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  • Laine, Joakim (2019)
    The purpose of this study is to implement immersive virtual reality (VR) technology as part of an environmental studies project in the actual complex school reality and analyze both the students’ and their teachers’ experiences and observations on the use of VR in learning and teaching. This study focuses on the user experiences and affordances that the appliance of VR technology brings forth in education. There are but few earlier studies on similar topics, most of which have been conducted in clinical settings. Three teachers and 59 students, 5-6th graders, from two different Finnish elementary schools participated in this study. The participants were all volunteers and took part in a nationwide VISIOT-project, coordinated by a nationwide Innokas Network. Its main purpose was to provide opportunities for trying out and developing virtual reality, augmented reality and Internet of things -technologies in education. The three teachers in this study applied a VR system that consisted of HTC Vive -device and Google Earth VR -program. The different ways in which the teachers ended up implementing the VR system turned out to be an important research topic in this study. The project went on for over three months, spanning from December 2017 to April 2018. The students assessed the use of the VR system during and after the project. Their experiences became another key research area in this study. Data was gathered with online questionnaires, pre and post-surveys for students, a test of the students’ spatial reasoning abilities, and with a pre-survey and innovative post interviews for the teachers. This mostly qualitative data was analyzed with clustering content analysis, where I would find similarities and differences in the participants’ answers and place them in schematized categories. The teacher’s encountered technical, spatial and temporal challenges, as well as challenges in orchestrating the implementation of the VR system. It appeared that VR’s implementation in education demanded more innovative scripts and different spatial, temporal and pedagogical arrangements than the two studied schools were used to. Albeit, the students adapted to the use of VR technology rather quickly and had a very positive emotional experience with it. The VR system was mostly used as a motivational addition to learning. Besides the visually enhanced exploration of the Earth and tourist role-play, the VR system’s actualized affordances included enjoyment and interest, realism and mental immersion, and mastery experiences. Students found the device as very comfortable and the program as user-friendly. Their conception of virtual reality was evidently affected by the applied VR system and its uses during the virtual field trip project. Despite of this, the students were able to imagine diverse learning worlds for VR. In addition to typical categories, they imagined high fantasy worlds and time travelling to the future. By and large, the students appeared willing to use VR technology again in the future. Their post-survey measures for self-efficacy and interest to engage with the technology were relatively high. The self-reported self-efficacy of boys was statistically significantly higher than the girls corresponding. The students found the VR program to be a credible source mostly due to the virtual world’s realism or resemblance with their experiences of the real world. Altogether, VR technology appears to be something that these 11-12-year-old students would gladly include in their learning environment, on the other hand, the teachers rightfully felt that the implemented VR system was too complex and demanding for permanent inclusion.
  • Pöllänen, Niko (2020)
    In recent years, timber and forest management service sales have increasingly moved into electronic services. Combining this with distant ownership can create a situation where forest owners' knowledge about silviculture and forest management is in danger of diminishing. Poor understanding of the condition of one’s own forest and silviculture increases the need of trust towards the service provider. The purpose of this study is to find out how forest owners currently make timber sales and purchase forest management services. In addition, the focus will be on identifying the factors involved in the sales and purchase decision and how virtual reality fits into timber trade, the purchase of forest management services, and the services of forest owners. In this research, e-services and virtual reality on the customer path rose to special consideration. More specific research setting or research questions were not assigned for this research due to the nature of design ethnography and grounded theory, which are used in this research. Design ethnography and grounded theory methods were chosen as the research approach. The purpose of ethnography is to gain a wholesome understanding of the customers’ behavior, beliefs, and reasons behind their actions. The research was conducted by interviewing forest owners and following their journey during the timber sales and purchase of the forest management services. Methods of grounded theory was used to provide the academic framework for this research. Results show that one of the most important, if not the most important factor in decision-making and choosing a service partner, is trust, which also has an intergenerational influence. Research results showed antecedent trust factors to be customer-based (e.g., previous experience) or company-based (e.g., company values and quality of the services). Other important factors affecting trust and decision making are perceived risk and customer learning, which are interrelation with customer trust. The results of this research indicate that virtual reality can potentially increase customer trust toward the service provider under certain conditions. Virtual reality was also seen as having an impact on customer learning, which allows forest owners to learn the effects of different silviculture practices on their own forest. The results show that every customer segment can benefit from virtual reality. Inspecting the forest plan and seeing the effects of different forestry operations in the virtual reality were seen as the most significant benefits of the virtual reality. In addition, interviewees saw that including the ability to see the visualization of the expected future growth in virtual reality would facilitate decision making.
  • Lahtinen, Jutta (2021)
    Objectives. Virtual reality has gained a lot of interest with its new possibilities for teaching and learning, but research has focused on usability rather than lesson designs that support learning. The aim of this study is to examine how the elements of cooperative learning and relatedness are supported in a student group learning with one pair of VR headset. The study compared students’ experiences with a conventional workshop lesson and a lesson with a VR learning tool. Methods. The participants of this study were forestry students (N=35) both in upper secondary and higher education. Mixed methods were used, and data were collected using semi-structured thematic interviews and electronic surveys. The data consisted of two group interviews and one pair interview, as well as data from four surveys from each participant. The data were analysed with theory-driven thematic analysis and nonparametric quantitative methods. Results and conclusions. The results of this study showed that cooperative learning was less experienced in the lesson with a VR learning tool than in the lesson with a physical machine. VR tool was seen to encourage more individual work and decreasing communication between the user and the peers, negatively affecting the positive interdependence and promotive interaction between group members. The results also suggested that experiences of relatedness became stronger when changing from VR lesson to workshop and weakened when changing from workshop to VR, though these results were not statistically significant. The findings suggest that experiences with VR might be more positive when the tool is used as an introduction to a new topic in the studies. When cooperative learning of students is pursued, it is suggested that more focus should be laid on supporting positive interdependence and promotive interaction in a lesson design with a VR tool.
  • Kanerva, Taija (2015)
    This thesis is a comparative and qualitative study of Japanese and Western digital games and gaming cultures with the focus on the Japanese video games market. The objective is to find differences between Japanese and Western games and gaming cultures, and the thesis falls into the academic fields of game studies and cultural anthropology. This study attempts to give essential information for a Western game studio attempting to create commercial success in Japan, and to researchers of digital games or Japanese culture. The mechanics and in-game elements of 18 critically acclaimed and commercially successful Western and Japanese video games published between 1996 and 2014 are analyzed, and various other game titles of various genres are used to support or to counter the findings. To gain an understanding of game design, Japanese and Western cultural values, character design and other factors, several books, academic researches, articles, sales data, and different web pages related to the issue are studied alongside these games. Several games industry experts are also interviewed. According to sales data studied in this thesis, Japanese and Western gamers seem to prefer different gaming platforms and game genres. In addition, according to the case studies and other games studied, there are several differences between Japanese and Western digital games regarding game-mechanics, gameplay and other in-game elements. Firstly, Japanese games use a third-person camera whereas the ratio between first-person and third-person perspective is somewhat equally divided among Western games. In most of the Western games studied the player is offered significant freedom in the form of dialogue options, avatar customization and development, and choices which changed the course of the storyline and game-world. Instead in the Japanese games researched the protagonist is pre-determined, the game offers no dialogue options, and the player is not able to affect the storyline. There are also significant differences between the pre-determined player characters of Western and Japanese games. Furthermore, Western games seem to offer relatively photorealistic graphics and realistic or fantasy-realistic creatures and settings while the graphics in Japanese games are commonly cartoon-like and the games are recurrently situated in fantasy settings with imaginative creatures. Combat situations are also handled differently. Japanese games frequently use turn-based combat situated in a separate combat mode whereas Western gamers seem to prefer seeing the enemies on a map and issue commands in real-time. Saving mechanics also differ in that Western games commonly allow the player to save the game at any point whereas there is an equal division between saving points and being able to save freely among Japanese games. In addition, the characters in Japanese games are likely to co-operate and help other characters within the game while Western games seem to emphasize individual prowess. Moreover, there is a clear aversion to crime, graphic violence and sexual themes in Japanese games whereas some Western games include this kind of content. Finally, a lot of Japanese games seem to promote mechanics related to collecting creatures or objects, and characters suitable for cross-media commodification, making character design in these games extremely important. 
  • Granberg, Filip (2018)
    Avhandlingens mål var att studera en virtuell laboration inom optisk fysik, noggrannare sagt ljusets brytning. I avhandlingen forskades studerandes åsikter, missuppfattningar som uppstod och hur studeranden kunde konkretisera den virtuella laborationens kunskap i verkligheten. Deltagarna i forskningen studerade matematiskt-naturvetenskapliga ämnen, varav en del studerade fysiker första året vid Helsingfors universitet. Forskningen gick ut på att deltagarna utförde den virtuella laborationen ”Bending light” ( 1.8.2018). Under laborationen svarade deltagarna skriftligt på uppgifter om laborationen. Efter laborationen frågades tre situationsuppgifter genom att utnyttja den virtuella laborationens grafik. Deltagarna intervjuades före och efter de utfört laborationen. Deltagarnas skriftliga svar, muntliga svar och intervjuer användes för analysen. Slutsatsen som drogs i avhandlingen var att den virtuella laborationen fick god feedback av deltagarna. Missuppfattningarna som uppstod hos deltagarna kunde inte endast läggas på den virtuella laborationens axlar. Dock märktes det att den virtuella laborationens uppbyggnad, som liknade brytningsscheman, hade samma problem som då man lär sig ljusets brytning strikt via brytningsscheman. Deltagarnas förmåga att planera en verklig laboration blev bättre hos majoriteten av deltagarna.
  • Eskola, Jaana (University of HelsinkiHelsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitet, 1993)
    Tämä syventävien opintojen tutkielma sisältää kirjallisuuskatsauksen ja tutkimusosan. Hevosen virusaneriitti on Toga-viruksen aiheuttama meeilman laajuisesti levinnyt infektiosairaus. Se on ensimmäisen kerran diagnostisoitu v. 1953, jolloin Ohiossa kuvattiin "influenssa abortti" epidemia. Kentuckyn täysiverihevosissa v. 1984 olleen epidemian jälkeen on arteriitin levinneisyyttä ja merkitystä erityisesti ravihevosilla useissa maissa pyritty selvittämään. Suuri osa luonnollisesti saaduista virusaneriitti-infektioista esiintyy subkliinisinä tai lieväoireisina. Hevosten kilpailukunto voi kuitenkin laskea pitkäksi aikaa. Osa infektoituneista oreista jää tartunnankantajiksi levittäen infektiota sperman välityksellä. Arteriitti voi aiheuttaa myös abortteja tiineille tammoille. Arteriittiviruskannat voivat olla virulenssiltaan hyvin erilaisia, ja taudin kliiniseen ilmenemiseen vaikuttavat myös muut tekijät, kuten hevosten fyysinen kunto ja ympäristötekijät. Tämän tutkimuksen ensisijaisena tarkoituksena oli selvittää, kuinka paljon suomalaisilla ravihevosilla esiintyy virusarteiittivasta-aineita, ja onko eri ryhmien välillä eroja. Halusimme myös kartoittaa, kuinka paljon Suomessa käytössä olevista siitosoreista on virus- ja/tai vasta-ainepositiivisia. Pyrimme lisäksi selvittämään arteriitin esiintymistä siitostammoilla. Tutkimuksemme perusteella voidaan todeta suomalaisilla ravi- ja siitoshevosilla esiintyvän virusarteriittia kaikissa ryhmisä. Eri ryhmien välillä esiintyy eroja siten, että siitosoreilla ja -tammoilla on muita ryhmiä enemmän vasta-aineita ja seroposiivisilla hevosilla myös korkeammat tiitterit kuin kontrolliyhmien hevosilla. Vasta-ainepositiivisista siitosoreista yhdelä eristettiin aneriittivirus spermasta. Suomessa virusaneriitin aiheuttamaa haittaa lisää se, että meillä on paljon siitoshevosia samoissa talleissa kilpailevien tai valmennettavien hevosten kanssa. Kun viruksenkantajaori infektoi tamman astutuksen tai keinosiemennyksen yhteydessä, tämä infektion akuuttivaiheessa levittää pisaratartuntana tai virtsan välityksellä sitä edelleen. Myös subkliinisinä esiinyvistä infektioista saattaa olla merkittävää haittaa hevosten valmennukselle.
  • Bi, Yaqi (2012)
    Plant is able to recognize dsRNA, and cleave the dsRNA into siRNA in the cell. This mechanism helps plant to against virus. A novel method of virus detection based on siRNA deep-sequencing has been developed. The method does not require any prior supposition, and it provides an unbiased view for detecting of all viruses. Thus it was used to detect viruses from a wild plant (Arctium tomentosum) with viral symptoms in Helsinki, Finland. Overlapping siRNA reads were used to build contigs using the program Velvet. Programs MAQ and Novoalign were used to align the siRNA reads to a reference sequence for the viral sequence recovery. In this study, two viruses, Alstroemeria virus X (AlsVX, genus Potexvirus, family Alphaflexiviridae) and Fig mosaic virus-Hel (FMV, unassigned genus Emaravirus) were identified. This is the first report for the occurrences of both viruses in Finland. The siRNA deep-sequencing detection results were confirmed by RT-PCR. The distributions of the viruses in Helsinki were also studied. Partial sequences of AlsVX-Hel and FMV-Hel were compared with related viruses in NCBI. The amino acid identity of the coat protein gene between AlsVX-Hel detected from Helsinki and AlsVX-Jap from Japan is 90%, and the amino acid identities of the putative nucleocapsid protein gene between FMV-Hel and other FMV strains were about 78%. The differences indicate that the AlsVX-Hel in Helsinki might be a new strain of AlsVX, and FMV-Hel might be a new strain of FMV, or a new virus.
  • Chiunga, Evangelista (2013)
    Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), and Potato virus M (PVM) are widely distributed in potato (Solanum tuberosum) all over the world. This study was conducted to establish if these viruses also infect potato in Mbeya region, Tanzania. A total of 219 potato leaf samples from 13 farmers’ fields were collected. Of these, 20 samples were pressed on FTA cards. Samples were screened for viruses by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA). Those which were pressed on FTA cards were further analysed by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Virus-like symptoms such as yellowish-green mosaic, leaf rolling and vein necrosis were observed and recorded at the time of field sample collection. DAS-ELISA results suggested the occurrence of all six viruses in samples from Mbeya region. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of these viruses except PVY. PVS and PLRV were the most prevalent viruses. Complete coat proteins (CP) encoding sequence of five viruses (PLRV, PVX, PVA, PVS and PVM) were sequenced. Blast searches detected presence of sequences in the GenBank sharing nucleotide sequence identities of 94%-100% with isolates of viruses sequenced in this study. The complete CP sequences of the aforementioned viruses from the current study were closely related with virus isolates from different countries. The Tanzania isolates of PLRV, PVX, PVA, PVS and PVM were each suggested to belong to the one group as well as one isolate. These results are important in seed potato multiplication systems in Tanzania for improving seed quality in the local seed potato chain, an important service currently lacking to potato farmers in Tanzania.
  • Heikkilä, Sami (2019)
    Viruses are a functional part of the water ecosystems microbial network. There is scientific evidence that viruses have impact to biotic communities, nutrient recycle and genetic diversity. Still there is a lack of studies concerning fresh water ecosystem viruses. In Finland, studies of fresh water viruses have not been published. Main objective of this thesis was to study, first time in Finland, abundance and variation of virus like particles (VLP) in boreal lake. The study was carried out on Lake Vesijärvi in Southern Finland. Purpose was also to study the abundance relations of VLP to bacterial abundance and algae biomass. Temporal changes of the variables were studied in 4 periods during growing season in 2007 and 2 periods during winter season in 2008. Spatial changes of variables were studied in littoral and pelagic zones in early summer 2007. Abundance of VLP was high in productive layer (11,9 ± 0,7 x 107 (ml-1)). Similar results have been observed from studies with other lakes in boreal zone. Highest abundance observed was in early summer period (14,9 ± 0,2 x 107 (ml-1)) and lowest at the end of the winter season period (5,5 ± 1,3 x 107 (ml-1)). High bacteria abundance and algae biomass with suitable physical and chemical conditions were the main reasons for high VLP abundance. In the growing season an average amount of chlorophyll –a was 8,6 μgl-1. In the winter season a very high amount of chlorophyll –a was observed (22,4 ± 1,2 μgl-1) indicating under ice algal bloom. Bacteria abundance was stable during the growing season (1,3 x 107 ml-1) corresponding to findings with earlier studies on Lake Vesijärvi. Virus / bacteria ratio (VBR) –level varied between 7,5 – 25,3 in the growing season and in the winter season between 1,6 - 9,3. Bacterial abundance growth explained 18,2 % of the growth of the VLP abundance (p=0,004, all periods included). In the growing season chlorophyll –a explained 17,4 % of the growth of the VLP abundance (p=0,013). In the winter season, connections between VLP and other biological variables were not found. As a conclusion, in the growing season algae cells (Inc. cyanobacteria) are dominant hosts for viruses. Dominant host probably varies between the seasons. Between littoral ja pelagic zones, differences of abundance of VLP, bacteria and algae biomass were not found. This was probably caused by windy conditions creating similar conditions between zones. There is a high abundance of viruses in productive layer in Lake Vesijärvi year-round. Viruses have direct and indirect interactions with algae and bacteria varying in different time scales. It is likely that viruses have interactions also with other functional groups of the lake microbial network. The results of this study confirmed, for the first time in Finland, the virus abundance, its variation and interactions with functional groups of microbial network. The role of viruses in biochemical cycles of fresh water ecosystems need to study more in Finland.
  • Koskenniemi, Ilona (2021)
    Pään ja kaulan alueen syöpä on maailmanlaajuisesti kuudenneksi yleisin syöpäsairaus ja sen esiintyvyys on länsimaissa lisääntymässä. Pään ja kaulan alueen syövän merkittävimmät riskitekijät ovat ikä, tupakointi ja runsas alkoholinkäyttö. HPV-infektio on pään ja kaulan alueen levyepiteelikarsinoomien itsenäinen vaaratekijä ja sen aiheuttama syyosuus vaihtelee syövän sijainnin mukaan ollen yleisin suunielun syövissä. Tutkielman tarkoituksena oli selvittää kirjallisuuskatsauksen avulla virusten yhteyttä pään ja kaulan levyepiteelikarsinoomien syntyyn. Kirjallisuuskatsaus perustuu Pubmedistä löytyviin, aihetta käsitteleviin tutkimusartikkeleihin vuosilta 1992-2020. Lisäksi lähdemateriaalina käytettiin alan oppikirjoja ja Suomalaisen Lääkäriseura Duodecimin julkaisemia Käypä hoito -suosituksia. 31,5% pään ja kaulan alueen levyepiteelikarsinoomista on HPV-positiivisia. Näistä 82,2% on HPV-tyyppiä 16. Tämän katsauksen prevalenssiluvut perustuvat HPV-DNA:n osoittamiseen, jolloin saadaan selville viruksen mukanaolo syöpäkudoksessa, mutta ei saada todistetta viraalisen onkogeenin ekspressiosta. Nykyisin kultaisena standardina HPV:n osoittamiseen pidetään HPV E6/E7 mRNA qRT-PCR:ää, sillä HPV-positiiviset karsinoomat ovat riippuvaisia HPV E6 ja E7 mRNA:n pysyvästä yliekspressiosta. Epstein-Barrin virus liittyy lähinnä nenänielun karsinooman etiologiaan. Muiden virusten osuudesta pään ja kaulan alueen levyepiteelikarsinoomien synnyssä on toistaiseksi vain vähän näyttöä. Analyysimenetelmien kehittymisen seurauksena HPV:n todellinen yhteys pään ja kaulan alueen levyepiteelikarsinoomiin tulee oletettavasti vielä tarkentumaan. Tulevaisuudessa myös nähdään, ovatko HPV-rokotteet ratkaisu pään ja kaulan levyepiteelikarsinoomien lisääntyneeseen esiintyvyyteen.
  • Ahlfors, Kia (2021)
    I denna avhandling studeras förvaltningsprocessen bakom omprövningsförfarandet i viseringsärenden i Finland. Schengenvisering möjliggör att personer från viseringspliktiga länder kan resa till Schengenområdet. Ifall en viseringssökande är missnöjd med sitt viseringsbeslut, ska hen enligt Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning (EG) nr 810/2009 art. 32 p. 3 ha rätt att överklaga beslutet. Rätten att överklaga har i praktiken organiserats på varierande sätt i Schengenstaterna. I centrum av analysen är lagförändringen av utlänningslagen som trädde i kraft 1.5.2019. Lagförändringen ledde till att behandlingen av begäran om omprövning i viseringsärenden centraliserades till utrikesministeriet. Dessutom infördes en behandlingsavgift för begäran om omprövning. Till följd av lagförändringen förändrades förvaltningsprocessen och denna organisationsförändring möjliggör en före och efter-analys av fallet. Förvaltningsprocesser i Finland är långt lagstadgade och lagarna sätter ramarna för utförandet av processerna. I den internationella diskussionen lyder ingen konsensus om principerna för god förvaltning, utan olika principer har utnyttjats i olika kontexter. I studien förs en diskussion om internationella förhållningssätt till god förvaltning och god förvaltning i finländsk kontext. Diskussionen används för att konstruera en idealtyp för god förvaltning som går att tillämpa på det empiriska materialet och som sedan används som analysinstrument. I avhandlingen granskas hur omprövningsförfarandet organiserades i praktiken både före och efter lagförändringen. Dessutom granskas vilka konsekvenser lagförändringen hade utgående från ideala kännetecken för god förvaltning. Omprövningsförfarandet både före och efter lagförändringen jämförs med den idealtyp som konstrueras för att utvärdera konsekvenserna av lagförändringen. Avhandlingen bidrar till förståelsen av offentliga organisationer och förvaltningsprocesser genom att analysera förvaltningens kvalitet.
  • Lehner, Sophie (2023)
    Objectives. The purpose of this thesis was to explore how students perceive queer in/visibility in higher education. Queer is defined as a concept that includes queer pedagogy, queer theory, as well as queer as an identity. Previous research has shown that queering educational institutions was not sufficiently happening. This study aims to give an overview of the current state of queer visibility in higher education by investigating how students in one education faculty perceive queer in higher education. The major question driving the inquiry was if and in what way queer was visible or invisible to the students. Methods. The study was conducted by applying a thematic analysis to participants responses to a writing prompt. The thematic analysis was operationalised through inductive and deductive coding. The deductive coding was based on the theoretical concepts of invisibility as well as on the Ward-Gale model. Inductive coding was used to complement the analysis. Results and conclusions. The results of the study show a profound invisibility of queerness in higher education and limited visibility. Queer visibility was mostly connected to individual students’ visibility and the queer community. There is a clear lack of visibility in staff, curriculum, and higher education structures. The outcomes demonstrate the harm this can do on students’ well-being. Some participants portray being queer as something that is hard but also that it could have been easier if there had been more education on the topic. The study initially aimed to expand the Ward-Gale model; however, the results demonstrate that elements of the existing model are not being implemented in the higher education institution that served as the site of this study. I suggest that further research needs to be done on this topic and strongly urges institutions of higher education to increase queer visibility. Furthermore, I suggest implementing teacher trainings, making use of queer teaching materials, encouraging teachers to queer their teaching style, and organising queer events. One way to begin enhancing queer visibility is to implement the Ward-Gale model that is presented in this study. The article will be submitted for publishing to the European Journal of Higher Education.
  • Uitto, Jara (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2011)
    Modern smart phones often come with a significant amount of computational power and an integrated digital camera making them an ideal platform for intelligents assistants. This work is restricted to retail environments, where users could be provided with for example navigational instructions to desired products or information about special offers within their close proximity. This kind of applications usually require information about the user's current location in the domain environment, which in our case corresponds to a retail store. We propose a vision based positioning approach that recognizes products the user's mobile phone's camera is currently pointing at. The products are related to locations within the store, which enables us to locate the user by pointing the mobile phone's camera to a group of products. The first step of our method is to extract meaningful features from digital images. We use the Scale- Invariant Feature Transform SIFT algorithm, which extracts features that are highly distinctive in the sense that they can be correctly matched against a large database of features from many images. We collect a comprehensive set of images from all meaningful locations within our domain and extract the SIFT features from each of these images. As the SIFT features are of high dimensionality and thus comparing individual features is infeasible, we apply the Bags of Keypoints method which creates a generic representation, visual category, from all features extracted from images taken from a specific location. A category for an unseen image can be deduced by extracting the corresponding SIFT features and by choosing the category that best fits the extracted features. We have applied the proposed method within a Finnish supermarket. We consider grocery shelves as categories which is a sufficient level of accuracy to help users navigate or to provide useful information about nearby products. We achieve a 40% accuracy which is quite low for commercial applications while significantly outperforming the random guess baseline. Our results suggest that the accuracy of the classification could be increased with a deeper analysis on the domain and by combining existing positioning methods with ours.
  • Hissa, Irina (2023)
    This thesis deals with three official visits by Finnish parliamentarians to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the 1970s and 1980s. The first visit was made by a delegation from the Finnish group of the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) in 1972, a few months before Finland recognised both North and South Korea. The second visit, led by Speaker Sukselainen, was in 1975, and the last official parliamentary visit was in 1984, led by Speaker Pystynen. In the early 1970s, North Korea applied to join the Inter-Parliamentary Union, an organization founded by British and French parliamentarians in the late 19th century to bring together members of democratically elected parliaments. The DPRK Supreme People's Assembly's application was not immediately accepted - even though parliamentarians from several other socialist countries had already joined the IPU. The Finnish group of the IPU was ready to accept the North Koreans in the spirit of a détente - and, perhaps, also under the influence of Finlandization, which permeated Finnish foreign and, to some extent, domestic policy at the time. All three visits have been examined chronologically, focusing on the two meetings with "Supreme Leader" Kim Il Sung. Three participants in the 1972 visit have been interviewed and the results analysed. The thesis is based on unpublished reports of three visits, interviews, and handwritten notes from audiences with Kim Il Sung. A memorandum on the audience with President Kekkonen is also among the primary sources. The method used to examine the material was archival research (Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Parliament, and the National Library of Finland), source analysis, and content analysis. The research question is: How did the three official visits of Finnish parliamentary delegations to the DPRK during the Cold War and Finlandization era contribute to the establishment and development of Finnish diplomatic and other relations with Kim Il Sung’s North Korea? The thesis describes and analyses the content of the three visits, including interviews with three participants of the 1972 visit and the audience with President Kekkonen, with particular focus on the main discussions and the meetings with Kim Il Sung. Relations with North Korea were virtually non-existent in 1972. It was therefore natural to try to develop them through exchanges of high-level political and economic delegations that mapped out the terrain and prepared the ground for experts. In this broad context, official delegations from the Finnish Parliament also had a role to play. Given the extensive networks of Finnish MPs, they acted as conduits for further political, economic, and cultural relations between Finland and North Korea. The thesis shows that North Koreans, including Kim Il Sung, were genuinely interested in developing trade and technological cooperation with Finland. He even specified several potential areas for this cooperation. It also shows that President Kim and other North Korean leaders were trying to create the impression that there was no imminent danger of war on the Korean Peninsula, at least not from the northern side, which would have hindered exchanges between North Korea and Finland. Moreover, the thesis reveals that both Finnish diplomats and Members of Parliament were impressed by the various achievements of the North Koreans, although Kim Il Sung had characterised his country as still developing. Contextually, this thesis aims to explore a clearly delineated part of the political history of the Cold War, namely the phenomenon of Finlandization, i.e. Finland's subordinate policy as a small country neighbouring the Soviet superpower, and how Finlandization influenced the establishment of diplomatic relations with a country as distant as North Korea.
  • Mannila, Saga (2019)
    Avhandlingen behandlar nyhetsreportrars och redaktions- och nyhetschefers (nyhetsskapares) synpunkter på att främja jämställdhet och mångfald i nyhetsinnehållet. Nyhetsjournalistik har en stor diskursiv makt i samhället och påverkar människors uppfattningar om verkligheten. Flera tidigare studier visar att nyhetsrapporteringen är skev i och med att de som syns och hörs i nyheterna oftast är en liten och likartad grupp människor. Därmed speglar nyheterna inte samhällets mångfald, även om journalisterna i många fall uppger att de strävar efter att göra det. Syftet med avhandlingen är att undersöka hur nyhetsskapare förhåller sig till inkluderande journalistik med hjälp av sammanlagt tolv kvalitativa halvstrukturerade temaintervjuer med nyhetsreportrar och nyhets- och redaktionschefer vid Helsingin Sanomat, Aamulehti och Hufvudstadsbladet. Den teoretiska diskussionen kretsar kring inkluderande perspektiv på journalistik- och medieforskningen, nyhetsarbetets logiker och praxis samt journalistiska representationers makt i verklighetsskapandeprocessen och relationen mellan samhället och nyhetsmedierna. Av resultaten framgår det att nyhetsskaparna upplever att främjandet av jämställdhet och mångfald i nyhetsinnehållet ska vara en naturlig del av arbetsprocessen. Konkreta och systematiska sätt för inkluderande journalistik saknas delvis vid de valda dagstidningarna, men samtidigt är nyhetsskaparna tveksamma till behovet av att inrätta sådana i och med att det antas färga journalistiken med en tydlig agenda. Nyhetsskaparna ser ändå behovet av att se över de redaktionella rutiner och den journalistiska praxis som gör att nyheterna fortsätter spegla samhället på ett ensidigt sätt. Avhandlingen bidrar med ökad förståelse om jämställdhetsarbete vid nyhetsredaktioner i Finland i och med att intervjustudien tar fram nyhetsskapares åsikter och uppfattningar om nyhetsarbetet och nyhetsinnehållet. För att förstå hur jämställdhets- och jämlikhetsarbete utvecklas inom mediefältet behöver man en ökad förståelse om nyhetsjournalisternas åsikter och uppfattningar och förhoppningen är att denna avhandling kan sporra till diskussion om nyhetsarbetet och nyhetsinnehållet och dess mångfald. I och med att inkluderande journalistik i Finland är ett relativt outforskat område inom journalistikforskningen finns det många möjligheter för fortsatt forskning inom ämnet. Ett intressant studieupplägg för fortsatta studier i ämnet skulle vara att bredda respondentskaran till andra journalister än de som arbetar med nyhetsrapportering vid dagstidningar. På så sätt skulle man kunna få en mer heltäckande uppfattning om hur de som arbetar inom det finländska mediefältet uppfattar och förhåller sig till inkluderande journalistik. För att undersöka hur journalisternas arbetsverklighet lämpar sig för skapandet av inkluderande journalistik kunde etnografiska observationer i en redaktionsmiljö också vara givande.
  • Adolfsson, Sofie (2020)
    I avhandlingen granskas språkanvändningen i platsannonser som riktas till personer som talar svenska i Finland. Syftet med den här pro gradu-avhandlingen är att analysera finlandssvenska arbetsplatsannonser för att se hurdana bilder av dagens arbetsliv, av den ideala arbetstagaren och av den ideala arbetsgivaren som målas upp i annonserna. Detta görs genom att analysera språkliga drag i platsannonserna och diskutera resultatet av analysen med synen på arbetslivet i det senmoderna samhället. För att nå syftet använder jag delar av den systemisk-funktionella grammatiken som analysmetod. Metoden utgår från den ideationella och den interpersonella nivån av en text enligt analysen av en modelläsare. Med hjälp av den ideationella nivån i en text analyseras processer och deltagarroller i satser. Processerna kan vara materiella, mentala, verbala eller relationella. En deltagare kan endera vara drivande och stå som första deltagare i en process, eller vara utsatt för en handling och då förekomma som andra deltagare i processen. Genom den interpersonella analysen fokuserar den här undersökningen på språkhandlingarna uppmaning och kravställande samt tilltalet till läsaren. Materialet utgörs av 21 platsannonser insamlade i juni 2018. Platsannonserna har publicerats på Arbets- och näringsministeriets hemsida för TE-tjänster. Jag har indelat materialet i fyra branschkategorier: Specialisttjänster, servicesektorn, vårdbranschen och utbildningssektorn. Platsannonserna analyseras kvalitativt genom att titta på ideationella och interpersonella betydelser i varje sats. De olika kategorierna jämförs sedan med varandra. I resultatet av den ideationella analysen framkommer det att arbetsgivaren ofta står som första deltagare i processerna och därmed är den som initierar en handling. Arbetsgivarbilden skapas också av att delar i platsannonserna är dedikerade till att presentera information om arbetsgivaren med hjälp av nyckeltal och positiva bestämningar. Den ideala arbetstagaren står som första deltagare främst i mentala och relationella processer. Arbetsgivaren tar en aktivare roll i platsannonserna än arbetstagaren. Arbetet beskrivs ofta genom att arbetsuppgifterna uttrycks som nominaliseringar av verb, vilket gör att också arbetet står som deltagare i relationella och mentala processer och får olika bestämningar. I resultatet av den interpersonella analysen framkommer det att språkhandlingarna kravställande och uppmaningar sällan uttrycks kongruent utan istället via grammatiska metaforer. I kravställande satser med låg förpliktelsegrad är arbetsgivaren oftare första deltagare, medan kravställande med hög förpliktelsegrad uttrycks utan arbetsgivaren som deltagare. Arbetsgivarbilden skapas av ett frekvent förekommande vi som första deltagare. Den sökande omtalas oftare i tredje person. Resultatdiskussionen redogör för hur bilden av arbetsgivaren, arbetstagaren och arbetet hör i ihop med synen på arbete i det senmoderna samhället. En individ bygger upp sin identitet bland annat genom den arbetsplats hen väljer att arbeta på. En stark arbetsgivarprofil blir en del av individens identitetsbyggande, och det här kan vara en orsak till att arbetsgivaren får en så stor och aktiv roll i platsannonserna. Att den ideala arbetstagaren framställs som första deltagare i främst relationella och mentala processer visar hur en arbetstagares personliga egenskaper och personlighet anses vara de viktigaste faktorerna i utförandet av ett arbete i den senmoderna synen på arbetslivet.
  • Savolainen, Annika (2020)
    Tutkielma käsittelee ruotsin kielen mukaisia piirteitä Aleksis Kiven kirjeenvaihdossa. Aineistona ovat Kiven perheelleen ja ystävilleen kirjoittamat kirjeet. Kirjeitä on yhteensä 50, ja ne on kirjoitettu vuosien 1855–1870 välillä. Kirjeet jakautuvat monen eri vastaanottajan kesken. Kiven perheelle lähetettyjä kirjeitä on 12 kappaletta: isälle kolme, äidille ja isälle yhteisesti osoitettuja kaksi ja veljelle Emanuelille seitsemän kappaletta. Loput kirjeet ovat Kiven ystäville ja muille tuttaville, joita ovat Kaarlo Bergbom, Thiodolf Rein, B. F. Godenhjelm, Albert ja Theodor Forssell sekä Elias Lönnrot. Bergbomille on 22 kirjettä, Forssellin veljeksille yhdeksän, Reinille ja Godenhjelmille kolme ja Lönnrotille yksi kappale. Tavoitteena tutkielmassa on tarkastella sitä, millaisia ruotsin kielen vaikutteita Kiven kirjeiden kielessä esiintyy eri sanaluokissa. Tutkimuskysymykset ovat seuraavat: Millaisia ruotsin kielen mukaisia sanastollisia piirteitä esiintyy substantiivien, adjektiivien ja verbien sanaluokissa? Millaisia ruotsin kielen vaikutteita löytyy muihin sanaluokkiin kuuluvien sanojen joukosta? Käyttääkö Kivi ruotsin vaikutteita sisältäviä eri tavoin eri vastaanottajille kirjoittamissaan kirjeissä? Kiven kielessä esiintyvät ruotsin kielen vaikutteet tulevat ilmi muun muassa sananmuodostuksen ja ortografisten piirteiden kautta. Tarkastelun kohteena tutkielmassa on myös se, ilmeneekö eri vastaanottajille osoitetuissa kirjeissä eroja ruotsin kielen mukaisten piirteiden käytössä. Tutkielman teoriataustana ovat historiallinen sosiolingvistiikka sekä variaationtutkimus. Koska Kiven kirjeet on kirjoitettu aikana, jolloin suomen kieli oli vasta kehittymässä, avataan tutkielmassa myös suomen kielen kehitysvaiheita. Ruotsin kielen vaikutteita tarkastellessa tärkeää on käsitellä myös purismin ja svetisismin käsitteitä, joihin perehdytään johdannon alaluvuissa. Kivi eli hyvin kaksikielistä elämää, joten tutkielmassa todetaankin, että Kiven kielessä esiintyy paljon ruotsin kielen mukaisia piirteitä. Piirteet liittyvät usein sananmuodostukseen sekä ortografisiin piirteisiin. Kivi muun muassa käytti paljon yhdysverbejä ja -substantiiveja, jotka hän käänsi suoraan ruotsista suomeksi. Ruotsin mukaisten piirteiden jakautuminen perheenjäsenten ja muiden vastaanottajien välille ei ole suuri; perheenjäsenten kirjeissä ruotsin kielen vaikutteita on nähtävissä jopa yllättävän paljon, kun ottaa huomioon perheelle lähetettyjen kirjeiden vähäisen määrän. Tutkielma avaa Aleksis Kiven kirjeenvaihtoa ja kielellisiä valintoja 1800-luvun Suomessa, jossa suomen kieli oli vielä ruotsin kieltä heikommassa asemassa. Kiven kielessä kerrostuvat Nurmijärven murrepiirteet ja hänen opiskeluaikanaan oppima ruotsin kieli, joiden sekoittuminen suomen kieleen tekee hänen kielestään kiinnostavan tarkastelun kohteen.
  • Nyman, Petra (2018)
    Andra världskriget pågick i Finland mellan åren 1939 – 1944, vilket bland annat resulterade i en omfattande evakueringsoperation av tusentals finländska barn. Omkring 70 000 barn uppskattas ha evakuerats till Sverige, Danmark och Norge genom organisationer, men det verkliga antalet är svårt att fastställa då det även förekom evakueringar genom privata initiativ. Studien behandlar barndomsminnen hos finländska krigsbarn med en (primärt) positiv uppfattning om sin krigsbarnstid som valts ut ur ett omfattande enkätmaterial, genom en metodkombination där kvantitativa och kvalitativa resultat integreras. Syftet med studien är att utreda vad respondenternas upplevelser och minnen av krigsbarnstiden består av. Därtill utreds vilka främjande (och hämmande) förhållanden för respondenternas välbefinnande som framkommer och vilken mening de tillskriver sin tid som krigsbarn. Studien har för avsikt att besvara följande tre forskningsfrågor: 1) Hur minns respondenterna tiden innan, under och efter att de evakuerades och hur såg omständigheterna ut för dem? 2) Hurudana förhållanden var främjande (och hämmande) för respondenternas välbefinnande under krigsbarnstiden? och 3) Vilken mening tillskriver respondenterna sin tid som krigsbarn? Studien utfördes som två separata analyser och är därav uppdelad i två delar. Del I utgörs av den kvantitativa analysen, vars resultat presenteras i form av deskriptiv statistik, och del II utgörs av den kvalitativa analysen som utförs som en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Studiens resultat visar att respondenternas positiva uppfattning om krigsbarnstiden till stor del bottnar i deras tillgång till trygga relationer innan, under och efter evakueringen. Majoriteten uppgav att de förstod varför de evakuerades och vissa av dem stod till och med själva bakom initiativet till evakueringen. Respondenterna bedömde att krigsbarnstiden hade gynnat dem på flera olika plan i livet. Erfarenheten beskrevs som unik och värdefull, och de upplevde att den gett dem lärdomar och kunskap som de haft nytta av senare i livet. Många upplevde att de på grund av krigsbarnstiden hade ett öppet förhållningssätt till människor och kulturer , samt kände en öppenhet inför världen.
  • Nyholm, Mikael (2012)
    Arkeologian alalla on havahduttu tarpeeseen löytää uusia näkökulmia menneisyyden sekä sen tutkimuksen esittelyyn. Moderniin visuaalisuuteen tottuneen kriittisen yleisön mielikuvat arkeologiasta pohjautuvat usein lähinnä viihteellisten tiededokumenttien ja seikkailuelokuvien tarjontaan. Tähän kuvastoon verrattuna suomalainen löytöaineisto on varsin vaatimatonta eivätkä sen perinteiset esittämistavat enää riitä puhuttelemaan uusia yleisöjä, joiden olemassaolo on tieteenalan jatkuvuuden kannalta kuitenkin välttämätöntä. Pyrin löytämään ratkaisuja tähän hankalaan yhtälöön tarkastelemalla suomalaista kivikauden esineistöä yleisön näkökulmasta graafisen suunnittelijan silmin. Tutkimalla visuaalisen viestinnän mahdollisuuksia luoda merkityksiä arkeologiseen aineistoon, sen tulkintaan ja esittelyyn pyrin samalla luomaan mielikuvaa arkeologiasta inspiroivana, mielikuvitusta kiehtovana ja modernina ihmistieteenä. Pyrin rakentamaan siltoja menneisyyden ja nykypäivän välille tuottamalla kuvakerrontaa, joka on sisällöllisesti puhuttelevaa, visuaalisesti kiinnostavaa ja tieteellisesti uskottavaa, mutta olemukseltaan rentoa ja sikäli helposti lähestyttävää. Koska arkeologian visuaalista potentiaalia on hyödynnetty kaikkiaan varovaisesti, tutkielmani tärkeimpänä tavoitteena on viestittää, että graafinen suunnittelu on tehokas väline, kun tavoitteena on pukea viesti kiinnostavaan, ymmärrettävään ja merkitykselliseen muotoon. Esineistön lisäksi tarkastelen ihmisen esittämisen tapoja menneisyyden rekonstruktiokuvituksissa, joihin olisi yleisön kiinnostuksen ja ymmärryksen kannalta tarkoituksenmukaista sisällyttää vahva emotionaalinen ja realistinen ulottuvuus. Pragmatistinen semiotiikka sekä neuropsykologinen tutkimus ovat avanneet kiinnostavia näköaloja tähän tarpeeseen inhimillisen ajattelun, ja uskomusten syvähistoriaan, josta monet ihmisyyttä luonnehtivat universaalit käyttäytymismallit ovat lähtöisin. Sovellan monitieteisessä tutkielmassani museologian ja semiotiikan teorioita luovan suunnittelun metodiikkaan. Tieteen ja taiteen rajapinnalla tasapainottelu avaa kiehtovan maailman visuaaliseen arkeologiaan, jonka tuottamiseen pop-kulttuurin monimuotoinen kuvakieli tarjoaa paitsi vaikutteita myös oikeanlaisen asenteen ja mielentilan. Vahva tulkinnallisuus ilmenee monin tavoin tutkielmassani, jota voi soveltaa mihin hyvänsä arkeologiseen aineistoon. En pyri kuitenkaan tulkitsemaan uudelleen Suomen esihistoriaa. Kannustan sen sijaan pohdiskelemaan ennakkoluulottomasti, millaista visuaalista viestintää tulisi kohdentaa kuvanlukutaitoiselle ja vaativalle yleisölle, jolla on valmius ottaa vastaan perinteisestä historiankirjoituksesta poikkeavaa kuvakerrontaa.