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  • Iljin, Arto (2023)
    Changes in environmental and psychological factors have greatly influenced human eating behavior, leading to increasing rates of overeating. In the long-term continuous overeating causes the body to accumulate an excess amount of body fat tissue, which is a leading factor in the development of obesity and obesity related diseases that reduce the quality of life. Despite the available treatment options, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide. In avoiding obesity and obesity-related diseases, it is crucial to understand the outside factors which lead to obesity and the mechanisms which regulate body energy balance. The brain's serotonin system seems to play a significant role in regulating both energy balance and the tendency that promotes an overeating type of eating behavior. The properties of psychedelics to affect human's emotional state and thus modulate behavioral patterns through the brain's serotonin system has aroused interest in psychedelics for their possibilities in treating eating behaviors that promote overeating which results in obesity. This study aimed to examine the dose-dependent effect of three different psychedelics on eating behavior in mice and evaluate their potential drug therapy properties in overeating indulged obesity. In total, 16 female mice were trained to perform in an operant setting used in behavioral experiments measuring appetite and motivation for food reinforcers. The psychedelic-derived changes were observed in mice's eating behaviors by reward deliveries received during the trials. The examined psychedelics (lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (PSI), and 25CN-NBOH) showed no statistically significant changes in the mice's eating behavior in terms of appetite and motivation. However, while statistically non-significant, some changes in hunger and motivation were observed in the mice, for example, in days followed by the dosage of the psychedelics. These results indicate no effect on appetite and food motivation by the studied psychedelics.
  • Pohtola, Mia (2016)
    Tutkimuksen kohteena on psyykkisten häiriöiden luokitteluun tarkoitetun yhdysvaltalaisen diagnostiikkamanuaali Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders:n kolmas painos (DSM-III). Vuonna 1980 julkaistu manuaali päätti symbolisesti psykoanalyyttisen valtakauden Yhdysvalloissa ja pyrki siirtämään tieteenalaa selkeästi osaksi muuta lääketiedettä aikana, jolloin tieteenala eli kriisikautta ulkoisten paineiden ja sisäisen sekasorron vuoksi. DSM-III:n työryhmän johtaja Robert L. Spitzerin johdolla annettiin kuva manuaalista, joka nojaisi psykoanalyysin pitkän valtakauden jälkeen empiiriseen tutkimusdataan ja biologispohjaisen tieteenteon perinteeseen. Tarkastelen tutkimuksessa tieteenalan reaktiota manuaalin tuomaan isoon ja aatteellisesti yksipuoliseen muutokseen kahden alan tunnetuimman kausijulkaisun avulla: The American Journal of Psychiatry ja The Archives of General Psychiatry. Kummassakin lehdessä keskityn vain Letters to the Editor –palstaan, joka voidaan nähdä kausijulkaisuissa eräänlaisena mielipiteiden keskustelukenttänä. Seuraamalla, taustoittamalla ja analysoimalla palstan kirjoituksia pystyn hahmottamaan kattavan kuvan 1980-luvun alun kriittisistä reaktioista. Tutkielma nojaa Letters to the Editor –palstan lisäksi runsaaseen alkuperäiskirjallisuuteen, joka koostuu pääasiassa artikkeleista tutkielman kahdesta päälehdestä. Metodinani on vertaileva kvalitatiivinen tutkimusmenetelmä, ja etsin kirjoitusten tavoitteita lähiluvun tekstianalyysimenetelmiä hyödyntäen. Katson molempien lehtien Letters to the Editor –palstan avulla, mitkä manuaalia koskevat aiheet nousivat esiin. Kysyn alkuperäislähteiden valossa, miksi DSM-III herätti aikanaan keskustelua tiedeyhteisön sisällä ja mitä keskustelu mahdollisesti kertoo meille itse DSM-III manuaalin uudesta luonteesta. Palstan aikalaiskirjoitukset voivat näin raottaa meille arvokkaita näkökulmia DSM–manuaaleihin kohdistuvaan kokonaiskeskusteluun. Tutkimus osoittaa, ettei tiedeyhteisö ottanut manuaalia annettuna vaan suhtautui myös kriittisesti sen uudistuksiin. Lähdeaineistosta nousseiden kirjoitusten mukaan manuaalilla koettiin olevan poliittisia tavoitteita, manuaalin työstämismalli koettiin mielivaltaiseksi ja uuden manuaalin linjaukset herättivät huolta tieteenalan sisällä sen vaikutuksesta alan tieteellisyyteen. DSM-III näyttääkin olleen ennen kaikkea vastaus sen oman ajan haasteisiin ja sen taustalla vaikutti American Psychiatric Association:sta asti voimakas halu asemoida psykiatria muun lääketieteen viitekehykseen. Tutkielma nostaa esiin myös uuden kysymyksen DSM-III:n tieteenfilosofisesta taustasta ja psykiatrian tutkijakunnan kanssa muodostuneesta ristiriidasta koskien manuaalin tieteellisiä ihanteita.
  • Laaksonen, Tarja (2013)
    Tausta: Masennus koskettaa monia, sillä vuoden aikana siitä kärsii 5 % aikuisista ja masennukseen liittyviä itsemurhia tehdään suunnilleen kaksi vuoden jokaisena päivänä. Masentuneen maailmaa kuvaa alentunut toimintakyky, kielteiset ajatusmallit, itsearvostuksen puute ja osallisuuden kokemuksen menettäminen, jotka kaikki aiheuttavat merkittävää subjektiivista kärsimystä. Mielenterveyskuntoutuksella tarkoitetaan oireiden helpottamisen lisäksi kuntoutujien työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistämistä. Psykodraama on ryhmä- ja draamaterapian muoto, jota on käytetty mielenterveyskuntoutuksessa kolme vuosikymmentä. Psykodraamassa ollaan kiinnostuneita yksilön ja hänen ympäristönsä sosiaalisista suhteista ja näihin suhteisiin liittyvistä kokemuksista. Sosiaalinen vuorovaikutus nähdään keskeisenä osana ihmisen olemassaoloa, sillä yksilö kehittyy ympäristön ja yksilön katkeamattomassa vuoropuhelussa. Psykodraamassa osallistujien subjektiivisia kokemuksia, ajatuksia, rooleja ja tapahtumia tuotetaan konkreettisesti näkyviin draaman avulla. Metodit ja tutkimuskysymykset: Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan psykodraamakuntoutukseen osallistuneiden viiden vaikeasti masentuneen naisen kuntoutuskokemuksia tulkitsevan fenomenologisen analyysin (IPA) avulla. IPA lähestyy kokemusta aluksi fenomenologisen, kuvailevan luennan tasolla, johon liitetään tulkinnallinen, hermeneuttinen taso. Idiografinen lähestymistapa varmistaa, että kokemusta tutkitaan yksityiskohtaisen tarkasti. Tutkimuskysymykset ovat: 1) Millaisia kokemuksia haastateltavilla on psykodraamamenetelmällä toteutetusta Kelan mielenterveyskuntoutuksesta? 2) Miten haastateltavat kokevat psykodraamakuntoutuksen vaikuttaneen omaan kuntoutumiseensa? 3) Mitkä ovat psykodraamakuntoutuksen terapeuttisen työskentelyn edellytykset? Tulokset ja johtopäätökset: Haastateltaville esitetty yksi avoin kysymys: 'Millaista tämä kuntoutus on sinulle ollut?' tuotti aineiston, joka analyysiprosessin jälkeen näyttää kuntoutumisen yksilölliset merkitykset, jotka tiivistyvät pääteemaan Koetut vaikutukset (Itsetuntemuksessa, sosiaalisissa suhteissa ja toimintakyvyssä). Toinen pääteema Kokemukset psykodraamakuntoutuksesta (kokemukset ryhmästä, kokemukset prosessista ja psyykkinen työskentely) näyttää, kuinka yksilön prosessi liittyy kiinteästi ryhmän monitasoiseen sosiaaliseen vuorovaikutukseen. Kolmas pääteema on Psykodraamakuntoutuksen terapeuttisen työskentelyn edellytykset (vuorovaikutus ja sosiaalinen samastuminen; ryhmän koheesio; psykodraamassa sisäinen mieli tuodaan näkyviin ja toiminnaksi ulkoiseen maailmaan ja emootioiden ja omien kokemusten sietäminen) tiivistää, millaiset seikat kuntoutujien kokemana näyttävät vievän terapeuttista prosessia eteenpäin. Kuntoutuksessa yksilön sisäinen tuotiin ryhmän sosiaaliseen vuorovaikutukseen yhteisen tutkimuksen kohteeksi. Tutkimustulosten mukaan menneisyyteen sijoittuvien suhteiden käsittely nykyhetkessä mahdollisti suhteisiin liittyneiden kokemusten psyykkisen työstämisen. Psyykkisen työskentelyn merkityksellisyys kasvoi ryhmän kuluessa vähitellen: alussa tutkittavien kokema ahdistus lisääntyi, mutta ryhmän loppua kohden ja sen jälkeen olotilat tasoittuivat. Se, että ryhmä näki ja kuuli millaisissa vaikeuksissa yksilö on elämässään ollut, näytti neutralisoivan yksinäisyyden ja kärsimyksen kokemuksia.
  • Dromberg, Hanna (2021)
    This study examines how psychoculture which means the psychologization of everyday life, is constructed in news coverage concerning adult ADHD. It is interesting to look at psychoculture in the context of adult ADHD, because adult`s problems with attention and hyperactivity only began to be categorized as psychiatric disorder in 1994. This despite the fact that the real underlying causes of the phenomenon have not yet been proved by clinical methods. The topicality of this study is also reflected in the fact that ADHD has gained a lot of media attention in recent decades, which has been seen to be associated with a significant increase in ADHD diagnoses. In this study, adults ADHD and psychoculture are seen as socially constructed phenomena. Since the research material is constructed by news and attached to media, it is natural to approach the phenomenon with discourse analytical view. This means, that the use of language is considered to play a key role in constructing social reality. In this study, rhetoric analysis was chosen as the method of analysis. The aim of this analysis method is to study the construction of reality through the use and argumentation of linguistic rhetorical means. The study showed that news coverage related to adult ADHD manifested psychoculture by reproducing the mechanic of therapeutic authority through rhetoric argumentation and excluding certain aspects of the phenomenon of ADHD from the coverage. In line with the idea of therapeutic authority, individual`s problems in various areas of life, such as everyday life and working life were problematized. Based on analysis mainly neuro-psychological explanations, and medical or therapeutic solution, such as psychiatric drugs or peer support for ADHD was provided. The analysis showed that the challenges and problems of people’s everyday lives were seen as individual-driven, and solving these problems was seen as the responsibility of the individual. A process reflecting the psychologization in which problems of everyday life are transformed into psychological problems, which eventually become medical-scientific problems for example through the use of psychiatric language, was found in the news.
  • Määttä, Saku (2019)
    Given the rise in prevalence of stress, lack of time management skills and prolonged graduations among university students, promoting student’s well-being and study practices has become very important. While psychological flexibility a.k.a. dealing with all kinds of emotions and being present in the moment has proven to increase sense of well-being and lower stress among working adults, it has not been widely explored in the university context. Along with psychological flexibility, organised studying has been found to be an important factor in relation to academic achievement, study progress and well-being among university students. The purpose of this study is to explore development of psychological flexibility and organised studying in relation to stress, well-being and studying. Total of 106 university students took part in a web-based course aimed at promoting university students’ well-being, stress management skills, psychological flexibility and organised studying. Development of the items were measured by self-report questionnaires in the beginning and in the end of the course. Additionally, a learning report (n=86) was conducted by the students at the end of the course where the students reflected on their development regarding general well-being, studying and learning during the course. Student’s scores improved quantitatively across all the measured dimensions during the course. Mean scores on psychological flexibility, organised studying and sense of well-being increased and the scores regarding stress reduced. The results are in line with the qualitative analysis, in which students report that they learned to organise their studying and use skills related to psychological flexibility in various ways in studying context. The results imply that a web-based course which is aimed to improve student’s psychological flexibility and organised studying would also improve the student’s sense of well-being and reduce stress in their studies.
  • Räihä, Kristiina (2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Mental problems are an increasing challenge among university students. Research and development of interventions that aim to enhance well-being is important, because challenges in students' well-being easily effect the study progress and success. Mental problems and symptoms can also follow into working life, so the prevention of challenges is also important in the light of the students' later ability to work and be well. Psychological flexibility has been found to promote well-being in many ways. Several intervention studies have confirmed that psychological flexibility can also be promoted by using acceptance and commitment therapy’s (ACT) methods. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of an internet-based intervention on university students’ well-being and study skills. The aim of the intervention was to enhance student’s psychological flexibility and organised studying skills. The research questions were: How are psychological flexibility, well-being, experienced stress, study-related burnout and organised studying skills related to each other, what kind of effects does the intervention have on the above-mentioned scales and how is the burnout risk divided before and after intervention. 74 university students participated in an intervention study conducted with an experimental control setting. Students’ psychological flexibility, well-being, experiences of stress, study-related burnout and organised studying were measured with questionnaires. The data of this study consist of the questionnaires conducted at the beginning and end of the intervention. Connections between the variables were observed by correlations and the change by repeated measures t-test, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), and frequency table. The results showed that students’ psychological flexibility, well-being, and organised learning skills increased as perceived stress and study-related burnout decreased. The effects of the intervention suggest that the well-being of university students can be supported by online intervention course combining ACT practices and study skills. More research is needed on the individual-level changes and the long-term effects of the intervention on well-being and study-related burnout.
  • Höyhtyä, Julia (2024)
    Ihmiskauppaan liittyy luonnollisen henkilön hyväksikäyttöä, joka voidaan toteuttaa henkilöön kohdistuvalla kontrollilla. Tekijät turvautuvat usein moninaisiin kontrollin keinoihin, joilla uhri alistetaan hyväksikäyttötilanteeseen. Yksi tapa käyttää kontrollia uhria hallitakseen on psykologinen kontrolli. Tekijän ei tarvitse käyttää fyysistä väkivaltaa saadakseen toisen alistumaan hyväksikäytön kohteeksi, vaan hienovaraisemmat psykologisin keinoin toteutetut kontrollin muodot ovat monesti riittäviä. Tähän liittyviä rikosoikeudellisesti haastavia kysymyksiä ovat muun muassa kysymykset siitä, mitä haavoittuvuus ihmiskaupan yhteydessä tarkoittaa, miten sitä voidaan hyväksikäyttää ja milloin kontrolli vaikuttaa uhriin siten, ettei tämä näe muuta vaihtoehtoa, kuin alistua hyväksikäyttöön. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää mitä psykologisella kontrollilla ihmiskaupan keinona tarkoitetaan ihmiskaupan tunnusmerkistön näkökulmasta. Tunnusmerkistön reunaehtoja pyritään selventämään hakemalla lainoppiin tukea muun muassa psykologisessa kirjallisuudessa esiin tuoduista vaikuttamisen, painostamisen ja henkisen väkivallan ilmiöistä. Tutkielmassa hyödynnetty monitieteellinen keskustelu yhdistettynä rikosoikeustieteeseen ja empiirisen haastattelututkimukseen pyrkii oikeustieteen ja monitieteellisen keskustelun kautta selventämään sitä, mikä epäasiallinen uhriin vaikuttaminen menee ihmiskaupan tunnusmerkistön piiriin ja mikä toisaalta jää sen ulkopuolelle. Tarkoituksena on myös selvittää miten tämä teoreettinen tunnusmerkistön tarkastelu vastaa soveltamiskäytännössä omaksuttuja lähtökohtia. Tutkielman lopuksi pyritään tuomaan esiin aineiston perusteella esiin nousseita ongelmakohtia koskien tunnusmerkistön mukaisen psykologisen kontrollin tunnistamista ja sen soveltamista. Vaikka tutkielmassa tarkastelun kohteena olevan ilmiön osalta on otettu edistysaskelia, on tutkielmassa esitetty erinäisiä muun muassa koulutukseen, erikoistumiseen ja tutkimukseen liittyviä suosituksia tutkielmassa esiin nousseiden rikosoikeudellisten ja rikosprosessioikeudellisten haasteiden helpottamiseksi. Tutkielmassa katsotaan, että tulee yhä jatkaa tutkimusta hienovaraisempien ihmiskaupan keinojen kartoittamiseksi ja tunnistamiseksi. Tätä kautta voidaan jatkaa sen arviointia, minkä tyyppinen psykologinen kontrolli ja yleisesti psyykkinen vaikuttaminen menee tosi asiassa tunnusmerkistön piiriin ja mikä puolestaan ei.
  • Sahimaa, Jaakko Viljami (2017)
    Goal Reason for this research is to examine the relationships between psychological basic needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness ) + benevolance, meaningful work, job satisfaction, employee engagement, self-reported performance and extra-role performance. The aim for this research is to find out if there is a mediative role of meaningful work between psychological basic needs and four outcomes. In previous research psychological basic needs and meaningful work has been related to multiple beneficial individual and organizational level outcomes. In this research four of those outcomes are considered Method Data for this research was collected with a web survey via Internet during summer 2017. Data was collected also from a few Finnish companies as a staff questionnaire. Data consisted of 338 participants. Relationships between variables were examined with SPSS Hayes Process Macro's regression analysis and mediation was analysed with bootstrapping method. Results Meaningful work was positively related to all four outcomes. Psychological basic needs and benevolence together were related also to all four outcomes and meaningful work mediated the relationship between psychological basic needs, benevolence and job satisfaction and employee engagement. When psychological basic needs were examined separately qualities of the relationships varied a lot and the mediative role of meaningful work wasn't so clear anymore.
  • Virolainen, Hanna (2023)
    Objectives: Teachers' well-being at work has been studied especially from the perspectives of work-related stress factors. However, experts from the field of well-being at work have pointed out that studies should focus more on studying factors that promote well-being than on factors that weaken well-being at work. The self-determination theo-ry (SDT) is part of motivational psychology. The theory considers that the fulfillment of basic psychological needs (BPN) is essential for human well-being. Based on the theory of self-determination this study develops Basic Psy-chological Needs of Teachers Scale (BPNTS) to measure the basic psychological needs of teachers. The scale is used to study the manifestation of basic needs factors related to the work of crafts teachers and teachers. The scale is also used to examine whether there are differences between craft teachers and other teachers in the realisation of basic needs factors, and whether background factors have an impact on the basic needs experiences of craft teach-ers. Methods: To measure the basic psychological needs of teachers a 7-step Likert -scaled survey was created. The survey was distributed through various online channels to craft teachers and teachers in the spring of 2021. 367 responses were received. 229 responses were from craft teachers and 138 from other teachers. The research data was analysed using statistical methods using IBM SPSS Statistics software. The manifestation of basic psychological needs of teachers was studied using exploratory factorial analysis (EFA). The differences between craft teachers and teachers in relation to the manifestation of basic psychological need factors were investigated through descriptive results, correlation examinations, a T-test of independent samples, as well as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The association of background factors - teachers' age, place of work, gender and job title with teachers' basic needs experiences was investigated using one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Results and conclusions: With the Basic Psychological Needs of Teachers Scale (BPNTS) was managed to measure the dimensions of the initial theory quite well. The scale turned out to be functional and reliable. As a result of the factorial analysis, 4 basic work-related needs dimensions were identified – Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness and Freedom. According to the theory, the results reinforced the assumption of the independent influence of basic psychological need factors. Both groups of teachers estimate that the studied dimensions were realized quite well on average in their work. Craft teachers felt that freedom to work was best realized and that relatedness was realized weakest. Statistically, a very significant difference between the teacher groups appeared in relation to the freedom and empowerment experienced at work. Crafts teachers estimate that these are fulfilled better in their work compared to other teachers. Of the background factors, the workplace was found to have some impact on the fulfillment of the basic needs of craft teachers. It has been noticed that to promote teachers' well-being at work, it would be important to be able to analyse well-being factors at work more effectively. The Basic Psychological Needs of Teachers Scale (BPNTS) provides a useful model for more accurately mapping and studying the basic needs dimensions that affect teachers' well-being at work.
  • Rönkkö, Reeta (2022)
    Maisterintutkielmassa tarkastellaan psykologisten perustarpeiden täyttymisen yhteyttä koettuun työkykyyn ja haitalliseen stressiin. Pääanalyysien lisäksi tutkielman lisäanalyyseissa tarkastellaan, oliko Covid-19-pandemian aiheuttamalla poikkeustilalla vaikutusta psykologisten perustarpeiden täyttymisen yhteyteen koettuun työkykyyn ja haitalliseen stressiin. Pandemia-ajan moderoivaa vaikutusta tutkittiin vertailemalla aikaa ennen pandemiaa (vuodet 2017–2019) ja pandemian ensimmäistä vuotta (2020–2021). Aihetta tarkasteltiin henkilöstön kehittämiseen tarkoitetun henkilöstökyselyn datan avulla, jossa havaintomäärä oli suuri: pääanalyyseissa vastauksia oli 35 225. Tutkielmaa varten henkilöstökyselyn kysymyspatteristoa verrattiin validoituun psykologisia perustarpeita työkontekstissa mittaavaan mittaristoon, ja teorian pohjalta kysymyspatteristosta valittiin yhdeksän kysymystä, jotka validoitiin faktorianalyysilla. Näiden yhdeksän kysymyksen lisäksi kyselystä valittiin koettua työkykyä sekä haitallista stressiä mittaavat kysymykset. Tutkielman pääanalyyseissa psykologisten perustarpeiden täyttymisen yhteyttä koettuun työkykyyn ja haitalliseen stressiin tutkittiin lineaarisen regressioanalyysin avulla, ja lisäanalyyseissa toteutettiin lisäksi interaktion testaus sekä simple slope -testi. Pääanalyyseissa selvisi, että kaikkien psykologisten perustarpeiden täyttymisen yhteys on positiivisessa yhteydessä koettuun työkykyyn ja negatiivisessa yhteydessä haitalliseen stressiin. Kyvykkyyden tarpeen täyttyminen oli kolmesta psykologisesta perustarpeesta vahvimmin positiivisessa yhteydessä koettuun työkykyyn, sekä vahvimmin negatiivisessa yhteydessä haitalliseen stressiin. Yhteys oli tilastollisesti erittäin merkitsevää. Lisäanalyyseissa havaittiin, että autonomian tarpeen täyttymisen yhteys koettuun työkykyyn oli hieman voimakkaampi pandemian alkamisen jälkeen, kuin ennen pandemiaa, ja sosiaalisen yhteenkuuluvuuden tarpeen täyttymisen yhteys koettuun työkykyyn oli pandemian alkamisen jälkeen hieman heikompi, kuin ennen pandemiaa. Maisterintutkielman tulokset tukevat aikaisempaa tutkimusta, joka käsittelee psykologisten perustarpeiden täyttymisen yhteyttä hyvinvointiin. Lisäanalyysit puolestaan tuovat uutta näkökulmaa pandemian jälkeistä työelämää koskevaan julkiseen keskusteluun
  • Lille, Lotta (2021)
    Tutkielmassa kerättiin ja analysoitiin aineistoa psykoosilääkkeiden ja masennuslääkkeiden aiheuttamista myrkytyskuolemista vuosina 2016–2018 Suomessa. Tutkielmassa tarkastellut lääkeaineet valittiin siksi, että oikeuskemialliset tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet niiden lukeutuvan myrkytyskuolemien merkittävimpien aiheuttajien joukkoon. Eri psykoosi- ja masennuslääkkeiden aiheuttamia myrkytyskuolemia arvioitiin Fatal Toxicity Index (FTI) – käsitteen perusteella. FTI laskettiin jokaiselle tutkitulle lääkeaineelle jakamalla lääkeaineen aiheuttamien myrkytyskuolemien lukumäärä kyseisen lääkeaineen kulutuksella. Lääkeaineen kulutus ilmoitettiin WHO:n kansainvälisesti määrittelemän vuorokausiannoksen (DDD, Defined Daily Dose) avulla. Lääkeaineiden aiheuttamien myrkytyskuolemien suhde niiden kulutukseen antaa tärkeää tietoa lääkeaineisiin liittyvästä myrkytyskuoleman riskistä. Tutkimusaineiston myrkytyskuolemien lukumäärät sekä luokitellut kuolinsyyt vuositasolla saatiin oikeuslääketieteellisen kuolemansyyn selvittämisen yhteydessä Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitoksen oikeustoksikologiayksikön tietokantaan tallennetuista tiedoista. Tiedot eri lääkeaineiden keskimääräisestä kulutuksesta vuositasolla saatiin Lääkealan turvallisuus- ja kehittämiskeskus Fimean sivuilta. Tiedot Suomen asukasluvusta eri vuosina ovat peräisin Tilastokeskukselta. Aineistossa oli tarkasteltavana 13 psykoosilääkettä ja 18 masennuslääkettä. Psykoosilääkkeiden aiheuttamia myrkytyskuolemia kirjattiin yhteensä 136 ja masennuslääkkeiden aiheuttamia myrkytyskuolemia 152 vuosina 2016–2018. Myrkytyskuolemat jakautuivat kolmeen eri kuolemanluokkaan: tapaturma, itsemurha ja epäselvä. Suurin osa myrkytyskuolemista oli itsemurhia. Tutkielmassa tarkastellulla aikavälillä 2016–2018 suurimmat FTI-arvot havaittiin seuraavilla lääkeaineilla: psykoosilääkkeissä levomepromatsiini, sulpiridi ja klooriprotikseeni, masennuslääkkeissä klomipramiini, doksepiini ja trimipramiini. Laskettujen FTI-arvojen pohjalta voidaan arvioida lääkeaineiden myrkyllisyyttä saman lääkeryhmän sisällä sekä eri lääkeryhmien välillä. Tutkielman tuloksilla on merkitystä arvioitaessa potilaalle sopivaa psykoosi- tai masennuslääkitystä sekä määritettäessä mahdollista seuraavaa saman lääkeaineryhmän lääkettä, kun potilaan lääkitystä vaihdetaan.
  • Westerlund, Inka (2023)
    Objectives: The association between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and antisocial behavior in adolescence has only been studied in very few studies, however, preliminary evidence suggests an association. Reliability of surveys used to detect symptoms has been poor and no widely accepted survey for identifying the symptoms exists. The aim of this study was to examine whether psychotic-like experiences increase the risk for antisocial behavior in adolescence, and whether this association remains after controlling for the effect of low self-control, gender, and psychosocial challenges. In addition, we examined the internal consistency of the four questions measuring symptoms. Methods: Data for this study was collected from the 2020 Youth Delinquency Survey, which sampled 15-16-year-old Finnish individuals from the general population (n=5534), with 49.7% female participants. Participants' psychosocial well-being was assessed using the SDQ symptom questionnaire which originally also included four items about PLEs. Items measuring PLEs were analyzed separately in this study. The Self-control and antisocial behavior were measured by separate self-report measures. A sum variable was constructed from all the variables. The association was analyzed with logistic regression and the internal consistency of the items was measured by Cronbach alpha. Results and Conclusions: This study showed an association between PLEs, and antisocial behavior and the association remained significant after controlling for psychosocial challenges, gender, and low self-control. Carrying a weapon was the strongest predictor, but there were also statistically significant associations with animal cruelty, theft by threat, assault, and fighting. In addition, the four items measuring PLEs showed good internal consistency (α =.83). Removing any the items decreased it. The result of this study suggests that psychotic-like experiences can be an independent risk factor for antisocial behavior in adolescence.
  • Sinkkonen, Tara (2017)
    Psychotic symptoms are known to be associated with deficits in social functions. Previous research has shown that lower social functioning and less social support is associated with both psychotic disorders and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Social capital, however, has barely been studied in relation to psychotic symptoms. Also, few studies have investigated whether the associations of social factors differ between different psychotic symptoms and no study has examined social functioning, social support and social capital in the same study. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether social functioning, social support and social capital have differing associations to different psychotic symptoms and to the prevalence of a psychotic disorder. The data of this study was the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007, a representative community sample of over 16-year-olds living in private households in England (n = 7 403). Psychotic symptoms were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and consisted of hallucinations, paranoia, (hypo-)mania, thought interference and strange experience. Social functioning was assessed with the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). Assessment of social support consisted of two sections: social network size assessed with the Interview Measure of Social Relationships (IMRS) and perceived social support assessed with the Health and Lifestyle Survey. Social capital also consisted of two sections: social cohesion and trust, and social participation. The associations of the social variables to different psychotic symptoms and to a psychotic disorder were analyzed using logistic regression, entering social functioning, social support and social capital stepwise as predictors. Social functioning was independently associated with every psychotic symptom as well as with the prevalence of a psychotic disorder. For hallucinations, (hypo-)mania and thought interference lower social functioning was the only predictor. For social support only social network size was found to have associations: smaller social network was independently associated with psychotic disorder and paranoia. For social capital only social cohesion and trust was associated with two of the psychotic symptoms: lower levels on social cohesion and trust were independently associated with strange experience and paranoia. Paranoia was the only symptom to be independently associated with all the social variables. The results show that different psychotic symptoms and psychotic disorder differ in the social factors they are associated with. Further research should investigate how these differences develop, and what part do other factors, for example negative symptoms, social cognition and neurocognition, play in the association between social factors and psychotic symptoms.
  • Huotarinen, Nonna (2015)
    This Pro gradu -thesis studies social relations of individuals who have some of the non affective psychosis. How does experiences in social relations differ between groups of people where in one group are the individuals who have psychosis and in other group are people who don't have psychosis? In this thesis social relations were divided in three groups, spouse, kin and friend – relations. Hypothesis was, that those who had psychosis, have more negative experiences and less positive experiences in their relations than those who don't have a psychotic disease. NCS-1 survey was carried out in the early 1990s with a household sample of over 8,000 respondents. Non affective psychosis disorder was diagnosed with 66 respondents. Based on previous evidence that survey nonrespondents have higher rates of psychiatric disorder than respondents, a supplemental nonresponse survey was carried out in parallel with the main survey. In this supplemental survey, a random sample of initial nonrespondents were offered a financial incentive to complete a short form of the diagnostic interview. Elevated rates of both lifetime and current psychiatric disorders were found among these initial nonrespondents. A nonresponse adjustment weight was constructed for the main survey data to compensate for this systematic nonresponse. Respondents experiences in their relations with spouses, kin and friends were mapped with twelve questions, six questions comprising positive experiences and six questions comprising negative experiences. In this thesis positive and negative experiences were formulated into two sumvariables for each spouse, kin and friends. Then variables where standardized, after which parameter estimates, confidence intervals and p-value were estimated by One Way Analysis Of Variance. According to the hypothesis those who had a psychotic disorder had less intimate relationships than those who didn't. Individuals with psychotic disorder had more negative experiences and less positive experiences in their intimate relationships than those who had no psychotic disorder. Difference was statistically significant. Outcome was similar with relations to kin. Difference in meeting frequency was not statistically significant with these two groups in relations to kin. In relations to friends statistically significant difference was found in positive experiences, individuals with psychotic disorders had fewer positive experiences. Individuals with psychotic disorders and those close to them need support in their social relations.
  • Laivonen, Petra (2023)
    Objective: The amount of prisoners suffering from psychotic disorders has been increasing in Finland over the past decades. The aim of this study was to examine the lifetime prevalence of ICD-10 psychotic disorders (F20-F29) and comorbid substance use disorders and personality disorders in Finnish prison population in 2020s. The aim was also to study how gender, solitary confinement, crime type, forensic psychiatric examination and lifetime imprisonment are associated to lifetime psychotic disorders in Finnish prison population. Methods: The sample of this study (n=295) is part of the Health and well-being of prisoners 2023 (WATTU IV) study, where psychotic disorders, substance use disorders and personality disorders were evaluated using semistructured SCID-I and SCID-II interviews. The associations of gender, solitary confinement, crime type, forensic psychiatric examination and lifetime imprisonment to lifetime psychotic disorders were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results: Eight percent of study participants had a lifetime psychotic disorder. Comorbid substance use disorders and personality disorders were very common among these prisoners. This study found statistically significant associations between both gender and solitary confinement to lifetime psychotic disorders. Female prisoners had a five-time elevated risk for lifetime psychotic disorder compared to male prisoners. Those prisoners who had ever been in solitary confinement due to disciplinary actions had a three-time elevated risk for lifetime psychotic disorder compared to those who hadn’t, and those who had ever been to solitary confinement due to personal request had a 4.5-time elevated risk for lifetime psychotic disorders compared to those who hadn’t. Conclusion: This study cautiously indicates that the prevalence of psychotic disorders in Finnish population may continue to be on the rise. However, due to comparability challenges between previous studies, any conclusions need to be made with caution. According to this study the prevalence of lifetime psychotic disorders is four times higher in prison population compared to population outside prison. Female gender and solitary confinement seem to increase the risk of psychotic disorder. High substance use disorder and personality disorder comorbidity among prisoners suffering from psychotic disorders reflects the complex nature of prisoner mental health, an issue needed to be carefully addressed when planning and executing treatment during and after imprisonment.
  • Stenlund, Mari (2007)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää psykoottisen mielenterveyspotilaan uskonnonvapautta. Tutkimuskysymyksiä on kolme: Millä perusteilla psykoottisen potilaan uskonnonvapaus on turvattu ja millä perusteilla sitä rajoitetaan? Miten psykoottinen ja uskonnollinen todellisuudentulkinta eroavat toisistaan? Vaarantaako psykiatriseen todellisuudentulkintaan perustuva hoito potilaan negatiivisen uskonnonvapauden eli oikeuden elää ilman uskontoa? Tutkimusmetodina on systemaattinen analyysi. Lähteet ovat perustusoikeudet, mielenterveyslaki, potilaslaki, YK:n Principles for the protection of persons with mental illness and the improvement of mental health care, Maailman psykiatriyhdistyksen Madridin julistus ja Suomen mielenterveysseuran Mielenterveyspotilaan oikeudet. Uskonnonvapautta tarkastellaan tässä tutkimuksessa kahden eri vapauskäsityksen näkökulmasta: ulkoisena vapautena, joka edellyttää kompetenssia ja autenttisuutta, sekä ulkoisen ja sisäisen vapauden summana, johon kompetenssi ja autenttisuus sisältyvät. Psykoottisella potilaalla on ihmisyytensä ja kansalaisuutensa perusteella lähtökohtaisesti täysi uskonnonvapaus, mutta sitä voidaan rajoittaa. Jos uskonnonvapaus ymmärretään ulkoiseksi vapaudeksi, rajoittaa psykoottisen potilaan uskonnonvapautta tahdosta riippumattomassa hoidossa hänen terveytensä ja turvallisuutensa suojaaminen. Uskonnonvapauden rajoittaminen voidaan perustella sillä, ettei psykoottinen potilas täytä uskonnonvapauden edellytyksiä eli kompetenssia ja autenttisuutta, sillä, että potilaan terveyteen ja turvallisuuteen liittyvät oikeudet priorisoidaan uskonnonvapauden yläpuolelle sekä sillä, että pyritään terveyshyötyyn. Jos uskonnonvapaus ymmärretään ulkoisen ja sisäisen vapauden summaksi, on psykoosi uskonnonvapautta rajoittava tekijä, koska se tekee yksilöstä epäautenttisen ja puuttuu hänen kompetenssiinsa. Psykoosin (myös tahdosta riippumaton) hoito voidaan ymmärtää tällöin yritykseksi palauttaa uskonnonvapaus. Rajoittamalla ulkoista uskonnonvapautta pyritään maksimoimaan ulkoisen ja sisäisen uskonnonvapauden summa. Vaikka psykoottisella ja uskonnollisella todellisuudentulkinnalla on yhtäläisyyksiä, niiden toisistaan erottaminen on tärkeää, koska yksilöllä, jonka todellisuudentulkinta määritellään psykoottiseksi, on oikeus saada hoitoa, kun taas yksilön uskonnollista todellisuudentulkintaa suojaa uskonnonvapaus eikä sitä saa hoitaa sairautena. Lähteiden mukaan psykoottisen ja uskonnollisen todellisuudentulkinnan toisistaan erottaminen diagnostisten kriteerien ja lääketieteellisen tiedon avulla on lääkärin tehtävä. Tutkimuksessani esitän kaksi periaatetta, joiden avulla todellisuudentulkinnat voidaan erottaa toisistaan. Yksinäinen puu ei pala -periaatteen mukaan yksilön todellisuudentulkinta on uskonnollinen, mikäli se jaetaan jossain yhteisössä. Hedelmistään puu tunnetaan -periaatteen mukaan yksilön todellisuudentulkinta on uskonnollinen, mikäli sen terveydelliset ja sosiaaliset seuraukset ovat hyvät. Antipsykiatrinen kritiikki väittää psykiatrian olevan uskonto. Jos väite on tosi, puututaan tahdosta riippumattomassa hoidossa yksilön oikeuteen elää ilman uskontoa, sillä ko. hoidossa olevan psykoottisen potilaan on pakko suostua siihen, että häntä hoidetaan psykiatrian arvojen ja todellisuudentulkinnan mukaan. Vaikuttaa kuitenkin siltä, että jos psykiatria määritellään uskonnoksi, uskonnon käsite kärsii inflaation. Koska psykoottisen potilaan uskonnonvapaus on pohjimmiltaan eettinen kysymys, on tärkeää myöntää psykiatrian arvosidonnaisuus. Tällöin voidaan tehdä tietoisesti moraalisia päätöksiä ja kantaa moraalinen vastuu esimerkiksi diagnoosin määrittelyssä. Psykiatrian voidaan katsoa perustuvan universaaleihin arvoihin samalla tavalla kuin ihmisoikeuksienkin.
  • Isotupa, Mari Annukka (2018)
    Goals: The prevalence of subclinical psychotic symptoms in the normal population is 5–8%. Approximately 8% of the subclinical psychotic symptoms have been shown to predict the onset of later psychotic disorder. It can be assumed that if the number of subclinical psychotic symptoms is related to the locus of control and self-esteem, these connections would appear in the normal population at different stages of the psychosis continuum depending on the severity of the psychotic symptoms. A better understanding of these connections could in the future help distinguish those who report subclinical psychotic symptoms from those who later develop a clinically significant psychotic disorder. Methods: In this study, correlation of psychotic symptoms (UM-CIDI) with the locus of control (I.E. Scale in part) and self-esteem (RSES in part) were studied, as well as through variance analyzes of how the healthy (n = 5279) with little or more reported subclinical psychotic symptoms (n = 141 and n = 84), and persons with non-affective psychotic disorders (SCID) (n = 50) differed in relation to these factors (PSO groups). The study used the NCS-data collected from the normal population in 1990–1992. Results and Conclusions: According to previous research data, the number of psychotic symptoms was related to the external locus of control and the low self-esteem. The PSO groups differed more widely only in the case of external locus of control which based on other’s people power and control. The combined effect of psychotic symptoms and self-esteem explained the differences between groups only in relation to the above-mentioned locus of control. The results support previous findings of a more external locus of control, personalizing bias and low self-esteem related to psychotic disorders, as well as indications of their milder occurrence in the normal population already reported with psychotic symptoms. Exploratory study of causal relationships is still needed.
  • Numminen, Linda (2021)
    Aims of the Study. Psychotic like experiences (PLEs) have been identified as risk factors for psychotic and other mental disorders. It has been suggested that PLEs are a sign of a broader psychological vulnerability and may indicate an individual’s susceptibility to mental disorders in general. The role of PLEs as predictors of mental disorders have been studied, but the research has limitations and knowledge of possible mediating factors is still inadequate. The aim of this study is to examine whether PLEs reported in young adulthood predict psychotic or any mental disorders in the general population. In addition, it is examined whether these associations are affected or mediated by general psychological distress. Methods. The data used in the study is from the Mental Health in Early Adulthood in Finland (MEAF) study which is a follow-up study of the Health 2000 young adult sample. The sample (n=1243) included 18–29-year-old Finnish people, selected from the general population, of whom 45.5 % were men. Subjects' PLEs were evaluated with the G-section of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) questionnaire, and general psychological distress with the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). Data on diagnoses of mental disorders given in hospital care and specialized health care and inpatient care were obtained from the National Hospital Discharge register until the end of the year 2015, and hence, the follow-up period was 10–12 years. The associations, including the steps of mediation analysis, were examined with Cox regression and logistic regression models. Results and conclusions. This study showed that PLEs of young adults predict subsequent psychotic disorders (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.11–1.36) as well as any mental disorders (HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.03–1.17), when the effects of age, gender, education, and marital status were adjusted for. This supports the previous view that PLEs may be a sign of broader psychological vulnerability and indicate an individual’s susceptibility to psychotic and any mental disorders. General psychological distress did not have a significant effect on the associations and did not mediate them. The PLEs of young adults appear to be a risk factor for subsequent psychotic and other mental disorders, independent from general psychological distress.
  • Lunnela, Lotta (2015)
    Aims. Adolescence is crucial time for establishing friendships. It is known that personality traits are associated with the quality and the characteristics of the friendships. Psychopathy is a personality disorder, which includes significant abnormalities in interpersonal, affective and behavioral traits. The aim of this study was examine the relationship between youth's psychopathic personality traits and the quality of their friendship. We also examined the associations with the characteristics of the friends. The results of the earlier studies are somewhat conflicting. Based on the earlier studies, we hypothesize that the psychopathic personality traits are associated with the poorer quality and support of the friendships. We also assumed that the psychopathic personality traits are associated with the criminal and psychiatric characteristics of friends. It was assumed that the primary traits of psychopathy were more strongly associated with the quality of friendship than the secondary traits. We also controlled the family-based variable, the parental warmth, to examine the independent explanatory power of the psychopathic personality traits. Methods. The data and the subjects were gathered from the American longitudinal study "The Pathways to Desistance". In this cross-sectional study the sample consisted from 1238 youths, who were convicted of serious criminal acts. The subjects' age range from 14 to 19 years. In this study we examine the psychopathic personality traits, the quality of friendship, the parental warmth, and the characteristics of friends. The associations were examined by using the linear regression analysis and the binary logistic regression analysis in two different databases. Results and conclusions. The psychopathic personality traits were associated with the poorer quality of friendship even when controlling the parental warmth found in youths' family. Youths, who were high on psychopathic personality traits, had higher probability of having friends who had criminal or psychiatric background, were older, and the frequency of contact were higher compared to the youths who were low on psychopathic personality traits. The results indicated that the psychopathic personality traits had an influence on perception of the support and the quality of friendship. These results help us to understand the social consequences of psychopathy for the youths themselves, and their friends. Personality traits can shape perceptions and probably lead to engagement with delinquent peers.
  • Nyman, Robert (2017)
    Objectives. The etiology of juvenile delinquency has been widely researched and several risk factors considering individual traits, parents or parenthood, and other environmental factors have been well established. There has been growing interest in the role of psychopathic traits on young offendings and recent evidence suggests that intensity of psychopathic traits enhances the risk of criminal behaviour in youth. However, the studies investigating the role of psychopathic traits as a predictor of criminal behaviour in youth are methodologically restricted and the effects of risk factors or moderating variables have not been considered comprehensively. The aims of this research were to examine the association between psychopathic traits and criminal behaviour in youth, and to study if risk factors strengthen this association. Methods. This sample consisted of 4855 Finnish students on the ninth grade of upper comprehensive school. Criminal behaviour was measured as the amount of forbidden actions conducted during the past year. Psychopathic traits were studied as a dimensional variable and it was measured with a validated self-report questionnaire for psychopathy (APSD-SR). Linear regressions were used to examine the association between psychopathic traits and juvenile delinquency. Nine different risk factors and cumulativity of risks were controlled for the analyses. Linear regression was also used to examine the moderating effects of risk factors and their cumulativity to the association between psychopathic traits and criminal behaviour. Results and conclusions. Most adolescents reported at least some psychopathic traits. The intensity of psychopathic traits, well established risk factors and the cumulativity of risk factors were all associated with greater amount of criminal behaviour. The association between psychopathic traits and criminal behaviour was enhanced by those risk factors that can be considered to provide antisocial models or opportunities for criminal behaviour. Antisocial peers were the most significant risk factor for criminal behaviour and it strongly enhanced the association between psychopathic traits and criminal behaviour. Overall, the results emphasize the importance of interventions for antisocial peer groups to prevent juvenile delinquency.