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  • Ollikainen, Irma (2020)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan keskustelunanalyysin avulla työkokouksessa esiintyvää translatorista toimintaa, eli kaikkia niitä kielenkäyttäjien toimia, joissa yhdellä kielellä ilmaistuja tuotoksia toistetaan toisella kielellä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on havainnoida, minkätyyppisiä translatorisia käytänteitä kokouksen osallistujat käyttävät edistääkseen yhteisymmärrystä ja kokouksen päämäärän saavuttamista. Lisäksi aineistoon sovelletaan Rehin monikielistämisstrategioiden ryhmittelyä, joka on alun perin tarkoitettu kirjallisten tekstien translatorisen toiminnan ryhmittelyyn. Tutkielma on tehty osana Osallistumisen keinot monikielistyvässä työelämässä -hanketta, jonka puitteissa vuosina 2017-2020 on videoitu noin 50 tuntia suomalaisen kulttuurialan järjestön monikielistä kokousaineistoa. Tämän tutkielman aineistona on kokous, jossa muokataan erään kaupungin tilaamaa venäjänkielistä kyselylomaketta. Kokous on luonteeltaan vapaamuotoinen, koska siinä ei ole varsinaista agendaa eikä puheenjohtajaa, siitä ei tehdä virallista pöytäkirjaa ja vuorot etenevät vapaassa järjestyksessä. Kokouksen vuorovaikutus eroaa kuitenkin arkivuorovaikutuksesta esimerkiksi siinä, että kokouksella on kyselylomakehankkeeseen liittyvä selkeä tavoite ja kokouksen osallistujat toimivat omissa institutionaalisissa työrooleissaan, jotka eivät ole tasa-arvoisia. Aineiston kokouksessa puhutaan suomea, venäjää ja englantia. Kokoukseen osallistuu kaksi järjestön työntekijää ja kaksi kieliharjoittelijaa. Hankkeen vetäjän ensikieli on venäjä, hän puhuu sujuvaa suomea sekä ymmärtää englantia. Toinen työntekijöistä on ensikieleltään suomalainen, osaa hyvin ja käyttää paljon englantia, mutta pidemmät venäjänkieliset vuorot tuottavat hänelle ymmärtämisvaikeuksia. Molemmat kieliharjoittelijat ovat venäjänkielisiä, he opettelevat suomea ja osaavat sekä käyttävät sujuvasti englantia. Kokouksen monimuotoinen kielitilanne tekee siitä erityisen hedelmällisen aineiston translatorisen toiminnan tutkimiseen: osallistujat tulkkaavat sekä omia että toisten vuoroja suomesta venäjään ja venäjästä suomeen tai englantiin. Tutkimukseen on valikoitunut 10 katkelmaa, joista kolmessa tulkataan toisten vuoroja ja seitsemässä esiintyy omien vuorojen tulkkausta, eli reiteraatiota. Tulkkauksia aloitetaan sekä spontaanisti että jonkun eksplisiittisestä pyynnöstä, joko yksin tai yhteistyössä muiden kanssa. Analyysini osoittaa, että jos tulkkausta pyydetään ymmärtämisvaikeuksien seurauksena, se edistää kokouksen sujuvuutta, koska näin voi viestiä muille lisätietojen tarpeesta. Reilusti tiivistetty tulkkaus myös edistää kokouksen sujuvuutta ilman että alkuperäisiä vuoroja tulkattaisiin kokonaisuudessaan. Reiteraation avulla kokouksen osallistujat selkeyttävät ja korostavat aiemmin sanottua. He myös laajentavat vastaanottajajoukkoa avaamalla keskustelun pääajatuksia kieltä heikommin osaaville osallistujille. Reiteraatio voi edistää kokousta, mutta toisaalta myös aiheuttaa osallistujissa havaittavia epämukavuuden merkkejä. Esimerkiksi se saattaa hidastaa kokousta, vieraannuttaa reiteraation kieltä heikosti osaavia osallistujia vuorovaikutuksesta ja korostaa kielitaidollisia eroavaisuuksia. Reiteraation aiheuttamia ongelmia voi lieventää esimerkiksi ilmoittamalla tulkkaamisen aloittamisesta. Tutkimukseni osoittaa, että monikielisen kokouksen translatorinen toiminta edistää erikielisten työntekijöiden keskinäistä yhteisymmärrystä, auttaa asetettujen tavoitteiden saavuttamisessa ja parantaa vuorovaikutuksen ilmapiiriä. Lisäksi se tukee eritasoista kielitaitoa omaavien työntekijöiden tasa-arvoa, kun kaikkia kohdellaan tasapuolisesti huolehtien yhdessä siitä, ettei ketään jätetä vuorovaikutuksen ulkopuolelle. Reiteraatio ja liian pitkät vieraskieliset sekvenssit voivat tuottaa kokouksen osallistujille ongelmia, jotka tulevat esille vuorovaikutuksen epämukavuuden ilmauksien kautta. Translatorisen toiminnan avulla niitä voi lieventää tai ennaltaehkäistä. Ilmipantu translatorisuus, eli ilmoitus translatorisen toiminnan aloittamisesta ja lyhyt esittely sen sisällöstä, voi myös auttaa kokouksen hyvän ilmapiirin ylläpitämisessä.
  • Aarnio, Pyry (2022)
    Maisterintutkielmassani tarkastelen neljää suomalaista 2010-luvun nuortenromaania, Marja Björkin Poika (2013), Johanna Hulkon Suojaava kerros ilmaa (2019), Siri Kolun Kesän jälkeen kaikki on toisin (2016) ja Riina Mattilan Järistyksiä (2018), transmaskuliinisen henkilöhahmon identiteetin kuvauksen näkökulmasta. Tutkin, miten romaanien transidentiteetin kuvaukset liittyvät nuortenkirjallisuuden lajiin. Pyrin selvittämään, millaisin kerronnallisin ja kielellisin keinoin transidentiteettiä teoksissa kuvataan, sekä osoittamaan temaattisia yhteyksiä, joita transidentiteetin esittämisen ja romaanien kerrontaratkaisujen ja kielen kuvallisuuden välille muodostuu. Metodinani hyödynnän kaunokirjallisuuden kontekstualisoivaa ja vertailevaa lähilukua. Tarkastelen transidentiteettiä intersektionaalisesta näkökulmasta. Korostan erityisesti päähenkilön nuoruutta eräänä intersektionaalisuuden risteyskohtana. Teoreettisena taustanani hyödynnän trans- ja queertutkimusta, feminististä kirjallisuudentutkimusta, identiteetin tutkimusta ja tunteiden tutkimusta. Keskeisin tulokseni on, että teoksissa toistuvat samat metaforat sukupuoliristiriidan ja transsukupuolisen identiteetin kuvaamisessa. Keskeisimpiä metaforia ovat painon ja keveyden metaforat ja taivaan ja maan metaforat. Merkittävässä osassa aineistoani käytetään myös monimutkaisia kerronnan rakenteita, joissa kerronta hajoaa fragmentaariseksi eikä romaanin aikarakenne noudata kronologista järjestystä. Tutkielmani osoittaa, että angloamerikkalaisesta nuortenkirjallisuuden queer- ja transkuvausten traditiosta poiketen kotoa ulos heittämisen ja karkaamisen motiivit eivät toistu suomalaisessa nuortenkirjallisuudessa. Sen sijaan kodin mahdollisesti ahdasmielistä ilmapiiriä pyritään pakenemaan muuttamalla omilleen legitiimein keinoin. Teoksissa hyödynnetään kolmea tyypillistä motiivia, joilla hahmon transmaskuliinisuutta argumentoidaan: rintojen sitomisen motiivi, hiustenleikkuun motiivi ja mekkomotiivi. Mekko, joka transhahmo pakotetaan pukemaan, jää tyypillisesti yhteen kohtaukseen. Siten osoitetaan, että nuoren transhahmon pyrkimys omaa identiteettiä vastaavaan sukupuolen ilmaisuun on voimakkaampaa kuin vanhempien hetero- ja cisnormatiivisuuden vaatimus. Lisäksi aineistossani toistuvat välitilat, jotka kuvaavat nuoren identiteetin etsimisen prosessia: identiteetin työstäminen tapahtuu välitiloissa. Tarkastelen romaanien tunnekuvausta, jossa korostuvat häpeän ja toisaalta sen vastapuolena turvallisuuden tunteet. Skandinaavisesta ja angloamerikkalaisesta nuortenkirjallisuuden transkuvausten perinteestä poiketen kotimainen nuortenkirjallisuus kuvaa transhahmon haluttavaksi, rakastettavaksi ja seksuaaliseksi. Kotimainen nuortenkirjallisuus poikkeaa tässä vahvasti yleisistä transkirjallisuuden trendeistä. Aineistoni teoksissa onkin kyse positiivisista vastakertomuksista. Kansainvälisessä traditiossa vallitsevat ongelmakertomukset jäävät kotimaisessa nuortenkirjallisuudessa marginaaliin.
  • Dahlberg, Mikaela (2021)
    The task of this thesis was to study the transmediation processes of craft teacher students in the context of a learning assignment during the university course of Materialization in Craft Science. The study specified the starting points for transmediation and the factors that influenced it. In addition, the short videos produced during the learning assignment were analyzed, specifying the craft related meanings conveyed by them. The aim of the study was to describe the transmediation process as a part of craft, from the perspective of craft teacher students. More specifically to build an understanding of how both theoretical and concrete knowledge are transferred from one medium to another through craft and video making. Previous research has shown that transmediating deepens learning and increases understanding of the information being transferred. Video technology has autoethnographically been applied in craft research during the past, which has significantly deepened the understanding of the studied phenomenon. 29 craft teacher students from the University of Helsinki took part in the Materialization in Craft Science course during fall 2020. During the course, they completed a “Article into a Video” learning assignment, which eventually resulted in making a short film. The data of this study was the recording, where craft teacher students presented their short films during the course. The recording was transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The short films were analyzed applying essence analysis. Craft teacher students approached and framed the learning assignment from the starting points of their own lives in relation to the knowledge presented in the research articles of the learning assignment. They transmediated information through craft and video making. The craft teacher students transmediating processes were influenced by both internal and external factors. Internal factors were such phenomena, which the craft teacher students were able to influence. Instead, external factors where such that could not be influenced during the learning assignment. Craft related meanings conveyed in various ways through the short films that craft teacher students had produced.
  • Hannula, Juha (2015)
    Ambient mass spectrometry includes methods where ions are produced outside of the mass spectrometry in atmospheric pressure direct from the surface of the sample without sample preparation. The first and most popular ambient ionization methods are DESI, desorption electrospray ionization and DART, direct analysis in real time. DAPPI, desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization is an ionization method where samples are desorbed with hot vapor from surface and then ionized by photoionization. The aim of this study was to develop desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization method in transmission geometry. In transmission geometry hot vapor for microchip is directed through metal or polymer meshes to mass spectrometer inlet. Liquid samples can be analyzed either by soaking the mesh to liquid sample or apply a sample droplet to the mesh. Hot vapor desorbs analytes from the mesh and analytes are ionized in a gas phase by photoionization using VUV lamp. In this method optimal positioning of the mesh and the microchip was determined. Additionally optimal microchip heating power, dopant flow rate, nebulizer gas flow rate, capillary voltage and drying gas parameters were determined. Optimized method was applied for analyzing standard samples, vitamin juice samples and milk samples. According the analysis with authentic samples, transmission mode DAPPI can be applied for analyzing liquid samples without sample preparation. According the analysis with standard samples, transmission mode DAPPI can be applied for extraction of hydrophobic analytes from water samples. Comparing to conventional DAPPI, in transmission mode DAPPI spectra, intensities of the background ions are lower resulting higher signal-to-noise ratios with transmission mode DAPPI.
  • Aliranta, Tiina (2019)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmassani tutkin kulttuuristen identiteettien rakentumista transnationaalisesta näkökulmasta Chimamanda Ngozi Adichien teoksessa Americanah. Tavoitteenani on todistaa, että Americanahissa rakentuvat transnationaaliset kulttuuriset identiteetit ovat hybridejä, jotka tuotetaan performatiivisesti suhteessa ympäröivään yhteiskuntaan, kulttuureihin ja ideologioihin. Osoitan myös kuinka teoksen henkilöhahmojen omaksumien kulttuuristen identiteettien synnyttämä vastustus on sidoksissa näiden identiteettien ylirajaiseen luonteeseen. Metodina toimii laadullinen analyysi lähiluvun avulla. Hyödynnän tutkielmassa Paul Jayn teoretisointia transnationaalisesta kirjallisuudentutkimuksesta ja selvitän, miksi olen päätynyt tutkailemaan Americanahia kyseisessä viitekehyksessä. Hyödynnän muun muassa Stuart Hallin teoretisointia kulttuurisesta identiteetistä, Homi K. Bhabhan teoriaa hybridisistä identiteeteistä ja Judith Butlerin tuotantoa performatiivisuudesta tutkielmani analyysiosion tukena. Tutkielmassa etenen liikkuvuuden ja kotiinpalaamisen teorioiden ja teemojen kautta tarkempaan Americanahin ylirajaisten kulttuuristen identiteettien tarkasteluun. Kartoitan hybridisten identiteettien suhdetta stereotypioihin ja essentialistisiin identiteetteihin. Tarkastelen myös paikan ja identiteetin välistä suhdetta kietomalla teoksessa keskeisen kielenkäytön teeman teoriaan. Eräs teoksen keskeisistä teemoista on mustat identiteetit ja “mustaksi tuleminen” (becoming black) ja pyrin tutkielmassani tarkastelemaan teoksessa esitettyjen mustien identiteettien rakentumista hybrideinä. Teoksen päähenkilö joutuu opettelemaan millaista on olla mustaihoinen Yhdysvalloissa ja analyysissa käsittelen yksityiskohtaisesti sitä, miten tämä kokemus vaikuttaa hänen kulttuurisiin identiteetteihinsä. Päädyn siihen lopputulokseen, että Americanah on transnationaalinen teos. Hallin teoriaa seuraten kaikki kolonalisaation uhreiksi joutuneet kulttuuriset identiteetit ovat väistämättä ylirajaisia ja ne konstruoidaan historiallisessa ja kulttuurisessa jatkumossa. Erityisesti teoksen päähenkilön kulttuuristen identiteettien hybridiys näkyy muun muassa siinä, kuinka hän joutuu navigoimaan itseään välitilassa, ollen aina muiden silmissä afroamerikkalaisuuden edustaja, vaikka häneltä puuttuu afroamerikkalaisuuten sisältyvä kulttuurinen historia. Americanahissa esitetyt kulttuuriset identiteetit muodostuvat toistojen kautta, peilautuen ympäröivän yhteiskunnan ideologioihin ja stereotypioihin. Identiteetin performatiivisuus teoksessa viittaa butlerilaisittain siihen, että toistamisella ja toiminnallisuudella luodaan identiteettiä, eli identiteetti syntyy sitä tuotettaessa.
  • Lovio, Ilari (2013)
    This Master’s Thesis studies the multi-local family ties, transnational practices and social dynamics behind remittances in the context of Senegalese and Gambian migrants in Finland. Transnationalism refers to the ways migrants continue to be active in communities of origin, and thus participate in familial, social, economic, religious, political and cultural processes that span across national, geographic and cultural borders. This study focuses on transnationalism in the sphere of family life. Transnationalism is a central approach in contemporary international migration scholarship, and has gradually gained attention in the Finnish context. Migration in the West African countries of Senegal and Gambia is a common way of achieving socio-economic upward mobility and transnational practices of migrants are prevalent. The research questions of this Thesis are: 1) How family ties in Finland shape the transnational engagement of Senegambian migrants? and 2) How expectations of remittances shape the transnational family ties of Senegambian migrants, and how are remittances negotiated? In answering these questions the study draws from the theoretical orientation of transnationalism and the formulation of transnationalism as social spaces. In addition, concepts of relativizing and frontiering and an analytical framework of asymmetries in transnational relations are employed. The data of the study is gathered by conducting 12 semi-structured interviews with Senegalese and Gambian migrants residing in Finland, mapping the participants’ transnational relations and practices, ties and opportunities in Finland, and representations related to migration in Senegal and Gambia. The methods of qualitative analysis employed are thematic analysis and an analysis strategy of multiple case design. The findings show that the participants of the study are engaged in transnational practices that mostly locate themselves in the sphere of family life. At the same time, nearly all participants have family ties with Finns, which enables mobility and transnationalism, but at the same time attaches migrants to Finland in a way that also has implications for the transnational engagement. Migrants’ family and migration trajectories are shaped by different familial obligations and socio-economic opportunity structures in the different locations of the transnational social space. Transnational family ties are reproduced through communication and remittances, but due to high expectations of remittances, relationships are continuously negotiated. Remittances are shaped by cultural dynamics and norms associated with an ‘African family’ are reproduced, but also questioned. However, frustration in transnational relations can be better explained by examining spatial dynamics, and looking into the asymmetries within transnational relations. The study provides important sociological information on the role of transnationalism among migrant groups in Finland. It also shows the need for further study and to bridge the gap between research on transnational families and bi-cultural families.
  • Kauber, Sten (2015)
    The master’s thesis approaches border-crossing material practices of Estonians living and working in Finland through material culture research and the notion of transnationalism, and with an anthropological stance. As the immigration of Estonians into Finland is constantly increasing, the aim is to explore what kind of material objects do they carry from Estonia to Finland and vice versa, as well as to find out to what practices and processes these objects are connected. The thesis analyses cross-border relations, processes and practices with the help of transnational material practices in order to perceive how transnationalism is a part of everyday life of Estonians. Thus, the process of formation of the transnational space is also explored. The data of the research was collected by semi-structured interviews, group discussions, following social media and keeping fieldwork diary. Eighteen people were interviewed during the fieldwork, five of whom were key informants. Three of them were female at the age of 27–50+ and two were male at the age of 40 and 58. The data was collected in Greater Helsinki, Lahti and on ferries between Helsinki and Tallinn, from August up to December 2014. The thesis used content analysis as a data analysis method. The analysis indicates that the border-crossing material practices of the informants are interconnected with structuring the everyday life, relations and transnational process both in Estonia and Finland. The study concludes that the objects which were carried and are carried from Estonia to Finland operate as parts of the processes materializing the past, establishing continuity and managing cross-border social relations. Such objects and the practice of using them expand the temporal and spatial agency and belonging of the migrants and the persons somehow related to them which appears in the fact that these objects are linked to a certain time, place and person. According to the study the continuity of taste preferences and habits is created with the help of the foodstuffs and objects which are carried to Finland on an ongoing basis. The data also indicates that the sense of home and belonging both in Finland and Estonia is constituted through certain transnational material practices. The thesis also focuses on the objects that are carried from Finland to Estonia and on material practices conducted in Estonia. Such objects are often carried at request or for a gift and used to help to maintain social relations, express affection and pursue conventional social practices. Continuing using certain services, which give a material result, especially in Estonia is interpreted as a part of processes that ensure continuity, maintain connections and organize sense of belonging in Estonia. The analysis concludes that the transnational material practices are part of the process establishing and maintaining the transnational space between Estonia and Finland. It is stated in the study that material culture as an approach offers a diverse and context-specific perspective on the cross-border practices and attachments of migrants. The study thus illustrates the potency of such focus to analyse different sociocultural, political and economic aspects of the phenomenon.
  • Paul, Susanna (2013)
    People are internationally increasingly mobile which is why moving should be rather seen as a lifestyle than something exceptional and exotic as tourism research has traditionally viewed traveling. The new mobility paradigm in the tourism field in fact suggests that tourism should be seen as a part of everyday life. When people move more they are also in contact with more places. The new transnational research, that has predominantly been applied in migration studies, is interested in how mobile people form relationships with the different places that they have spent time in, in other words how they form a sense of place. Traditional migration studies has rather focused on how migrants settle in the new place, whereas the new transnational research is interested in how people can feel a belonging to many places at the same time, thus forming a so called multiple sense of self and perhaps feel at home in many places. Exchange students represent one very mobile group of people. The exchange students desire an international experience whereas nations, cities and educational institutions see the students as an important asset in their aims of internationalization. Branding Helsinki an attractive student city was the topic of a work shop meeting in Autumn 2012 held between The University of Helsinki and the City of Helsinki. The significance of exchange-students for this brand was also highlighted. In this study exchange students are understood as educational tourists, and they were studied from the perspective of the new mobility paradigm as well as the new transnational research. The perspective is fresh because the general experiences of exchange students have not been studied a lot, let alone their sense of place. The aim of this study was to examine the exchange students at The University of Helsinki in the semester of 2012-2013 if and what kind of sense of place they formed. Interesting was to examine whether they formed a strong sense of place because according to transnational theories acquiring a multiple sense of place is possible for mobile groups of people. The sense of place was defined through the concepts of emotional and functional attachment to place. The concepts were examined by analyzing how the students settled in Helsinki, if they felt at home, if they felt local and how they felt that the exchange affected their future mobility. Another aim of the study was to examine which specific aspects of Helsinki affected the sense of place of the students and to suggest how these findings could be of help in suggesting how to brand Helsinki an internationally attractive student city. As a method 25 semi structured interviews with exchange students between January and March of 2013 were performed. The method was suitable for this fresh topic because it allowed for the voice of the students to be heard. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. The results show that the students were emotionally and functionally very attached to Helsinki. They settled in well, felt at home and identified many positive tangible and intangible aspects of the city. This argues for the fact that they had acquired a strong sense of place. The students experienced the city in the company of other people, but the individual experiences were important too. The students did however not feel like locals in the city. The study nevertheless proved that in order to acquire a strong sense of place, one does not have to feel local. The background theories demonstrate that also temporary residents and visitors can acquire a strong sense of place. The findings imply that acquiring a multiple sense of place (in their home country and Helsinki) is indeed possible. The fact that the students felt that they were living a mobile lifestyle now and in the future also speaks for a multiple sense of place. The results show that the exchange students appreciate the friendly Finns, the climate, the greenness of the city and the working society in Helsinki. Therefore this study suggests that these aspects should be used to brand Helsinki an internationally attractive student city in order to accomplish the internationalization aims of both the City of Helsinki and The University of Helsinki.
  • Mezza, Anita (2022)
    Objectives. Internationally, concern for public health trends, such as the spread of STIs and the prevalence of early and unintended pregnancies, has driven the development of school-based sexuality education programmes. Transnational organisations produce policy recommendations for sexuality education, often published as part of broader documents. Previous research has shown that moralising discourses remain prevalent in health promotion, and that political processes shape the work of transnational organisations. Through a document analysis, I aim to explore the problematisations and discourses that ground normative claims by transnational organisations on school-based sexuality education. Methods. Bacchi’s poststructural What’s the Problem Represented to be? (WPR) approach was used to analyse four documents authored by four transnational organisations (the EC, the EWL, the OECD and UNESCO), by means of a critical discourse analysis approach to document analysis. The WPR approach was complemented with reference to Jones’s sexuality education discourse framework. The documents, published between 2020 and 2021, were freely accessible online in English, and their geographical scope included Europe. Results and conclusions. My analysis found that recommendations are strongly grounded in a preventive ethos that views young people as vulnerable, yet assigns them responsibility over decision making in matters related to their sexuality. While the authoring organisations are aware of a need to diminish the focus of sexuality education on risks and disease, they employ the language of health pervasively. The language of health dominates discussion of not just physical well-being, but also of mental and social dimensions. The analysis found a liberal discourse orientation to be prevalent in the data, despite the presence of some critical discourses in documents by the EWL and the OECD. This range of discourses coincides with the use of cis-heteronormative language. The contribution of this thesis is an invitation to envision sexuality education policy possibilities beyond the dominant discourses.
  • Autio, Antti (2018)
    Major infrastructure projects have increased in East Africa during the past years. The main aim of these projects is usually to develop regional integration and provide growth potential for national economies. The investments are typically rationalised by improving local accessibility, diminution in transport costs and opening of economies to global markets. The sustainable development of transport networks in Global South is hindered by the network structures formed during colonial times which were not primely meant to increase general and equal regional development. Moreover, the post-monitoring and previous research have revealed that the socio-economic development expectations bestowed upon these projects have not often been realised and thus the viability of the major investments have become under scrutiny. Geography is concerned over spatial interaction and dynamics between regions, and therefore it has an established position in infrastructure related development research. Transport and development research has shifted its focus in the 21st century from the study of transport network development, rural development and mathematic cost-benefit modelling to the study of political frameworks in transport planning, which this study also represents. The case study of this research is the joint road construction project between Voi and Arusha by the Kenyan and Tanzanian governments which began in 2012 and is expected to be fully completed in 2018. More precisely the research is focused on the Taita Taveta County in Kenya. The research uses semi-structured interviews made in January and February 2016 to compare the development and impact expectations of local stakeholders to the environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) drafted regarding the project. A qualitative data analysis is conducted to the interview data which is complemented with field observations and previous literature. The results of the study indicate that the views and personal experiences of the local administration, county planners and other stakeholders differ from both each other and from the ESIA. The results also demonstrate that the ESIA was not able to predict all adverse impacts that has come up during the construction phase. Also, it did not take into consideration to various developmental threats expressed by the local administration. Especially problematic was seen the issues regarding sustainable infrastructure, land use planning, land ownership rights and the capacity of the local administration to respond to the challenges brought by the new road. The impacts of the improved road will be significant to the development of the county but their control needs attention. The conclusion is that transport planning in Kenya and in East Africa should be able to integrate more holistically with urban planning so that the expected development brought by the investments would be controlled. Moreover, the planning units of counties require adequate resources and capacity building to be able to respond to the indirect land use pressure emerged from the projects. The relationship between transport investments, socio-economic development and land use planning requires further research in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Lauri, Mari (2012)
    This thesis explores transnational migrant spaces in the social media. Transnational migrants are an important resource to the development of the country of origin, especially those in the developing world. Migrants with a feeling of belonging to the country of origin and a cultural identity connected to it transfer economic, political, social and cultural benefits there. Social media has added a new medium to create and recreate feelings of belonging and cultural identity in virtual migrant communities. The aim of this study is to examine these virtual migrant communities: to see how migrants construct their cultural identities, maintain relationships and create networks as a part of such a community. The study focuses on five Dominican migrant sites in Facebook and examines the economic, political, social and cultural dimensions of transnationalism present on the sites and looks at the specific aspects of virtual communality. The discussions on the sites were followed throughout the year 2010. A content analysis with a theory-guided approach is employed so that the data was the starting point and theory was used as an instrument of analysis. The analysis revealed that political and cultural topics received most attention on the sites examined. Politics of both Dominican Republic and the US were critically discussed. Although a driving force behind migration, economic topics received less attention. Shared experiences and sharing everyday life events was an important part of the discussions and of social transnational practices creating the feeling of a community. Some sites themselves proved to be examples of social transnational practices. Dominican identity appeared in many ways in the discussions. The dominant discourse on these sites was the pride of being a Dominican. As elsewhere in the surrounding society of the migrants the categories for self-identification are often imposed upon Dominicans, here they could and did define their own Dominican identity with the identity markers they saw as relevant. This identity was structured around language, historical, ethnic and racial identity markers that form the core of the Dominican identity. Particularly interesting was the discussion regarding ethnicity and race as a concept and the racial categorizations in the US differ from those of the Dominican Republic. The identity and community were further reproduced in cultural practices, especially in discussions concerning food, music, dance and literature. It was also reflected in social practices in shared experiences that are typical to specifically Dominicans. The communities contained features typical for both migrant communities as well as for virtual communities. The study concludes that social media offers an avenue for various practices useful in the migration-development nexus. It can be used in intra-diaspora communication, as the groups examined did to provide sociability, support, information, sense of belonging and identity. It can be used to include second- and third generation migrants in transnational communities. Diaspora-home communication between the country of origin government or communities and the migrants at an individual or migrant community level has not yet reached its full potential. Social media’s role could be, for example, in improving openness and transparency of government in the country-of origin as well as informing of services offered in migrants’ destination communities. This new media is not equally available to all but should be embraced wherever possible also in the migration and development contexts.
  • Tuomenvirta, Kaarna (2019)
    Tässä sukupuolentutkimuksen alan tutkielmassa analysoin, millä tavalla transsukupuolisista hahmoista kerrotaan 2000-luvun alun suomalaisessa kirjallisuudessa. Millaisia aiheita transhahmoihin yhdistetään ja miten heistä kerrotaan? Aiempi tutkimus (Detloff 2006, Bettcher 2014, Johnson 2016) osoittaa, että transsukupuolisuuteen liitetään usein lääketiedettä koskevia puhetapoja, ja transhahmojen kohtalot ovat usein traagisia. Tutkielmassani vertaan aineistostani löytyviä aiheita ja kerrontatapoja aiempiin tuloksiin. Aineistoni kattaa lyriikkaa ja salapoliisiromaaneja lukuun ottamatta kaikki Suomessa 2000-2016 julkaistut teokset, joissa on keskeinen transhahmo. Aineistooni kuuluu 11 romaania, yksi romaanitrilogia sekä tähän trilogiaan liittyvä novelli. Luen aineistoani yhdessä transtutkimuksen tutkimuskirjallisuuden kanssa. Metodinani on kirjallisuudentutkimus yhdistettynä sukupuolentutkimukseen ja transtutkimukseen. Esitän työssäni luentoja ja tulkintoja aineistostani ja käyn keskustelua alan aiemman tutkimuksen (esim. Prosser 1998, Wickman 2001, Detloff 2006, Johnson 2016) kanssa näistä tulkinnoista. Tutkimusaiheeni ja -menetelmäni on poliittinen, sillä teen tutkielmassani näkyväksi niitä normeja, joita kaunokirjallisissa teoksissa transihmisyydestä toistetaan. Luen teoksia sekä päähenkilön asemaan eläytyen, vastahankaan että konstruoimani cissukupuolisen, eli ei-transsukupuolisen, lukijan näkökulmasta. Esitän analyysini tulokset kolmessa luvussa, joista ensimmäinen käsittelee kaapista tulemisen narratiivia, toinen sukupuolidysforian representaatioita ja kolmas normeja teosten kerronnassa. Havainnoin, että kaapista tuleminen on osa transhahmojen tarinaa ja se usein etenee jo aiemmin teoretisoidun psykologisen mallin mukaan (esim. Klein et al. 2005). Moni transhahmo tulee lukijalle kaapista lääketieteen termejä käyttäen, minkä väitän vahvistavan transsukupuolisuuden liitettyä lääketieteellistä puhetapaa. Sama lääketieteellinen puhetapa näkyy myös sukupuolidysforian representaatioissa. Teokset kuvaavat sukupuolidysforiaa paljolti “väärä keho” -metaforaa käyttäen. Lopullisena ratkaisukeinona sukupuolidysforiaan esitetään lääketieteellinen, kirurginen hoito. Analysoin transhahmojen suhteita yhteisöjensä normeihin heteronormatiivisuuden ja maagisten hetkien käsitteiden avulla. Teoksissa transhahmojen mahdollinen heterous vaatii aina neuvottelua itsen ja yhteisön kanssa, sillä pääsy eri heterouden aspekteille (Rossi 2006) ei ole transhahmoille itsestään selvää. Maagisten hetkien käsitteellä Prosser (1998) tarkoittaa hetkiä, joissa omaelämäkerran transkertojan sukupuoli ikään kuin kääntyy. Sovellan käsitettä kaunokirjallisuuteen ja kehitän sille alakäsitteen ‘käänteinen maaginen hetki’, joka kuvaa tilannetta, jossa transhahmon sukupuoli “kääntyy” ulkopuolisen toimijan vaikutuksesta. Maagiset hetket vievät teosten juonia eteenpäin. Aineistossani transhahmojen esittämiseen käytetään erilaisia kerronnallisia tapoja, mutta teoksista on tunnistettavissa yhteisiä elementtejä, kuten medikalisoiva puhetapa, kaapista tulemisen kertomuksen eteneminen vaiheittain, dysforian kuvaus “väärä keho” -metaforaa käyttäen sekä konfliktit tai neuvottelut heteronormatiivisuuden kanssa.
  • Lehtinen, Aino (2022)
    Objective: Individuals whose gender identity differs from their sex assigned at birth are referred to as transgender or trans. During growth from childhood to adolescence, young trans people may experience a disconnect between their gender identity and societal norms, which may contribute to the development of mental health problems or being bullied. Many trans-identifying adolescents aim to access gender-reaffirming treatment, however this requires access to, and thorough assessments performed in, a specialist healthcare setting. An imperative element of gender identity services is an assessment performed by a psychologist, who is required to provide a statement commenting on the readiness of the young person to proceed with gender-affirming treatments. This study explores mental health symptomology and exacerbating life experiences described by young people seeking gender-affirming treatment from gender identity services. A secondary aim is to understand the characteristics of the symptomology that contribute to the psychologist’s statement and conclusions regarding the patient’s readiness to proceed with physiological treatments. The final objective of this study relates to the guidance provided by the Council for Choices in Healthcare (COHERE) in the summer of 2020, which outlines criteria to be considered when referring underage patients to gender health services in Finland. This study explores whether adolescents’ symptom presentation, as assessed using various clinical outcome assessment (COA) instruments, has changed following the introduction of the COHERE guidelines. Methods: Study data (n = 102) was collected during spring 2022, consisting of records of psychologists’ assessments completed at the HUS gender identity services clinic between 2017 and 2022. Several categorical variables were extracted from the psychologist’s reports concerning the youths’ background information, psychological wellbeing, social strains and resources, as well as information on patients’ gender identity formation and expression. Additionally, patient scores across six COA instruments (SCL-90, PQ-92, YSQ, A-DES, TAQ and Minäkuvataulukko) were extracted. Categorical and numerical data were both described using sample statistics. Additionally, relationships between patient scores on instruments and psychologist’s statements, as well as any changes in patient scores following the introduction of the COHERE guidelines, were analysed using the χ2-test. Results and conclusions: A substantial amount of psychiatric symptomology, suicidality and social issues, such as bullying victimization, were recorded as part of the adolescent’s personal histories. However, the same adolescents often reported very few or no psychiatric symptoms as part of COA instruments administered, and on some domains no symptoms were reported by the majority of participants. It appeared that reporting very few or no symptoms on some of the domains was linked to a psychologist’s statement in favour of proceeding with gender affirming treatment. With respect to a change in reporting of symptoms following the introduction of the COHERE guidelines, more, less and the same number of symptoms were reported. However, it is important to note that reporting general psychological distress on the SCL-90 was significantly reduced after the implementation of the COHERE guidelines.
  • Krabbe, Kaisa (2023)
    Objectives. The gender identity of a transgender person does not align with the sex assigned to them at birth. Transgender adolescents experience, on average, more mental health issues compared to their cisgender peers, at least partly because of the discrepancy between their gender identity and the sex assigned to them at birth. Hence, many trans adolescents want to access gender-affirming treatment. To gain access, one must go through a gender identity assessment period. The psychologist's evaluation as part of the assessment aims to address whether the adolescent’s developmental stage and psychological resources are sufficient for progressing in the gender-affirming process, but the weight of the psychologist's assessment in decision-making has not been examined. Successful gender-affirming treatments, such as hormone replacement therapy, can reduce mental health issues in transgender adolescents and improve their quality of life, but there is limited research evidence on the impact of hormone replacement therapy on general well-being. The primary objective of this study is to investigate whether the psychologist's recommendation influences the decisions made by the multidisciplinary team regarding the progression of transgender adolescents in the gender-affirming process. The second objective is to examine how the psychological well-being of adolescents evolves during the first two years of hormone therapy. Methods. The study sample (n = 128) consists of all the individuals whose psychologist's evaluation, as part of the HUS adolescent psychiatry gender identity assessment period, was completed between 2017 and 2022. A portion of the data was collected in spring 2022 as part of a previous master's thesis, and it was expanded for this study during the summer and fall of 2022. The impact of the psychologist's recommendation on team decisions was examined using logistic regression analysis, and the statistical differences were assessed using the chi-square test. Demographic variables and well-being during the assessment period were examined using descriptive statistics. The influence of comorbidities and psychiatric history on well-being progression was examined using ordinal regression. Results and conclusions. The psychologist's evaluation is strongly associated with the team's decision, although there was not complete unanimity between the team and the psychologist. Differences mostly occurred in situations where the psychologist identified obstacles to progression, but the team decided to recommend hormone therapy. Most of the transgender adolescents showed positive change in well-being, either improving or maintaining neutral or good well-being. Adolescents with more severe symptoms, a history of self-harm, and/or various psychiatric issues appeared to benefit the most from hormone therapy. Going forward, psychological well-being during hormone therapy should be closely monitored, and practices related to it should be standardized in collaboration with adolescent psychiatry, adolescent gynaecology, and transgender services for adults.
  • Aaltonen, Jonna (2016)
    Internationellt skiljeförfarande mellan utländska investerare och stater har blivit ett populärt tvistlösningsförfarande under de senaste årtiondena och antalet investeringstvister har ökat explosionsartat. De materiella frågorna som avgörs berör allt oftare frågor som miljöskydd, folkhälsa, hållbar utveckling eller sociala och ekonomiska rättigheter. Även utomstående har således ett stort intresse - och en rättighet - i att få information om förfarandet. Trots detta har investeringstvisterna traditionellt sett varit sekretessbelagda och inte varit tillgängliga för allmänheten. Samtidigt som investerar-stat skiljeförfarande används i allt större utsträckning, så har det inom område av internationella mänskliga rättigheter utvecklats en annan rättighet; rätten till myndighetsinformation. Rätten till myndighetsinformation innebär att allmänheten ska ha rätt till information om statens och dess myndigheters agerande. Den här avhandlingen diskuterar problematiken kring sekretess i investerar-stat skiljeförfarande och analyserar hur de nya bestämmelserna för öppenhet och transparens, UNCITRAL:s transparensregler, inverkar på tryggande av allmänhetens rätt till innehållet i investeringstvisterna. Avhandlingen är indelad i 6 kapitel. Kapitel 1 innehåller information om avhandlingens upplägg, metoder, källor och avgränsning. Kapitel 2 fungerar som en allmän inledning till ämnet. Jag diskuterar hur investerar-stat skiljeförfarandet utvecklats och därefter behandlar jag investeringstvisternas mångfacetterade natur. Jag presenterar de olika regelverken som tillämpas på investeringstvister och förhållandet mellan dem samt diskuterar även kort för- och nackdelar med transparens i investeringstvister samt utvecklingen mot ökad transparens. I kapitel 3 analyserar jag innehållet i rätten till myndighetsinformation. Jag behandlar rätten till myndighetsinformation som en del av yttrandefriheten. Jag analyserar förutom innehållet i rättigheten även de krav som ställs på en inskränkning för att inskränkningen ska vara berättigad. Jag avslutar kapitel tre med att argumentera för att den information som ingår i investeringstvister omfattas av definitionen av myndighetsinformation och därmed ska vara offentlig i samma utsträckning som all annan myndighetsinformation. I kapitel 4 går jag över till att behandla UNCITRAL:s transparensregler. Jag analyserar utgående från slutsatsen i kapitel 3 huruvida artikel 2–6 i UNCITRAL:s transparensregler kan trygga att rätten till myndighetsinformation förverkligas i samband med investerar-stat skiljeförfarande. Jag kommer fram till att UNCITRAL:s transparensregler erbjuder en god möjlighet till att trygga rätten till myndighetsinformation men att det är tillämpningen av undantagsreglerna i artikel 7 som slutligen avgör om den här möjligheten förverkligas eller inte. I kapitel 5 analyserar jag om undantagsbestämmelserna i artikel 7 i transparensreglerna möter de krav som rätten till myndighetsinformation ställer på tillåtna inskränkningar av rätten till myndighetsinformation. I det här kapitlet analyserar jag även hur tillämpningsområdet påverkar det skydd transparensreglerna erbjuder. I kapitel sex sammanfattas avhandlingens centrala slutsatser: att UNCITRAL:s transparensregler erbjuder en god möjlighet till tryggandet av rätten till myndighetsinformation men att undantagsbestämmelserna i artikel 7 och transparensreglernas snäva tillämpningsområde är för oförutsägbara, vilket innebär att rätten till myndighetsinformation inte på ett tillfredsställande sätt kan anses tryggad i UNCITRAL:s transparensregler. Jag diskuterar även möjliga åtgärder för att korrigera situationen.
  • Antikainen, Alex (2021)
    The context of corporate transactions necessitates mechanisms of risk allocation that allow acquirors and sellers to allocate the inherent uncertainty in transactions according to their own risk preferences. A key tool for managing the deal risk is the “Material Adverse Change” clause (MAC clause) that has been developed in the Anglo-American legal environment. Drafted as a conditions precedent, it grants the acquiror the option of walking away from the deal if a change that is sufficient to trigger the clause occurs. Because of its origin in the Anglo-American common law, this thesis analyses the clause as a legal transplant, which concerns the situation when the original function and meaning of a legal concept might change when it interacts with a new legal environment. Ignoring the differences between the legal systems when transplanting a contractual mechanism to a new environment might result in a misguided expectation that the clause operates as in the original legal system. The research aims to demonstrate the Finnish court’s readiness to interpret the MAC clause as a formulation of the parties’ intentions, and whether the interpretation reflects the negotiated risk allocation, preserving the clause’s economic purpose. More specifically, the thesis asks whether Finnish parties can use the MAC clause to allocate the deal risk in their transaction to the same extent as Anglo-American practitioners, and whether the drafting practice of including the MAC clause fulfils the parties’ strategic objectives with similar efficiency. Because of the multilateral aims, this thesis interweaves several approaches. The main sources for the legal dogmatic argumentation are Finnish and Nordic. While the thesis remains a legal dogmatic study that systemizes the MAC clause solely in the Finnish contract law, the thesis utilizes several foreign legal sources, primary Anglo-American, why elements from comparative legal research are used. Moreover, viewing the MAC clause as a functional tool for ex-ante risk allocation illuminates its economic purpose, why the thesis also weighs arguments from the field of law and economics. The comparative elements and viewpoints from law and economics strengthen the legal dogmatic analysis. From a legal perspective of transaction agreements, the MAC clause is directly related to the juxtaposition between the doctrines of changed circumstances and the sanctity of contract. Apparent differences exist in how Anglo-American and Nordic contract law respectively approach the justification of deviating from the sanctity of contract for the purpose of upholding a flexibility towards changes in contractual circumstances. Contracts in the Anglo-American legal culture are deemed more as technical tools for risk allocation rather than as fair and balanced systemizations of the parties rights and obligations. In agreements between commercial parties however, both legal systems are very reluctant to find exceptions to the sanctity of contract, which incentivizes parties to include flexibility to their contracts. The thesis identifies four main functions of the MAC clause. First, it shifts the deal risk of changed circumstances from the buyer to the seller and allows for decreased information asymmetries. Secondly and thirdly, the MAC clause’s function is described with the symmetry and investment theories. Lastly, the clause has a function in renegotiations and creates renegotiation leverage. In Anglo-American case law, the MAC clause has been interpreted strictly. The courts have adopted a fact specific approach in interpretation that emphasizes extrinsic evidence, required that the adverse change is viewed from a long-term perspective, and restricted the MAC clause only to be applicable on unknown events. It is argued that based on the general principles and theories of contract interpretation in the Finnish courts, termination of a transaction agreement pursuant to the MAC clause would be possible on less strict grounds than termination under the contract doctrines of changed circumstances. The MAC clause thus reaches its minimum threshold for when it can be considered impact the agreement. The thesis argues that including the MAC clause as conditions precedent to the transaction agreement is a clear indication that the parties prefer to deviate from the contract doctrines. The economic functions of the MAC clause are argued to have evident effects on the negotiation and transaction dynamics. The conclusion is reached that the MAC clause, when transplanted from the Anglo-American common law, preserves the economic purpose and reflects the parties’ negotiated risk allocation in transaction agreements governed by Finnish law.
  • Lukkari, Lasse (2014)
    The Internet Of Things (IoT) has been a buzzword for the past decade. While IoT focuses on getting devices connected to the global Internet and other existing networks with new novel communication medias and protocols Web Of Things (WoT), a sidekick of the IoT, is recycling the current web development patterns and tools to integrate everyday objects to the existing World Wide Web. In WoT the idea is to realize the IoT concept using the current web standards and practices. In order to do so WoT uses the REST architectural style implemented on top of the HTTP already in use all over the Internet. The WoT concept can be taken a step further to allow the communications over other protocol stacks than the traditional TCP. By implementing the HTTP client and server components so that they don't directly operate the underlying transport protocol but instead use an abstraction layer between, we are able to switch the whole protocol stack without making any changes to the actual software logic that is built on top of the components. A device designed to be controlled over Ethernet can be for example be managed over any number of compliant media such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and serial port communications.
  • Ghasemi Falk, Homa (2019)
    Greenhouse gases are essential in controlling the surface temperature of the Earth. Methane is one of the most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. it has an important role in the atmospheric chemical processes, and its atmospheric concentration has increased dramatically from pre-industrial time. In 2006, studies revealed that terrestrial plants are capable of emitting methane under aerobic conditions which led to the conclusion that the contribution of forests to the global methane budget needs to be considered. In my thesis the aim was to assess the capacity of boreal tree stems to transport methane, to quantify the radial diffusivity of methane in the stem of different tree species and evaluate the effects of various factors on regulating stem gas transport. Gas transport of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) and Birches (Betula pubescens) tree stems were examined in the laboratory under controlled conditions. The results highlighted that birch stem samples have a higher methane stem fluxes compared to pine samples. The result also indicated that birches accumulated less methane inside the stem compare with pine samples. One of the most significant findings from this study is that birch stem samples have the higher average methane and carbon dioxide diffusivity compared to pine samples. This finding also explains the smaller accumulated methane gas inside the birch stems compared to pine stems. Also, the differences in the diffusivity may result from differences in the anatomical composition of these tree species, including heartwood, sapwood, bark tissue and lenticel densities.
  • Walden, Ella (2023)
    This thesis studies the relationship between resistance and transportation infrastructure. The aim is to explore the links between the material and cultural contexts around strategically important transportation infrastructure and social movements with strategies to disrupt the flows of infrastructural networks. These issues are studied through the case of the civic strike of Buenaventura and related social mobilisation during the period of 2017-2022, in which the operations of one of Colombia’s most strategic ports have been brought to a halt for weeks at a time. The study examines the context of the strike through the theoretical frameworks of extractivist capital, infrastructure related grievances, racism, and structural unemployment caused by dispossession. The thesis discusses the themes of ethno-territorial conflict and colonialism using various theorists from the field of development studies and political sciences. This thesis portrays how the mobilisation in Buenaventura stems from the historical process in which the Afro-Colombian communities have created and defended an alternative model for development that highlights the collective rights of local communities. This thesis was conducted as a qualitative case study that uses content analysis as a method of analysis. This ethnographically oriented research was conducted as participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, and integrative literary research. The data consists of NGO reports and interviews with local activists, social leaders, academics, and government officials, alongside an in-depth theoretical review. This study shows that traditional ways of understanding capital and labour resistance offer useful information but are not adequate for explaining the context behind social movements targeting infrastructural networks. Rather than resorting to traditional means of labour suppression, the division between local communities and infrastructural actors has been created through processes of exclusion, leading to a situation in which local communities have little access to the port and the wealth generated by its activities. The analysis led to the conclusion that issues of land rights, colonialism, infrastructural development, violence, and corruption are all embedded in the dynamics of state neglect towards the communities around the port of Buenaventura.
  • Krigsholm, Pauliina (2016)
    The effects of public capital on economic growth have been widely examined in empirical studies during the past few decades. This thesis analyses the dynamic effects of transport infrastructure capital, a subgroup of public capital, in Finland on two levels of geographic hierarchy. Using both national and regional dimensions in the analysis allows the evaluation of the spillover effects that public investments in transport infrastructure are suggested to produce according to earlier literature. In this thesis, the impact of transport infrastructure capital on regional growth is studied within the multivariate time series framework. The important issues of the non-stationarity of the data and the existence of cointegrating relationships among variables in the long-run can be accounted for by using vector autoregressive (VAR) models. Moreover, the VAR approach does not impose any causal links between the variables a priori. This is particularly important in the context of this thesis since it is plausible to assume that shocks hitting output affect public capital spending and, therefore, also the level of transport infrastructure capital stock. For the estimation of direct transport infrastructure capital effects with the VAR approach four variables are used: the real gross domestic output produced, employment in number of workers, the net private non-residential capital stock, and the net transport infrastructure capital stock. All the series are for the period 1975—2004 and in year 2000 prices. In addition, for the purpose of evaluating the spillover effects, I estimate so-called effective transport infrastructure capital stock series that consist of inside-region and outside-region capital stocks for each region. The main empirical results of this thesis are based on the impulse response functions associated to the VARs estimated for Finland as a whole and for each Finnish region. The empirical results suggest that in Finland and in the majority of regions, the effects of transport infrastructure capital are negative. The negative responses of all other variables to a shock to the transport infrastructure capital variable indicate that private sector variables are substitutes to transport infrastructure capital. On regional level the estimated long-run elasticities are in general lower than the national level elasticities, implying the existence of negative spillover effects. My empirical results are in part contradictory to many previous studies, yet the response patterns are explicable in terms of economic theory. Assuming that the neoclassical production function is a valid representation of the relationship between the variables used, my results suggest that the marginal productivity of transport infrastructure capital is negative, which in turn implies that the transport infrastructure to output ratio is beyond its optimal level in most parts of Finland.