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  • Vuorio, Emma (2017)
    This study aims to find out if differentiation of the features of the 4P of the product milk can create value to customers in a particular customer segment. Creating value is in the core in every company´s actions. Customers buy products and services that create value to them and are willing to pay from the value they get. The more the product creates value, the more the customers are willing to pay. This study focused on the customer segment of young women with academic background who live in the capital region. Milk is a bulk product consumed widely in Finland. The product also has significant role in the nutritional history of the country and has a big role in Finnish nutritional recommendations. However the consumption of milk has decreased over the years. The theoretical background of this study is based on the following theories: marketing strategy and the 4P, customer value and differentiation. These theories formed the theoretical framework which gave the focus to the empirical experiment. The approach of the study was qualitative because qualitative research aims to understand the phenomenon it studies and the approach is more suitable for analysing verbal data. Qualitative research wants to get a deeper understanding and it gives room for individual´s thoughts and experience. The study was executed and a group interview using theme interview methods. For the study chosen features of the 4P of the product milk were differentiated and group interview focused on them. The differentiated features were the following. For product organic milk and milk with added protein, for price milk with a lower price, for place online shopping and for promotion advertising milk on social media. The findings of this study were that in some cases differentiation of the features if the 4P of the product milk can create value for customers but in most cases it does not. The focus group felt that the most valuable differentiated feature of the 4P was organically produced milk and other factors that supported the well-being of the production animals and the environment. If a company selling or producing milk tries to create value to its customers through differentiation of the features of the 4P, it needs to consider carefully which features to focus on.
  • An, Yu (2020)
    Maps of science, or cartography of scientific fields, provide insights into the state of scientific knowledge. Analogous to geographical maps, maps of science present the fields as positions and show the paths connecting each other, which can serve as an intuitive illustration for the history of science or a hint to spot potential opportunities for collaboration. In this work, I investigate the reproducibility of a method to generate such maps. The idea of the method is to derive representations representations for the given scientific fields with topic models and then perform hierarchical clustering on these, which in the end yields a tree of scientific fields as the map. The result is found unreproducible, as my result obtained on the arXiv data set (~130k articles from arXiv Computer Science) shows an inconsistent structure from the one in the reference study. To investigate the cause of the inconsistency, I derive a second set of maps using the same method and an adjusted data set, which is constructed by re-sampling the arXiv data set to a more balanced distribution. The findings show the confounding factors in the data cannot account for the inconsistency; instead, it should be due to the stochastic nature of the unsupervised algorithm. I also improve the approach by using ensemble topic models to derive representations. It is found the method to derive maps of science can be reproducible when it uses an ensemble topic model fused from a sufficient number of base models.
  • Savijoki, Essi (2023)
    This thesis combines quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse how metadiscourse can be used in corporate storytelling, more specifically company annual reports, and how this ties in with the concepts of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and greenwashing. The study starts by introducing key concepts, terms, and frameworks, as well as previous studies done in similar fields or using similar methods. The research data for this study was the H&M Group’s 2021 annual sustainability report, which the corporation published on their website. The H&M Group was chosen because it is one of the biggest players in the field of fast fashion, and because recently it has attracted media attention for its sustainability actions, or lack thereof. Ten pages of the sustainability report were selected randomly, and the written language was analysed in detail with a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The same page selection process was then carried out again to get a selection of ten photographs from the report for closer analysis, to gain a more comprehensive and multimodal understanding of the sustainability report. This study bases on a metadiscourse framework by Hyland (2005), which was originally created for the analysis of academic discourse. The term metadiscourse refers to the ways in which writers or speakers interact with their readers or hearers through their use of language. For the visual metadiscourse analysis, this study uses as a basis a framework by De Groot et al. (2016), which is based on Hyland’s original framework, but focuses on studying images used in corporate annual reports. The analysis revealed that both linguistic and visual metadiscourse elements were key in creating a more compelling corporate story. The quantitative analysis found that both interactive and interactional metadiscourse markers were used in the written text but that interactional were more common. Through an analysis of the selected ten photographs, it was discovered that all De Groot et al.’s categories, apart from evidentials, were present in the annual report, implying that they were also a key part of creating a corporate story. This study also found that although the framework was originally created for the study of academic discourse, it can also help in bringing out interesting attributes in corporate reports.
  • Saarinen, Heidi (2019)
    This thesis combines anthropology and urban studies theories to discuss and analyse the ambivalent position of urban art in London. The thesis focuses especially on the social elements of street art and graffiti and the various relationships the artworks create and enable in the urban environment. It is also discussed how dominant cultural policies have affected urban art practises and how this all reflects the contemporary urban trends and issues in London. The questions asked in this thesis is what kind of social relationships do street art and graffiti create and how do these relationships connect to the increasingly privatised and controlled public space and place in urban environment? In relation to that, it is also asked whether the current cultural policies in the city are changing street art and graffiti practises from a free expression to the public to a tool that is used for economic profit? The data for the thesis was gathered during two months of ethnographic fieldwork in London. The main methods were semi-structured interviews and observation, and the fieldwork also included participation observation and walk and talk ethnography. The thesis focuses primarily on the views of people practising street art or graffiti, which is why majority of the interviewees were artists. The first analysis chapter of the thesis employs Alfred Gell’s anthropological theory of art and the focus is on specific urban street art and graffiti works and the relationships in their proximity. The second analysis chapter discusses the social relationships on a slightly broader scale while going deeper on the unique aspects of London street art and graffiti scene. The last analysis chapter discusses the topic on the widest scale and elucidates urban art’s position in relation to major urban trends in London, such as dominant cultural policies and the use and potential of public spaces in the city. The aim of this thesis is to present and analyse urban art as a social phenomenon and analyse the various social relationships street art and graffiti enable and create in the increasingly privatised urban environment. The other main point is to discuss the increasing popularity of urban art and concurrent cultural policies and whether it is changing the phenomenon in a way that the original rebellious nature of urban art would disappear and turn into a commercial practise. Based on the fieldwork and earlier research done on the subject, the concurrent cultural policies have not affected street art and graffiti in a way that they would be shifting into a realm of commercialism. The reason behind this is that the policies employed by actors that are using street art for economic benefits conflict with the major ideological aspects of the urban art practises. Rather, the urban art scene has both extended and divided in a way that different urban artworks can have contradictory motivations and agendas behind them.
  • Jokiharju, Teemu (2020)
    Kapitalismin ongelmakohdat saavat jatkuvasti enenevässä määrin osakseen kriittistä tarkastelua niin tiedeyhteisöltä, medialta kuin yrityssektoriltakin. Kritiikin ytimessä on ajatus siitä, että yritykset aiheuttavat voitontuottamiseen tähtäävällä toiminnallaan suuren osan yhteiskunnassa esiintyvistä sosiaalisista, ympäristöllisistä ja taloudellisista ongelmista, ja että tällaisten negatiivisten ulkoisvaikutusten tuloksena yritysten ja niiden omistajien katsotaan vaurastuvan yhteiskunnan kustannuksella. Osakkeenomistajien varallisuusarvon maksimointi kytkeytyy olennaisesti osakeyhtiöinstituution peruslähtökohtiin, ja näin ollen kapitalismin kritiikin voidaan katsoa kohdistuvan osaltaan niihin seikkoihin, joiden vuoksi osakeyhtiömuoto on poikkeuksellisen suosittu liiketoiminnan harjoittamisen väline yrityssektorin keskuudessa. Vastapuheenvuorona kritiikille Michael E. Porter ja Mark R. Kramer esittivät vuosina 2006 ja 2011 julkaistuissa artikkeleissaan teorian nimeltä creating shared value (”CSV”). CSV:llä tarkoitetaan menettelytapoja, jotka parantavat samanaikaisesti yhtiön kilpailukykyä sekä taloudellisia ja sosiaalisia olosuhteita niissä yhteisöissä, joissa yhtiö toimii. Yhtiöoikeuden näkökulmasta keskeisin ero yritysvastuun (corporate social responsibility, ”CSR”) ja CSV:n välillä on se, että siinä missä CSR nähdään voitonmaksimoinnista erillisenä ja sitä mahdollisesti rajoittavana tekijänä, CSV näkee toiminnan yhteiskunnallisten vaikutusten huomioimisen elintärkeänä tekijänä osakkeenomistajien voitonmaksimoinnin kannalta. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on analysoida, onko CSV yhteensovitettavissa Suomen nykyisen osakeyhtiösääntelyn kanssa. Tutkielmassa tulkitaan OYL 1:5:n sisältöä ja selvitetään, onko CSV voitontuottamistarkoituksen kriteerit täyttävää toimintaa, jonka voimassa oleva osakeyhtiösääntely mahdollistaa. Tavoitteena on selvittää, missä määrin OYL 1:5 sallii muiden sidosryhmien kuin osakkeenomistajien intressien huomioimisen yhtiön päätöksenteossa silloin, kun sidosryhmien huomioon ottamisen tarkoitus on pitkällä aikavälillä tuottaa voittoa osakkeenomistajille. Näissä kysymyksissä perehdytään oppiin valistuneesta arvonmaksimoinnista. Toiseksi tarkoituksena on analysoida, missä määrin voimassa oleva yhtiön hallinnoinnin viitekehys yhtäältä mahdollistaa ja toisaalta kannustaa yhtiön johtoa CSV-liiketoimintaan eli käytännössä yhtiön toiminnan yhteiskuntavaikutusten ja sidosryhmien etujen huomioon ottamiseen liiketoiminnallisessa päätöksenteossa. CSV tarkoittaa usein uudistuksia yhtiön organisaatiossa ja innovointia; tällaisia toimia rajoittavia rajapintoja ovat lähtökohtaisesti yhtiön toiminnan tarkoitus sekä yhtiön toimiala. Toisaalta yhtiön johdon välinpitämättömyys sidosryhmiä ja yhteiskuntaa kohtaan voi johtaa tappioihin yhtiölle. Tällaisessa tapauksessa päätöksenteon rajapintana on OYL 1:8:n johdon huolellisuusvelvollisuus sekä OYL 22:1:n mukainen johdon vahingonkorvausvastuu yhtiölle aiheutetusta vahingosta. Lähestymiskulmana on käytännöllinen lainoppi: tarkoituksena on testata yhtiöoikeuden piirissä muodostettuja systematisointeja ja teorioita CSV:n mukanaan tuomien liike-elämän ongelmatilanteiden kontekstissa. Tavoitteena on siten esittää OYL:n yleisiä periaatteita koskevia tulkintasuosituksia. Tulkinnassa noudatetaan oikeuslähdeoppia: lähtökohtana on lain sanamuodon tulkinta, jota tuetaan erityisesti lain esitöissä esitetyillä kannanotoilla. Oikeuskäytäntöön viitataan siltä osin, kuin sitä on käsiteltävistä kysymyksistä annettu. Tulkinnan apuna hyödynnetään sekä kotimaista että ulkomaista oikeuskirjallisuutta, minkä lisäksi erityisesti voitontuottamistarkoituksen analyysin yhteydessä tulkinta-aineistoon on otettu mukaan myös liiketaloustieteellistä aineistoa. Esitän tässä tutkielmassa muutaman keskeisen väitteen. Väitän, että vaikka yhtiön etu samastetaan usein osakkeenomistajien etuun, kyse on enemmänkin tosiasiallisesta kuin käsitteellisestä yhteydestä. Yhtiön residuaalikassavirran omistajina osakkeenomistajat lähtökohtaisesti hyötyvät aina yhtiön arvon kasvattamisesta, ja yhtiön etu johtaa siten lähtökohtaisesti osakkeenomistajien etuun. Osakkeenomistajien etu ei kuitenkaan ole sama asia kuin yhtiön etu, sillä esimerkiksi tilanteissa, joissa osakkeenomistajat pyrkivät toimimaan opportunistisesti suhteessa yhtiön velkojiin, osakkeenomistajien intressissä voi olla sellainen toiminta, joka tosiasiassa tuhoaa yhtiön arvoa. Pidän järkevänä tulkintana sitä, että yhtiön arvoa tuhoava toiminta ei voi missään tilanteessa olla yhtiön edun mukaista. Toiseksi väitän, että OYL 1:5:n tulkinnassa keskeinen oppi valistuneesta arvonmaksimoinnista on eräänlainen CSV-liiketoimintamallin oikeudellinen vastinpari. Esitän lisäksi, että valistunut arvonmaksimointi on paitsi mahdollinen ja mielekäs, myös pääsääntöisesti ainoa rationaalinen tapa tulkita OYL 1:5:n tosiasiallista sisältöä. Näin ollen CSV-liiketoiminnan periaatteet ja osakeyhtiön toiminnan tarkoitus nykymuodossaan eivät ole ristiriidassa keskenään. Kolmanneksi väitän, että OYL:n yhtiön johdon toimintaa määrittävä sääntely mahdollistaa CSV:n harjoittamisen lähes ongelmitta ja myös kannustaa siihen de jure, muttei välttämättä de facto. Näin ollen vastuu CSV-periaatteiden integroimisesta yhtiön liiketoimintaan siirtynee jossain määrin osakkeenomistajakollektiiville, mikä voidaan toisaalta nähdä myös ilmentymänä riskin ja kontrollin osakkeenomistajille yleisestikin allokoivasta osakeyhtiöinstituution taustaperiaatteesta.
  • Downie, Eleanor (2023)
    The study of forest fragmentation, the break-up of forests into smaller patches, has become increasingly important due to increases in human-induced deforestation. Currently, approximately 12 million ha of forest are lost per year and 32% of this loss is tropical. There is substantial evidence showing that edge effects can alter the structure and functioning of remaining tropical forests, even hundreds of meters from the forest edge. However, implementing empirical experiments to understand the effects of fragmentation on forest structural metrics is logistically and scientifically challenging and limited to smaller areas. The use of forest models may help overcome these limitations, as they are able to quickly reproduce long-term ecological processes, as well as simulate a broad range of boundary forcings, such as biogeographical variability. This study evaluates the capability of a state-of-the-art forest dynamic model in reproducing the three-dimensional vertical distribution of plants in Amazonian forests affected by fragmentation. To achieve this, we optimized parameters driving plant demography and mortality, as well as their response to edge effects. FORMIND is an individual and process-based gap model suited for species rich vegetation communities, with the option of a fragmentation module. We modified processes and parameters in FORMIND to mimic the dynamics observed in a long-term (40 years-old) forest fragmentation experiment in the Brazilian Amazon. Forest structural metrics extracted from the FORMIND model output were compared with those obtained from terrestrial laser scans of the Amazonian Forest fragments. The resulting simulations demonstrated that, after 40 years of edge effects, the model in its original state was not capable of reproducing comparable results to those observed using the terrestrial LiDAR system. However, the addition of a new parameter capable of adjusting tree mortality at varying edge distances and inclusion of understory vegetation, drastically improved the model’s ability to replicate the three-dimensional distribution of plant material in the forest fragments. Total Plant Area Index (PAI), and PAI at varying height intervals (PAI 0-10m, PAI 10-20m, PAI 20-30m), amongst other metrics, showed consistent responses from edge effects, thus resulting in an adequate vertical plant distribution. Results demonstrate that, with the implementation of new parameters, forest models such as FORMIND have strong potential to study the mechanisms and the impact of environmental changes on forests. Models can also expand the possibilities of in-situ studies, which are limited in time and space, when calibrated carefully with suitable in-situ data, here delivered by terrestrial LiDAR.
  • Sket, Tina (2020)
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER, which leads to the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) through three transmembrane protein sensors located in the ER membrane. The sensors correspond to three branches of the UPR, namely protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) branches. Upon ER stress, IRE1 dimerizes and oligomerizes, and its endonuclease domain is activated. It specifically targets X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA, from which a 26 nt intron is spliced. This allows a complete translation of spliced XBP1 mRNA into a functional protein that acts as a transcription factor. Together with the other pathways, the UPR leads to a decrease in the protein folding load by causing a reduction in the general level of protein translation, and by inducing the expression of protein folding machinery. However, if the UPR is activated continuously for a long time, the apoptotic pathway will be triggered, and the cell will die. ER stress and UPR are associated with various disorders, such as some types of cancer, diabetes, chronic inflammatory syndromes, and particularly neurodegeneration. For example, in Parkinson’s disease, it was suggested that prolonged ER stress induces the extensive apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta region of the midbrain. This hinders the normal functioning of the nigrostriatal pathway, and hence results in the progressive development of Parkinson’s motor symptoms. In order to study the regulation or IRE1 branch of the UPR, and to identify the ER-stress-modulating compounds, a human luciferase reporter cell line (XBP1-NLuc) was created in this work. The reporter was expressed when IRE1 splicing was activated, since the XBP1 intron fragment was fused to the Nano luciferase gene. The expression of the reporter was observed with luciferase assay at several time points during treatments. The treatments were done with ER stress inducers thapsigargin and tunicamycin, and with IRE1 inhibitors KIRA6 and 4μ8c, or the combination of those. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to validate the expression of the reporter and to monitor the expression of the other branches of the UPR. Additionally, the oligomerization of IRE1 was observed with IRE1-GFP cell line that was treated identically to the XBP1-NLuc cell line, fixed, stained for nuclei, and imaged with fluorescent microscopy. After imaging, the IRE1-GFP clusters were analysed and quantified with CellProfiller and CellAnalyst softwares. Both cell lines were used to test the effect of neurotrophic factors CDNF, MANF, and MANF mutant isomers on the UPR with and without tunicamycin treatment. Collectively, the experiments confirmed that XBP1-NLuc cell line was created successfully and that it accurately reports IRE1 splicing activity. As expected, ER stress treatment increased the reporter expression, while IRE1 inhibitors decreased the expression of the reporter. qPCR revealed that the other observed UPR markers were activated as well upon thapsigargin treatment, however, they were not decreased with the treatment with IRE1 specific inhibitors. In line with XBP1-NLuc cell line, the IRE1-GFP cell line demonstrated an increased oligomerization of IRE1 upon ER stress induction. The KIRA6 inhibitor of IRE1, which prevents IRE1 oligomerization, decreased the formation of IRE1-GFP clusters. Additionally, the IRE1-endonuclease-activity inhibitor 4μ8c induced the formation of IRE1-GFP clusters. Curiously, the distribution of the intensity of IRE1-GFP clusters was bimodal and could point to two manners of IRE1 clustering and/or activation. Together, the experiments done with cells transfected with CDNF, MANF or MANF mutants, suggested that the tested neurotrophic factors decreased IRE1 oligomerization and its activation. However, there were substantial problems in the quantification of viable cells, which should be considered in the interpretation of these results. No significant difference among the tested neurotrophic factors was observed. In conclusion, the XBP1-NLuc reporter cell line provided a reliable reporter of IRE1 endonuclease activity, whose expression is increased during the ER stress. Together with IRE1-GFP cell line, it revealed the amount of IRE1 oligomerization and activation under various treatments and at different time points relative to treatments. Due to the effectiveness and accuracy, the XBP1-NLuc cell line can be further used in studying the regulation and activation of IRE1, as well as for the identification of ER-stress modulating molecules, which can be used for development of novel treatments for ER stress associated diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease.
  • Vuojamo, Joonas (2022)
    Topological defects and solitons are nontrivial topological structures that can manifest as robust, nontrivial configurations of a physical field, and appear in many branches of physics, including condensed matter physics, quantum computing, and particle physics. A fruitful testbed for experimenting with these fascinating structures is provided by dilute Bose–Einstein condensates. Bose–Einstein condensation was first predicted in 1925, and Bose–Einstein condensation was finally achieved in a dilute atomic gas for the first time in 1995 in a breakthrough experiment. Since then, the study of Bose–Einstein condensates has expanded to the study of a variety of nontrivial topological structures in condensates of various atomic species. Bose–Einstein condensates with internal spin degrees of freedom may accommodate an especially rich variety of topological structures. Spinor condensates realized in optically trapped ultracold alkali atom gases can be conveniently controlled by external fields and afford an accurate mean-field description. In this thesis, we study the creation and evolution of a monopole-antimonopole pair in such a spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensate by numerically solving the Gross–Pitaevskii equation. The creation of Dirac monopole-antimonopole pairs in a spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensate was numerically demonstrated and a method for their creation was proposed in an earlier study. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed creation method can be used to create a pair of isolated monopoles with opposite topological charges in a spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensate. We found that the monopole-antimonopole pair created in the polar phase of the spin-1 condensate is unstable against decay into a pair of Alice rings with oscillating radii. As a result of a rapid polar-to-ferromagnetic transition, these Alice rings were observed to decay by expanding on a short timescale.
  • Rantatulkkila, Jesper (2019)
    Video game-related user-generated content (UGC) is a relatively new phenomenon but has already proven to be an asset to gaming companies in the increasingly competitive gaming market. However, an active use of UGC by gaming companies can result in strained relationships between a player who has created UGC and a gaming company who have used it without compensation. Prior to playing a video game, the players have usually agreed to provide the gaming company at least a right to use any derivative works related to the video game that they have created by accepting the video game’s terms of use, but the terms of use do not clarify what such derivative works are. The purpose of this master’s thesis is to bring clarity to the situation. Therefore, it provides means to draw a distinction between new works that only the player has the right to dispose of and derivative works that the gaming company allegedly has a right to use. The method of the master's thesis is legal dogmatic as its main purpose is to study the current state of law in Finland. However, it also contains some comparative elements as a basis for the study is provided by the examination of judgments made by the US courts and discussions held among US scholars about copyright in UGC. The purpose of examining the US position is not to rely on it as a source of law but to get an overview of mainly technical issues related to UGC that might be relevant also in a Finnish context and to get an understanding of how one of the most significant countries with a relatively well-established state of law in the field of video games and UGC operates. In the latter respect, this master's thesis does point out the key differences between Finnish and US assessment on originality. Due to changes in the European landscape, this master's thesis does not only consider copyright in UGC from a traditional Finnish point of view but takes into account relevant judgments given by the Court of Justice of the European Union (the CJEU), as well as the discussion that has followed among legal scholars. Therefore, the master's thesis also considers to what extent the Finnish state of law has changed after the CJEU gave its judgment in Infopaq International A/S v Danske Dagblades Forening and how it has developed to what it is today through the subsequent cases on originality. In that respect, the master's thesis also considers whether the current tests applied in Finnish cases on originality are still valid and how the EU case law may have impacted on the national law even in areas which are not directly affected by the judgments given by the CJEU, such as in the case of parody. As UGC is often based on parts of video games, this master's thesis begins by studying how video games are protected. The US law is relatively well-established on the matter whereas the Finnish state of law regarding the classification of video games is rather ambiguous. The classification has significant implications which are elaborated on in this study. Although a definitive answer cannot be given, this master's thesis suggests that video games should be regarded as composite works under Finnish law rather than cinematographic works. Since UGC is a broad concept, the main objects of study are narrowed down to play objects, player-characters, user interface add-ons and comedies in order to make the study as comprehensible and detailed as possible. However, it should be noticed that since the copyright assessment is closely tied to the facts in a specific case, the main focus in this master's thesis is to identify factors that must be considered. These involve mainly factors regarding the technology used to create a specific type of UGC. This master's thesis demonstrates that the technical constraints combined with the limits set by the form in which an idea can be expressed may significantly affect the originality that a work may express. Each type of UGC examined differ from the others in respect to which considerations must be made. The UGC chosen for this master's thesis are some of the most common types of UGC that players create and are often located in a grey area as to their classification as works.
  • Turunen, Anna Kaarina (2023)
    Lack of finance is a major constraint for the smallholder soybean farmers in northern Ghana. The area is affected by soil degradation, poverty, and food insecurity, while a majority of the people in the area get their livelihood from agriculture. As a possible solution for the three problems, a natural biofertilizer and biocontrol agent, rhizobium bacteria, can be introduced to the rhizospheres of the soybean. This is usually done by applying rhizobium bacteria to the seeds of a legume prior to planting. This rhizobial inoculation technology improves plant growth, nutrient availability and uptake, as well as yields, thereby increasing the income and food security of the smallholder farmers. A credit to be invested in rhizobium inoculation technology would provide smallholder farmers with the opportunity to improve soil fertility and increase farm productivity, improving their food security and enabling them to earn additional income. The private market for rhizobial inoculants is nascent, but many of the farmers report financial constraints. To create a functioning market and to realise the social and environmental benefits of soybean cultivation and rhizobium inoculation technology, it is important to understand the causes of credit constraints of smallholder farmers and how to reduce them. In this thesis, I study the prevalence and the determinants of credit constraints among smallholder soybean farmers by applying a logistic regression model to a sample of 133 smallholder farmers in northern Ghana. I first define credit constrained status of the farmers and conclude that the prevalence of observable credit constraints in the sample is 57.1%. I conclude that there are two broad categories of variables affecting a farmer’s status as credit constrained. The first of these is the type of guarantees that a farmer can offer to the lender. Such guarantees are represented by membership in a farmers' association (and hence access to possible joint guarantees), existing assets such as ownership of cows, and a farmer's experience in soybean production (reflecting knowledge of good investment decisions in the sector). The second category relates to the supply of credit and the factors affecting it. The factors affecting credit supply identified in this study are regional disparities and loans targeted to a certain group, such as women. By influencing the supply and conditions of credit, the financial constraints of smallholder farmers can be alleviated. Such policy interventions, combined with other leverage points such as social learning and access to information, contribute to the adoption of desirable farming practices. Because of the many benefits of rhizobial inoculation in soybean production, its adoption could be promoted by offering credit directed particularly for the adoption of this technology. This would benefit not only the farmers but have broader benefits in the form of climate change adaptation and mitigation
  • Peussa, Aleksandr (2016)
    The major concern of lenders is to answer the next question: 'Who we lend to?' Until 1970s the traditional schema was used to answer this question. Traditional credit assessment relied on 'gut feel', which means that a bank clerk or manager analyses a borrower's character, collateral and ability to repay. Also, some recommendations from the borrower's employer or previous lender are used. The alternative approach is credit scoring, which is a new way to approach a customer. Credit scoring is one of the most successful applications of statistics in finance and banking industry today. It lowers the cost and time of application processing and gives flexibility in making trade off between risk and sales for financial institution. Credit scorecards are essential instruments in credit scoring. They are based on the past performance of customers with characteristics similar to a new customer. So, the purpose of a credit scorecard is to predict risk, not to explain reasons behind it. The purpose of this work is to review credit scoring and its applications both theoretically and empirically, and to end up with the best combination of variables used for default risk forecasting. The first part of the thesis is focused on theoretical aspects of credit scoring - statistical method for scorecard estimation and measuring scorecard's performance. Firstly, I explain the definition of the scorecard and underlying terminology. Then I review the general approaches for scorecard estimation and demonstrate that logistic regression is the most appropriate approach. Next, I describe methods used for measuring the performance of the estimated scorecard and show that scoring systems would be ranked in the same order of discriminatory power regardless the measure used. The goal of the second part is empirical analysis, where I apply the theoretical background discussed in the first part of the master's thesis to a data set from a consumer credit bank, which includes variables obtained from the application forms and from credit bureau data, and extracted from social security numbers. The major finding of the thesis is that that the estimated statistical model is found to perform much better than a non-statistical model based on rational expectations and managers' experience. This means that banks and financial institutions should benefit from the introduction of the statistical approach employed in the thesis.
  • Saarinen, Juho (2013)
    Creep is time dependent plastic malformation of solids, that happen in static stress and temperature when threshold values are met. Creep occurs at high temperature, meaning temperature more than 30% of material's absolute melting temperature (this limit is a little lower with plastics, and higher in ceramics). The malformations it causes can lead to rupture, which usually happen in a short time compared to the duration of the whole process. The creep effect itself is known from already the 19th century, and for metals it's quite clear that diffusion is always present in creep (Coble and Nabarro-Herring creep), and that dislocations can increase the rate of creep strain. Effects of creep can be seen e.g. in power plants and engines, where turbine blades, turbines, pipes and vessels are all the time at high temperature and stress. Also creep relaxation is often 'loosening' bolts which needs to be retightened. In regular office creep can be seen in paper clips, especially in plastic ones, which relax and lose grip fast because of the low melting point of plastics. Creep, because it usually needs long time to be visible, has been part of accidents, too, e.g. in '9/11'. Creep appears in 3 stages (primary (transient), secondary (steady-state), tertiary), and depending on the application, either secondary or tertiary is the most important one. The secondary creep is important for displacement-, buckling- and relaxation-limited situations, and tertiary for the rupture-limited ones.
  • Ek, Marko (2016)
    Kansainvälisten rikostuomioistuinten perussäännöissä luetellaan joukko vakavia rikostekoja, jotka ovat rikoksia ihmisyyttä vastaan silloin, kun ne tehdään osana siviiliväestöön kohdistettua laajamittaista tai systemaattista hyökkäystä. Rikosten ihmisyyttä vastaan rikostunnusmerkistöön sisältyvä yksittäisten rikostekojen luettelo päättyy säännökseen, joka täydentää rikosluetteloa kriminalisoimalla muutoin erikseen lueteltujen rikosten lisäksi ’muut epäinhimilliset teot’, jotka tehdään osana laajamittaista tai systemaattista hyökkäystä siviiliväestöä kohtaan. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää rikosten ihmisyyttä vastaan ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ kiellon sisältöä ja ulottuvuutta osana kansainvälistä rikosoikeutta. Ilmaisun ’muut epäinhimilliset teot’ ollessa lähtökohtaisesti melko epätäsmällinen ja laaja-alainen, tarkastellaan kieltoa erityisesti rikosoikeudellisen laillisuusperiaatteen näkökulmasta. Tutkielmassa pyritään kokoamaan ja systematisoimaan ’muihin epäinhimillisiin tekoihin’ liittyvää säädännäisaineistoa ja oikeuskäytäntöä sekä tarkastelemaan normin sisältöä osana kansainvälistä tapaoikeutta. Historiallisen näkökulman kautta pyritään esittelemään ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ oikeudellista sisältöä eri aikoina ja kiellon yhteensopivuutta laillisuusperiaatteen kanssa rikostunnusmerkistön eri kehitysvaiheissa. ’Muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ kielto on pyritty asettamaan osaksi laajempaa oikeudellista kontekstia ja tulkitsemaan kieltoa soveltuvien oikeusperiaatteiden, etenkin laillisuusperiaatteen ja kansallisista rikosoikeusjärjestelmistä johdettavissa olevien periaatteiden valossa. ’Muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ kielto on sisällytetty kaikkien kansainvälisten rikostuomioistuinten perussääntöihin ja sitä on sovellettu laajalti oikeuskäytännössä. Kriminalisoinnin tunnusmerkistö ja ulottuvuus on täsmentynyt merkittävästi oikeuskäytännön kautta. ’Muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ tunnusmerkistön asteittaisesta kehityksestä ja eri määritelmien eroavaisuuksista huolimatta voidaan kiellon katsoa tulleen määritellyksi kansainvälisessä tapaoikeudessa kansainvälisen rikostuomioistuimen (ICC) perustamisasiakirjoista ilmenevällä tavalla. Rajanvedossa ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ ja mahdollisten muiden vakavaa kärsimystä tai vakavan vamman aiheuttavien tekojen välillä muodostuu tärkeäksi ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ samanlaisen luonteen ja vakavuuden toteaminen suhteessa muihin rikoksiin ihmisyyttä vastaan. Tutkielmassa katsotaan, että mahdollisten ’muiden epäinhimillisten tekojen’ luonnetta arvioitaessa tulee kiinnittää huomiota etenkin ihmisoikeusperiaatteisiin ja kansallisista oikeusjärjestelmistä johdettavissa oleviin tietyntyyppisten vakivallantekojen rikollista luonnetta koskeviin periaatteisiin. ’Muista epäinhimillisistä teoista’ tuomittaessa tulee kiinnittää erityistä huomiota laillisuusperiaatteeseen ja tutkia rikosvastuun toteuttamisen yhteensopivuus laillisuusperiaatteen kanssa tapauskohtaisesti.
  • Kivistö, Kanerva (2022)
    Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an emerging, tick-borne viral pathogen. Found on three continents, it is the most widespread of all tick-borne pathogens, but accurate geographical limits and epidemiology in Africa are still mostly unknown. Ticks act as both vectors and reservoirs, and the transmission cycle involves both wild and domestic animals and may occasionally spill over to humans. Further healthcare-related infections from human to human are common. With a high mortality rate and no cure or vaccine, CCHF is considered a major public health threat in endemic countries. This licentiate thesis consists of a literature review and an experimental work section. The literature review covers the basics of tick ecology, tick-borne diseases and viral haemorrhagic fevers with a focus on Africa and Kenya. These are used as foundations to understand CCHF in detail, encompassing virology, epidemiology, diagnostics, symptoms, treatment and prevention. The experimental work entails PCR-screening of ticks collected from South-eastern Kenya for the CCHF virus. The main objective of the study was to find whether CCHF is circulating in free-roaming ticks collected from two conservancies in the Taita Hills area. Taita Hills are located in Taita-Taveta county, near the Helsinki University research centre in Wundanyi. The ticks were collected by the Vapalahti virology team in 2018. This thesis involved the RNA extraction and measurement from the ticks and screening for CCHF virus with RT-qPCR. The results were negative for all 57 units of ticks processed. The study was a part of a larger research project, “Preparedness for emerging zoonotic infections in Kenya”. Previous publications on CCHF are lacking from this part of Kenya, so this study was a valuable part of primary research to establish the geographical limits and members of the enzootic cycle in Taita Hills. It would be essential to continue examining ticks from animal sources in addition to human serology, to further establish evidence of possible CCHF occurrence in the area. Mapping the prevalence and epidemiology of zoonotic and tick-borne pathogens is especially critical now, when climate change and diminishing biodiversity stir and alter disease emergence in an unprecedented manner.
  • Kylä-Harakka, Paula (2008)
    Pro gradu –tutkielman aiheena on kulttuurin ominaispiirteiden kääntäminen. Teksteissä kulttuurin jälki voi näkyä monin eri tavoin. Tutkielman kohteena ovat erityisesti käännösstrategiat, joita kääntäjät käyttävät kohdatessaan kulttuurisidonnaisia viittauksia. Tutkielma nostaa esiin myös niitä tekijöitä, jotka vaikuttavat siihen, minkälaisia käännösstrategioita kääntäjät valitsevat. Näistä tekijöistä tutkielma keskittyy kääntämisen normeihin. Tutkielma pureutuu kulttuurisidonnaisten viitteiden kääntämiseen tarkastelemalla kahta suomalaista kaunokirjallista teosta ja niiden käännöksiä. Tutkielman aineistona ovat Matti Yrjänä Joensuun kaksi rikosromaania ja näiden käännökset. Teoksista toinen on vuonna 1983 suomeksi julkaistu Harjunpää ja poliisin poika, jonka englanninkielinen käännös Harjunpaa the stone murders julkaistiin vuonna 1986. Toinen teos on vuonna 2003 julkaistu Harjunpää ja pahan pappi ja sen käännös The Priest of Evil vuodelta 2006. Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, minkälaisia kulttuurisidonnaisia viittauksia romaanit sisälsivät, minkälaisia käännösstrategioita kääntäjät käyttivät kääntäessään näitä viittauksia ja mikä voisi selittää heidän strategisia valintojaan. Tutkielma pyrkii vastaamaan kysymykseen siitä, voisiko jonkin kääntämistä koskevan normin olemassa olo selittää kääntäjien strategisia valintoja. Tutkielman tavoitteena on myös selvittää, suositaanko kääntämisessä englannin kieleen niin kutsuttuja kotouttavia käännösstrategioita ja ovatko käännösstrategiat ja kääntämistä koskevat normit muuttuneet kahdenkymmenen vuoden aikana. Näihin kysymyksiin vastaamiseksi suomenkielisistä teksteistä on etsitty kaikki kulttuurisidonnaisia viittauksia sisältävät tekstinkohdat. Näitä vastaavat kohdat on sitten etsitty käännöksistä ja suomen- ja englanninkielisiä kohtia on vertailtu keskenään. Molemmat suomenkieliset romaanit sisältävät runsaasti kulttuurisidonnaisia viittauksia. Suurimman kulttuurisidonnaisten viittausten ryhmän muodostivat molemissa romaaneissa henkilöiden nimet. Romaanin sisälsivät myös runsaasti viittauksia maantieteeseen, erityisesti kulttuurimaantieteeseen, ja yhteiskuntaan. Sitä vastoin viittaukset suomalaiseen kulttuuriin ja historiaan olivat vähäisempiä. Tutkielma osoittaa, että kääntäessään suomesta englannin kielelle suomalaisen rikoskirjallisuuden kääntäjät saattavat käyttää enemmän vieraannuttavia strategioita kuin kotouttavia strategioita ja että he suosivat vieraannuttavia strategioita kasvavassa määrin. Harjunpään ja pahan papin kääntäjä käytti enemmän vieraannuttavia strategioita kuin Harjunpään ja poliisin pojan kääntäjä kaksikymmentä vuotta aikaisemmin. Tutkielman tulokset eivät tue väitettä siitä, että käännettäessä englannin kielelle suosittaisiin kotouttavia strategioita. Näyttää siltä, että vieraannuttavia strategioita on käytetty enemmän ja käytetään yhä enenevässä määrin. Lisääntyvän vieraannuttamisen taustalla voi olla useita syitä, kuten suomalaisen kulttuurin lisääntynyt tunnettuus maailmalla, rikosromaanin genren vaatimukset tai muutokset kääntäjäyhteisön arvoissa. Tutkielman tulosten perusteella näyttää siltä, että ainakin muutoksia normeissa ja arvoissa on tapahtunut. Lisätutkimuksen avulla voitaisiin selvittää, pätevätkö tutkielman tulokset muihin romaaneihin ja niiden käännöksiin tai muihin genreihin käännettäessä suomesta englantiin. Lisätutkimus voisi nojautua laajempaan ja erilaisia tekstejä kattavaan aineistoon. Jatkotutkimus voisi myös sisältää kääntäjien haastatteluita tai kyselyitä kääntäjille. Näiden avulla voitaisiin saada lisäselvyyttä syistä heidän strategisille valinnoilleen. Asiasanat: Käännöskirjallisuus – kaunokirjallisuus Kääntäminen – suomen kieli – englannin kieli Kääntäminen – strategia Kääntäminen - normi
  • Koponen, Anni (2023)
    The so-called 2015 ‘European migrant crisis’ brought the systematic flaws of the Common European Asylum System to the forefront of public debate and the subject of sharing protection responsibilities has become one of the most divisive topics on the EU agenda in the past years. With prior attempts to allocate protection costs or asylum applications more fairly between the Member States, the lack of solidarity has previously dominated the debate around migration management. Announced in 2020, the European Commission’s New Pact on Migration and Asylum aims to reform the Union’s migration management by 2024. In this study, I analyze the Asylum and Migration Management Reform (AMMR), which is one of the New Pact’s legislative proposals. The significance of AMMR is in its attempt to replace the Dublin Regulation, which determines the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application. Based on this criteria of responsibility, certain Member States particularly on the Union’s borders became inundated with asylum claims as the first-entry countries back in 2015. Utilizing Ulrich Beck’s risk society theory as my framework, I examine the role of the ‘crisis’ in policymaking with an assumption that migration is constructed as a risk (policy problem) that requires measures of migration management (policy solution) in the examined proposal. By using Carol Bacchi’s What’s the Problem Represented to Be? (WPR) method, I analyze how migration and migration management are problematized in AMMR. This method is based on six interrelated questions that aim to answer: 1) what the ‘problem’ is represented to be, 2) what assumptions underlie this ‘problem’ representation, 3) how it came to be, 4) what is left unproblematic in it, 5) what effects are produced by it, and 6) where the ‘problem’ representation has been produced and how it could be challenged. Based on the analysis, I identify two ‘problem’ representations in the AMMR. There is a shift from the lack of solidarity to the lack of EU coordination ‘problem’ (1). With the assumption that there is political will to offer solidarity (Q2), the Commission’s role is to assess future situations of migratory pressure and coordinate support accordingly. With failed past attempts to re-define the criteria for determining responsibility, the move onto more choice-based solidarity measures is understandable (Q3). However, what is left unproblematic is whether the Member States will voluntarily provide a variety of solidarity measures, especially in the area of relocation of sharing costs (Q4). Because essential criteria for responsibility is preserved, we can expect future situations of migratory pressure in Member States on the Union’s borders and on popular migration routes (Q5). This dynamic will likely continue to polarize the subject of migration management. Without clear definitions for migratory pressure or expectations on sharing protection responsibilities, Member States are likely to disagree how to manage migration effectively (Q6). The lack of EU coordination ‘problem’ begins to widen the scope of migration management to external border protection, the fight against migrant smuggling, and forming partnerships with third countries for return and readmission of applicants. This in turn begins to shape migration as a risk (Q1), where irregular migration is presented to be an administrative burden to asylum systems. The focus on effective return procedure as a policy solution stems from the assumption that a significant number of applicants are not entitled to international protection (Q2), and insufficient return rates have been present in the Commission’s communications since the 2015 crisis (Q3). At the same time, there are varying recognition rates between Member States, appealed decisions, and a rise in more complex cases since 2015 (Q4). A general effect of this ‘problem’ representation is the growing suspicion towards applicants seeking international protection, particularly from countries of lower recognition rate (Q5). Unless protection standards are harmonized, an increase in the return of applicants could be called into question (Q6).
  • Pörsti, Elina (2018)
    The capability to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from somatic cells provides remarkable possibilities for regenerative medicine. However, prior to clinical applications the process of reprogramming should be optimized and carefully characterized. The purpose of this study was to get insight in reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency using CRISPR-dCas9 activator system (CRISPRa). CRISPRa is a RNA guided bacterial nuclease system that has been modified for gene expression control. The study had two subprojects. The aims of the first subproject were 1) to reprogram hNESCs to pluripotency with CRISPRa in 2D culture, 2) to determine the efficacy of reprogramming and 3) to study whether CRISPRa-mediated pluripotent reprogramming pathway involves a mesendoderm-resembling intermediate state. The aim of the second subproject was to explore the possibility of CRISPRa-mediated endogenous gene activation and reprogramming to pluripotency also in 3D cell cultures. I performed the reprogramming in 2D and 3D cell cultures by using a dCas9 activator to induce different combinations of endogenous pluripotency reprogramming factors OCT4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4), SOX2 (Sex determining region Y-box 2), NANOG, c-MYC, KLF4 (Krüppel-like factor 4) and LIN28. I analysed the results of the reprogramming at protein level, using alkaline phosphatase staining and immunocytochemistry, and at mRNA level, using qRT-PCR. The 2D reprogramming served as a proof-of-principle for reprogramming with CRISPRa. This study shows, that CRISPRa can be used to reprogram human neural stem cells to iPSC with different combinations of pluripotency reprogramming factors or by inducing a single master-regulator gene, OCT4. In addition, the reprogramming process was very efficient. I did not detect mesendodermal intermediate state in CRISPRa-mediated reprogramming to pluripotency, in contrast to published results from transgene- and small molecules-based reprogramming studies. Thus, this result suggests that the pathway leading to pluripotency differs between CRISPRa-mediated reprogramming and the two other reprogramming methods. CRISPRa can be used to initiate reprogramming also in 3D cell culture. However, in 3D cell culture the cells were not fully reprogrammed. Based on these findings, I postulate that CRISPRa serves as an alternative method for generating human iPSC. In addition, CRISPRa can be further developed into a platform for direct reprogramming of organoids for in vitro disease modelling in 3D.
  • Lohva, Henri (2016)
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a popular organism in the production of biofuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This is thanks to a good understanding of its metabolism, GRAS status and the ease of modification. Traditionally its genetic modification has been based on the use of selectable markers. Modifying multi gene pathways has required a sequential process consisting of multiple single gene disruptions together with marker recycling. Additionally, many industrial S. cerevisiae strains are polyploid and lack the same tools for their modification as laboratory strains. In this study we sought to develop CRISPR/Cas9 based genetic engineering method for the modification of industrial S. cerevisiae strains. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is based on the adaptive immunity system of bacteria. It makes use of the Cas9 endonuclease which produces double stranded DNA brake to any location determined by a gRNA molecule. This causes the activation of DNA repair mechanisms which can be utilized to for the genomic integration of a template DNA. This makes transformation events much more likely and thus enables producing multiple modifications at once and removes the need for the of use selectable markers. In our approach Cas9 and gRNA were transformed into the cell in a plasmid together with a separate template DNA molecule. We used this method to remove lyp1, ura3 and can1 genes from diploid and polyploid industrial S. cerevisiae strains multiple genes at a time. Simultaneously we evaluated the effect of the NHEJ repair mechanism on CRISPR/Cas9 by repeating the tests with a deletion strain missing the ku70 gene required by NHEJ. Finally the method was used for the metabolic engineering by integrating the five gene violacein metabolic pathway into two loci in a single transformation event. This study demonstrated the CRISPR/Cas9 method is well suited for the modification of industrial S. cerevisiae strains and is capable of modifying up to three loci at a time in a polyploid yeast strain.
  • Huhdanmäki, Tuukka (2021)
    CRISPR-Cas9 is one variant of newly emerging technologies utilizing targeted mutagenesis based on Cas family proteins and guide RNA that enable binding and modifying selected target sequence. The aim of the master’s thesis was to compare different methods of CRISPR-Cas9 induced gene editing in the genus Nicotiana and other secondary protocols necessary to identify successful mutations. PDS1 and PDS2 genes coding phytoene desaturase in plants were selected as target genes as mutant genotype produce visually identifiable photobleaching phenotype. CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complex mediated transformation uses separately produced Cas9 protein and guide RNA that when combined perform transient gene editing in cell. This method was planned to be used but Cas9 protein was challenging to produce in soluble form and final transformation was not achieved. This study suggests that acquiring ready-to-use Cas9 protein might be preferable choice when targeting only few transformations with CRISPR-Cas9 RNP-complex. Agrotransformation is well established method for genus Nicotiana and using Single Transcriptional Unit CRISPR-Cas9 system it is straightforward procedure from plasmid design to transformation. Successfully transformed plants were redeemed from transient agroinfiltration and stable agrotransformation experiments. Off-target mutations are possible and selective outbreeding may be needed. This method lacks the several advantages of CRISPR-Cas9 RNP-complex such as instant gene editing in cell, avoiding RNA interference and transformation over species boundaries, but is simple and functional in genus Nicotiana. Successful mutations were detected using commercial T7E1 and with natural CEL I endonuclease from celery extract. Celery extract can be used as cost-effective alternative to T7E1 for verifying or replicating previously confirmed results.
  • Mosalam, Mohamed (2021)
    The objectives of the study were to assess the efficiency of transient expression of sgRNA/Cas9 construct in Petunia V26, where sgRNA targeted a cytosine deaminase gene (CodA) that converts 5-fluorocytosine into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil. Disrupting CodA by transient expression of sgRNA/Cas9 introduced a conditional negative selection system that allowed plants with mutated CodA to regenerate on media containing 5-fluorocytosine. The single transcriptional unit vector pMOH2 was designed to carry two amplified sgRNAs guiding Cas9 targeting at HinfI cutting sites. The expression vector was transformed into Petunia V26 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pGV2260). Successful mutations were detected on 62.5 mg/L 5-fluorocytosine. Large numbers of in vitro shoots were regenerated from the transformed leaves on a modified MS-media containing 1 mg/L zeatin. The study revealed that transient expression of the sgRNA/Cas9 construct is efficient and can be used to target other genes in Petunia V26. pMOH2 targeted its sites successfully, and proved that CodA can be used as a conditional negative selection marker to detect cells with an edited genome.