EFL teacher experience the highest FLTA comparing with native English speaking and other international preservice teachers. In addition, after analysing the qualitative data, this study found other sources of FLTA such as incapacity of solving disciplinary problems and unfamiliarity with Finnish educational daily practice. Finally, this study offers suggestions to address the FLTA. Limitations and further research on the topic are also indicated.