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  • Lehto, Maria (2020)
    Helsinki Chronic Pain Index (HCPI) is a validated clinical metrology instrument used to measure canine chronic pain. In pain assessment, it is recommended to use validated instruments, and behavioural changes provide the best basis for pain measurement. A measuring instrument is valid when it does what it is intended to do. Validation can be done using many different methods. The aim of this study was to investigate which items of the HCPI are still useful and psychometrically test a new structure of the HCPI (HCPI-E3) after four new questions had been added to the test. The data consisted of 1140 internet-based questionnaire responses from dog owners. The study dogs were divided into different groups based on their reported amount of pain symptoms, pain medications, and other treatments to relieve pain. Based on the comparison of different items, five possible structures of the new HCPI were developed and tested with different statistical methods. Based on the initial item comparison, the “vocalization” item was deleted from the HCPI. Overall, the “ease in” locomotion items showed better criterion validity than the “willingness to” items. Both of the “jumping” items performed excellent compared to the other locomotion item pairs, as well as the new structure containing both “jumping” items and only the “ease in” items from the other locomotion items. Thus, this structure was chosen to be the best candidate for the new structure of the HCPI. Jumping is an easily assessed activity, which does not occur too frequently, possibly making it easier to measure the dog’s willingness to do it compared to gait changes (walking, trotting, and galloping). The HCPI-E3 is a reliable tool for canine chronic pain measurement; however, future validation in the form of repeatability and reliability are still needed.
  • Judström, Aili (2013)
    A class action is a procedural instrument where the traditional constellation of two party litigation is set aside. In a class action, a group is summoned and the group together pursues a lawsuit, normally aiming to receive a compensatory relief. Like any other civil law judgement, class actions decisions are injunctive, declaratory or compensatory. The Finnish Act on Class Actions entered into force in October 2007. The first memorandum of the Act was wide in scope and even allowed the opt-out system. The only restriction in applicability was that the case had to be a civil claim. Over the several years of law-drafting the Act went from liberal to restrict. Today the Act allows only the Consumer Ombudsman to have exclusive standing to bring forth a case on the behalf of numerous consumers. The ratio of the act was to ease the consumers’ access to court and through that, help consumers to gain compensation when hurt by a unlawful company practise. Six years in force, the Act remains unused. This thesis sets out to study why such an act exists in the Finnish legal system. When the Act on Class Action was drafted it met heavy resistance from the industry and commerce. Stakeholders not in favour of the proposals used the US class action as a deterrent when arguing against the introduction of class action in Finland. The stakeholders boldly mixed challenges in US litigation, such as punitive damages, contingency fees and frivolous lawsuits with the class action instrument and blamed it all on Rule 23 in FedRCP allowing the federal class action. Analysing class action from a law & economic point of view, it becomes evident that it is a procedural instrument with two major positive functions, deterrence and the reparative effect. The Act does however not reach these functions and should thus be amended. The Swedish model allows three different forms of class action - the private, the organisation and the public group action. The act allows all civil claims in general courts as well as environmental claims in special courts. The Swedish act is actively used and there are no signs of abusive litigation in Sweden. The Swedish Act resembles its US paragon, the big difference being that the US enforces the opt-out model. Finland should follow Sweden and dramatically widen the applicability of the Class Action Act.
  • Tse, Yu Tat (2018)
    The literature part of this thesis contains the review of development of portable gas chromatograph (GC) and its application in gas analysis. The scope includes portable capillary GC and chip-based GC. Gas chromatography is a separation technique based on different retention behavior of compounds in stationary phase. The use of portable GC enables chemists to carry out rapid on-site chemical analysis. Rapid, on-site analyses are valuable in fields such as air quality monitoring, emergency reaction and forensic application. Studies have shown that performance of portable GC analysis in these fields was as promising as conventional, bench-top GC analysis. The aims of portable GC development were mainly improved separation efficiency, faster analysis, greater portability, reduced power consumption, increased autonomous time and lower detection limit. Different components of portable GC are reviewed: they are separating channels/columns and stationary phases, temperature programming system, pre-concentrator, injector and detector. Semi-packed column and materials with great surface-area-to-volume ratio as stationary phase support were researched to increase surface area of retention. An improved separation efficiency was observed. Multi-channel capillary chips were fabricated to increase sample capacity of the column. Resistive heating was used in portable GC to provide high heating rate. This enables high efficiency separation in fast GC analysis. Efforts were made to reduce power consumption of the heating system to increase portable time. Using ambient air as the carrier gas eliminate the need of helium gas tank in the portable GC system. Researches were done to overcome the limitations of using ambient air. Vacuum-outlet GC technique was used to speed up the analysis. Air purification method was discussed to provide stable supply of clean air. Stability of stationary phase in ambient air was compared. A pre-concentrator is always used to lower the detection limit of gas analysis. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) devices were commonly used. Micro-fabricated pre-concentrators were designed to enrich the analyte on-line prior to sample injection. The type of adsorbent in pre-concentrator and methods to achieve selectivity were discussed. Miniaturized detectors reported in portable GC were reviewed. Changes in the detector design were made to enhance signal quality and sensitivity in various detectors. They were made very small and light to increase portability of the GC. At last, portable GCxGC system is also mentioned. GCxGC has higher separation power than one-dimensional GC system. It allows chemist to separate analytes from complicated matrixes. Pneumatic and thermal modulation that transfer analyte bands from column to column was described. The advantages of adaptive GCxGC were also explained. The experimental part of this thesis describes a standard gas generation system of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its use in VOCs quantitation with internal standard, using SPME arrow as the sampler. The standard generation system was based on diffusion of analyte vapour through a deactivated capillary out of a GC vial. The vapour was carried away by nitrogen gas then diluted in various mixing ratio with nitrogen gas. The standard gas generation system can produce gas standard from any compound with high vapour pressure. The concentration of gas standard generated was validated with liquid standard. After choosing the appropriate sampling time with SPME arrow, calibration curves were constructed with conventional GC-MS and portable capillary GC-MS. Internal standard, octanal in this experiment, was generated using similar method. At various dilution factor of VOC standard, the peak area of internal standard was similar despite fluctuations. It showed the mass of internal standard extracted on the SPME arrow was relatively constant in different points on the calibration curves. Calibration curves of the VOCs with internal standard showed an improved correlation coefficient compared to calibration curves of the same VOCs without internal standard. It showed the use of internal standard in the can compensate the errors during sampling procedures. For real sample analysis, VOCs emitted from lemon sample was analyzed using the system to estimate emission rate of VOCs from lemon sample. Possible add-ons to the system were also discussed to make the system portable and reduce the uncertainty arising from variation of temperature and humidity in air during air sampling.
  • Österinen, Kaisu (2016)
    This study looks at the way in which the good works inspired by religious motives are related to the secular understanding of development. The aim is to better understand how development workers with religious worldview define the concept of development and how their faith influences their thinking. Faith is understood as the source of values based on which the ideas of development are shaped. The task is approached by interviewing the Finnish staff members of a Pentecostal development organization, Fida International. Their staff members’ understanding of development is studied. Development as a religious concept is formulated based on the interviews. The background chapters give the context of the study by introducing the debate and connections between the concepts of religion and development. Also an introduction of the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum is provided since in this study it represents the secular understanding of development. The key concepts of the approach: functionings, agency and development are used to analyze how religious values influence the understanding of development. Chapter four introduces the research material, the methods and the process of analysis. The data consist of 16 interviews carried out in East Africa by the author in the spring of 2016. In chapter five the results of the analysis are presented. The valued functionings that emerge from faith were: fulfilling God’s call, living out one’s faith, deliverance and trusting God, spiritual growth, freedom from guilt through God’s forgiveness and mercy, and achieving balance and harmony. The results are brought together to formulate a definition of development as religious concept. Chapter six reflects on the results in relation to the literature focusing on the religious perception of development. The elements that faith brings to the secular understanding of development are intertwined around the holistic approach in which the economic, political, social and spiritual dimensions of development cannot be viewed separately. Therefore, the relationship between God and the human becomes central. The human finds his ultimate purpose and thus the aim of development within God in his Kingdom. Therefore, faith widens the time perspective of development from this life into eternity. According to the interviewees of the study God has called the human to love him by loving his neighbors. Solidarity, equality and just world become the aim of development within the time frame of this life. To reach there, to have Shalom in this life already, was seen as too idealistic. Therefore, the aim of the man-made development process within this time frame emerges with the ultimate aim of development, the life in God’s Kingdom in the eternity.
  • Efraimsson, Aino (2017)
    This thesis explores the way in which three development organisations conceptualise urban development in the context of Yangon, the former capital of Myanmar. This thesis uses a qualitative research approach, combining theory and method in line with Carol Bacchi’s “what is the problem represented to be” approach. It relies on data gathered through interviews carried out with representatives of the three selected organisations, but also on an analysis of key documents produced by these same organisations. The rationale for choosing this type of method has been to explore more thoroughly the way in which these organisations discuss urbanisation in the context of Myanmar, the language used and the meaning constructed. The thesis is influenced by poststructuralist thinkers who underline that language provides us not only with information about our world, but also shapes the way we see and give meaning to our world. The three organisations present three central problem ‘representations’, namely the lack of capacity, poor governance and lack of good policy, and well as failing infrastructure. These problems were conceptualised and understood in different ways by the organisations, but were intimately linked to the interventions they were carrying out and the way in which they portrayed their own role in relation to Yangon’s urban development. The material shows how the process of posing of certain issues as problems is central to the process of legitimising a development intervention and to presenting development actors as ‘experts’. The thesis explored the underlying assumptions and ‘silences’ within the policies and problem representations of the organisations through an investigation of binaries, concepts and categories. Under the overarching ‘development’ binary of developed/underdeveloped, the central binary in the material was experienced/inexperienced, which allowed the experience and expertise of international experts to be valued higher than those of the local authorities. One of the key assumptions found is that the policies and interventions of the organisations rely on a technocratic understanding of development in which modern expertise in engineering, technology and social science is believed to bring about socio-economic progress. Urban planning is presented as a process of providing rational solutions, silencing the complex socio-economic, political and cultural reality that shapes the way in which cities develop. The way that the organisations talk about and understand urban development in Yangon set limits on what is possible to think, write or speak on the subject. This leaves certain aspects, and people out of the frame, as well as reproduces power asymmetries within development.
  • Pirinen, Riku (2023)
    In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in the application of machine learning (ML) within the medical field. This development has been made possible by the emergence of high-performance modern computers. Deep learning (DL), a subfield of ML, uses advanced computer algorithms to solve complex tasks that would normally require the cognitive capabilities of the human brain. Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumor excluding metastases. They are usually diagnosed on head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Meningiomas can also be visible on computed tomography (CT) although detecting them on non-contrast enhanced head CT is challenging. Notably, CT is more readily available than MRI and head CTs far outnumber head MRIs. This means many meningiomas are not detected on head CT. DL has shown capability in tasks that are difficult for humans, and we hypothesized that a DL algorithm could detect meningiomas from non-contrast-enhanced head CTs. In this thesis, we developed a deep learning algorithm for the detection of clinically relevant meningiomas in non-contrast-enhanced head CT scans and assessed its performance on previously unseen data. All images were from patients who required neurosurgical intervention for the treatment of their meningiomas. They were sourced from the Helsinki University Hospital (HUH) Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), a database of over 21 million imaging studies. We found that our algorithm has a good positive predictive value in detecting meningiomas. In other words, the algorithm rarely predicts abnormal findings in normal head CT scans. On the other hand, a positive prediction is likely to be correct. Such an algorithm, in theory, could aid radiologists and clinicians in image interpretation especially during busy on-call hours as it gives few false alerts.
  • Juntunen, Maiju (2020)
    Cancer immunotherapy refers to therapy strategies that utilise the mechanisms of the immune system to treat cancer patients. The benefits of the approach include the possibility for specific targeting and utilisation of the host immune system. The treatment methods include cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses (OVs), cell-based immunotherapies and antibodies. The interplay between the cancer and the immune system has been observed crucial for the progress of the cancer and the success of immunotherapies. An immune inflamed tumour microenvironment has been observed beneficial for the success of several therapy methods. Many immunotherapy methods rely on detecting tumour specific antigens that are used to guide the therapy agent to the target site. This strategy poses challenges when considering tumour immune evasion mechanisms, which can cause downregulation of target antigens, and heterogeneity of tumour cells and patients. OVs have the advantage of not requiring predetermined target structures to exert their effect to the tumour cells. They cause direct tumour cell lysis and induce immune responses, and may be modified to express additional genes, including immunostimulatory agents. However, virus-related immunosuppressive mechanisms and a rapid viral clearance may limit their effects. A Western Reserve (WR) Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a highly oncolytic virus strain but the virus has been observed to suppress the function of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate adenosine monophosphate synthase – stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS STING) innate immune pathway which has been shown to have a significant role in anti-tumour immune responses. The aim of this study was to create a WR VACV encoding a dominantly active (D A) STING and to determine whether the virus is capable of activating the cGAS STING pathway. The effects were compared to a corresponding virus vvdd tdTomato that does not have the STING encoding gene. The pathogenicity of viruses was controlled by a double deletion of the thymidine kinase and vaccinia growth factor genes which restricts the virus replication to tumour cells. Transgene fragments were cloned from template plasmids by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and joined together in a Gibson Assembly (GA) reaction to form a STING-P2A-eGFP gene insert. The insert was attached to a shuttle vector pSC65-tdTomato by restriction enzyme digestion, ligation and transformation in Escherichia coli. The correct transgene plasmid construct was verified by Sanger sequencing and PCRs. The transgene was inserted to a modified WR VACV vvdd-tdTomato-hDAI by a homologous recombination. The newly created VVdd STING-P2A-eGFP virus was purified by plaque purification. The STING protein expression was studied by an immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay. The immune signalling pathway activation was examined by testing nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation in RAW-Blue cells and dendritic cell activation and maturation in JAWS II cells. The cell viability after iinfection was studied with four cell lines; A549, B16-F10, HEK293 and MB49. The D-A STING expressing virus was produced successfully. The ICC experiment verified the capability of the VVdd STING-P2A eGFP to produce the STING protein in the infected cells. The preliminary findings indicate that the VVdd STING-P2A-eGFP virus activates the NF-κB signalling in the RAW-Blue cells and that the activation is dependent on the STING expression. The activation level is relative to the infection concentration at MOI range 0,001 to 0,1. The findings suggest that the VVdd-STING-eGFP virus can induce innate immune signalling via the STING pathway. The reference virus did not activate the signalling. The in vitro experiments also indicated that the STING virus may induce DC activation and maturation. We observed a trend of CD86 and CD40 expression upregulation on the JAWS II DCs. The effects to the cell viability were inconclusive. More studies should be conducted to verify the results. The effects of the virus should be studied in more advanced cancer models that take into account the complexity of the immune system. These preliminary results indicate the that the VVdd-STING-P2A-eGFP virus could stimulate the immune signalling through the STING pathway.
  • Syvähuoko, Jenna (2015)
    The literature review focused on the chemical properties of Fusarium mycotoxins and their masked forms, analytical methods for their determination and the toxicological and legislative aspects. In the experimental study, a multi-method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of several Fusarium toxins and their masked forms in barley, oats and wheat using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. The simple “dilute-and-shoot” sample preparation procedure was applied, where the extraction was performed with a mixture of acetonitrile, water and acetic acid (79:20:1, v/v/v). Moreover, the aim was to obtain new data on the occurrence of the masked mycotoxins in barley, oats and wheat by analysing 95 cereal grain samples. The type A trichothecenes T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2 and HT-2) and the type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) as well as zearalenone (ZEN), together with 11 masked forms of them, were included based on their importance for the food safety in northern Europe. The analytes were separated on a reversed-phase column and detected in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Better peak shapes for the early eluting compounds and shorter analysis time were obtained with acetonitrile than methanol as the organic phase, thus it was chosen for the method. The method was validated according to the criteria set in the legislation. The limits of quantification varied from 0.3 to 15.9 ?g/kg. The recoveries were 92?115%, thus being within the tolerable ranges established in the legislation. The inter-day precisions (4?27%) were under the maximum permissible values. Therefore, the method proved to fit for the purpose. In this study, occurrence data on the masked mycotoxins in Finland were obtained for the first time. The presence of ZEN-16-glucoside (ZEN-16-G) and NIV-3-glucoside (NIV-3-G) were reported for the first time worldwide in some of the cereals. The most frequently found toxins were DON, NIV and HT-2. All of the masked mycotoxins included in the method were determined, the most common being DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), HT-2-glucoside (HT-2-G) and NIV-3-G.
  • Uoti, Arttu (2021)
    Background and objectives: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and resistance to current treatments demands the continuous development of novel cancer therapies. Cancer immunotherapy aims to induce anticancer immune responses that selectively target cancer cells. Viruses can also be harnessed to elicit tumor-specific immune responses and to improve the response rates of other concomitant cancer therapies. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel viral vector-based cancer vaccine for intratumoral immunotherapy. By using the previously developed PeptiENV cancer vaccine platform, the vector viruses were coated with cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) sequence-containing tumor peptides in an attempt to further drive the immune responses elicited by the vector against cancer cells. The efficacy of the PeptiENV complex as a cancer vaccine was assessed by following its effects on tumor growth and the development of local and systemic antitumor immune responses. Methods: The PeptiENV complex formation was assessed by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Dendritic cell (DC) activation and antigen cross-presentation were studied using the murine JAWS II dendritic cell line. The development of cellular immune responses against tumor antigens was first studied by immunizing mice with the PeptiENV complex. The antitumor efficacy and immunity of intratumoral PeptiENV administration were then studied using the murine melanoma models B16.OVA and B16.F10.9/K1. In addition to intratumoral PeptiENV treatment, some of the B16.F10.9/K1-implanted mice were also treated with an anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) to study the PeptiENV complex as a biological adjuvant for ICIs. Results: The SPR analysis confirmed that CPP-containing peptides can be stably anchored onto the viral envelope of the viral vector. The in vitro results showed that the PeptiENV complex does not hamper the presentation of antigens at the surface of DCs. Additionally, the viral vector was found to activate DCs seen as a change in the cells’ morphology and surface protein expression. Immunizing mice with the PeptiENV complex induced a robust antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell response. Upon intratumoral administration in vivo, the PeptiENV cancer vaccine was not capable of inducing tumor growth control against B16.OVA melanoma, although it did still elicit robust systemic and local antitumor T cell responses. In the treatment of B16.F10.9/K1 melanoma, however, the PeptiENV complex induced efficient tumor growth control, which resulted in a significant survival benefit. Additionally, co-administration of anti-PD-1 resulted in an additive therapeutic effect. Discussion and conclusions: The present study describes a novel, highly immunogenic viral vector-based cancer vaccine that has the potential to be used as an adjuvant treatment for ICI therapy. Subsequent studies could be conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying the antitumor efficacy of the cancer vaccine complex. Moreover, this novel PeptiENV complex could also be further developed as an infectious disease vaccine platform against emerging pandemics. However, the effects of pre-existing antiviral immunity on the efficacy of the cancer vaccine should be explored in future studies.
  • Walsh, Hanna (2020)
    Introduction Kenya has recently acquired lower-middle income country status and is facing the triple burden of malnutrition. There is a shortage of data on food intake habits of children and adolescents especially in the rapidly changing urban environments. To be able to reliably measure food intake, one must be able to accurately estimate food portion sizes. Children’s ability to recall portion sizes consumed can vary widely. When a photographic food atlas designed for children with applicable portions is used, it can improve children’s estimation of food portions. Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a photographic food atlas to be used in assessing portion sizes among Kenyan adolescents aged 9-14 years living in urban areas, to support a quantitative 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The second aim was to assess the usability of the atlas amongst 9-14-year-olds and professionals working in the field of nutrition. Methodology A steering group of Finnish and Kenyan nutritionists was formed to oversee the development of the atlas. Literature and other official documents were reviewed to identify the most commonly consumed foods among 9-14-year-old Kenyans. To obtain weighed portion size data, participants were recruited in Nairobi sub-counties Embakasi Central and Langata to represent low- and middle-socioeconomic status respectively. Twenty-one participants aged 9-14 years participated in the weighing of portion sizes, food portions from street markets were also weighed. Three portion sizes (A, B, C) were calculated for most of the 88 food items in the photographic food atlas. Portion B was the average of all weighed portion sizes, portion A was half of B, and portion C was one and half times B. Cooking demonstrations were arranged with the families of participants and the food portions were weighed out and photographed. A photographic food atlas was compiled, and its usability was tested amongst eight adolescents and four nutrition professionals. The usability survey consisted of Likert scale and open-end questions to ascertain acceptability of the atlas. Verbal feedback and observations were also recorded. Results Based on the usability survey, the photographic food atlas received the Usability Score of “OK” and “Good” from adolescents and nutrition professionals respectively. All eight adolescents agreed that the atlas helped them recall portion sizes, but half disagreed and one was unsure whether they could use the atlas on their own. All four professionals agreed they would use the atlas in their work, but all found the quality of photographs poor. Two adolescents disagreed when asked if the portion sizes were small enough and one disagreed when asked if the portion sizes were large enough. However, all professionals agreed that portion sizes were reasonable for the age group. Professionals gave verbal suggestions on improvements, for example, which foods were missing, how to adjust layout as well as the shapes of portion sizes. Conclusion An atlas consisting of 88 most commonly consumed Kenyan foods was developed based on weighed portion sizes of 9-14-year-old Kenyans. The shapes of portion sizes as well as range of portion sizes were crucial for its usability. Poor picture quality hampered recognition of pictures. Clear instructions and explanation of the purpose of the atlas were crucial. A second version of the atlas was developed based on the feedback. The updated atlas, including 173 food items, was used in a cross-sectional study in Nairobi. Further research is recommended to validate the photographic food atlas in order to identify the possible bias it may introduce to portion size estimation.
  • Sarvela, Konsta (2020)
    The purpose of this thesis was to design, build and test a system, which is capable of measuring in real time simple quantities influencing on tire-soil contact of agricultural tractors mobility. The measuring equipment is based on acceleration and distance sensors connected to the Arduino Uno microcontroller. The tractor’s CAN bus was logged and the data was saved using a CAN bus card connected to a Raspberry Pi minicomputer. The sensors were calibrated, and their sensitivity checked before performing the experiments while driving in the field. Accelerometers were placed on top of the rear axle of the tractor at both ends in housings printed for them and distance sensors were mounted behind the rear axle. All sensors were logged by using Raspberry's Raspbian operating system with a python program. The Raspberry was chosen as a computer because of its demanding low space, low cost, and versatility of interfaces. The properties of the field were monitored by monthly penetrometer measurements as well as SoilScout sensors embedded in the ground, which indicated the moisture and temperature of the ground at that depth in real time. The purpose of this was to find out the changes in the field during the growing season, which would also affect the tractor's mobility. The measurement were carried out successfully and the result were considered to be reliable and provide many other opportunities for the future. The results clearly indicated the factors influencing the tractor’s mobility and the different stages of the tillage could be recognized. Future challenges remain the filtering of large amounts of data and the application of measuring equipment in further research. The measurement equipment developed in the work is well suited for its purpose in terms of measurement accuracy and economical affordability. In the future, better accuracy could be achieved with more accurate measuring devices as well as data obtained from this work.
  • Törnroos, Tatu (2021)
    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of the most important legumes in the world due to its high nutritional content. Its nutritional value is, however, hindered by different anti-nutrients, such as phytic acid (PA), which can lower the bioavailability of minerals and proteins. PA is a nutritionally significant compound found in many plant materials, such as cereals and legumes. PA is myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (IP6) by chemical nomenclature. Measurement of PA is challenging, due to its high charges and its low content, amongst other factors. The primary aim in the thesis was to create an accurate, selective, and sensitive UPLC-QTof-ESI-MS method for quantification of PA from legumes, cereals, and other plant materials. The secondary objective was to determine PA content in raw, fermented and phytase-treated white cowpea flour and investigate the effectiveness of the processing methods on PA hydrolysis. PA content in white cowpea has been previously determined with methods lacking the capability to directly measure only PA content, without also adding in the concentration of smaller inositol phosphates (InsP) or other phosphorus containing compounds. Therefore, the presumption was that the measured PA concentration should be lower when using the selective UPLC-QTof-ESI-MS method. Besides white cowpea flour, the concentration of PA in red cowpea, wheat bran, sorghum, wheat fraction and rapeseed protein concentrate flours was also measured to investigate if the method works for other plant matrices as well. The sample preparation method consisted of two-hour extraction in 0.5 M HCl, a neutralization step, lyophilization, reconstitution with 5% MeOH and addition of adenosine 5′-monophosphate monohydrate (AMP) as internal standard. The samples were then analyzed with UPLC-QTof-ESI-MS, with electrospray ionization on negative ion mode (ESI-). The PA quantification method had excellent precision, selectivity, repeatability, and linearity (R2 = 0.991). Accuracy was good and the recovery of 100% resulted in a high level of trueness. The LoD was determined as 3.22 µg/mL but could be possibly lowered. The PA content in white cowpea flour was 5.91 mg/g dry weight. As was presumed, this result was lower than previously reported in literature. The method was also relatively suitable for the other plant samples. However, wheat fraction, rapeseed protein concentrate, and sorghum flours gave unexpected results. In the fermented sample the PA content was 3.30 mg/g and in the enzyme-treated 0.09 mg/g (or 12.4 µg/mL). However, the fermentation and enzymatic treatments did not reduce the PA concentration under the threshold of <3.3 µg/mL, where iron cation chelation still strongly takes place. The processing method could be improved by increasing the phytase dosage or increasing the reaction times to achieve higher hydrolysis of PA.
  • Aalto, Aleksi Jeremias (2017)
    Geologic knowledge is often inferred from heterogeneous and sparse datasets. Thus, integrating disparate data is one of the essential phases in geologic research. Integrating geologic and geophysical observations and models is typically performed using proprietary modeling software. The methods for integrating data often utilise concepts based on the relational model for data. The relational model provides the theoretical basis for designing data management systems where the consistency of data is ensured. In this study, the relational model was used for geologic and geophysical data by designing a data model for integrating reflection seismic data from the Finnish Reflection Experiment together with chosen geophysical and geologic data. The data model was implemented in a relational database management system and the data is handled in a manner that ensures the internal and referential consistency of the data. A web GIS application was designed and implemented to visualise the Finnish Reflection Experiment data together with other relevant datasets. The application utilises a service-oriented architecture, where external services providing data or features are utilised to enhance the capabilities of the application. The external services are accessed using widely standardised web technologies and thus it is easy to extend or alter the datasets used in the application. The web GIS application makes it possible to visualise Finnish Reflection Experiment data together with other data using any device with a web browser. The web GIS application has been published as a part of the OpenFIRE service, running in the AVAA portal of the Open Science and Research Initiative. In the OpenFIRE service, additional download service has been designed for the application in collaboration with the AVAA team of the Open Science and Resarch Initiative. In the service, the web GIS application can be used to browse Finnish Reflection Experiment data in a proper context together with other datasets. By modeling data it was possible to improve the quality of the national geologic data repository from which data was used in the web GIS application. The data management processes of the national data repository are recommended to be reviewed using the data management theory methods discussed in this study. Considering that there are currently various ongoing data and research infrastructure programmes without many prototypes in production, the methods discussed and utilised in this study could be considered as examples of design and implementation of a domain-specific data visualisation service and data management practices, especially in the fields of bedrock geology and solid Earth geophysics.
  • Liu, Jianyin (2022)
    Cytokine release syndrome is a severe systematic inflammatory disease that can be triggered upon pharmaceuticals intake. Evaluating the potential risk levels of novel therapeutics with an optimal assay is therefore essential. In this study, we tried to set up and validate a cytokine release assay from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for its application in nonclinical immunotoxicity assessments. Fresh PBMCs were isolated from buffy coats obtained from 11 healthy donors of different characteristics. Freshly isolated PBMCs were treated with LPS, positive control antibodies (anti-CD28, anti-CD3) and their corresponding isotypes (negative control antibodies) in both aqueous and solid formats to assess their abilities to induce cytokine release. Similarly, cryopreserved frozen PBMCs were also incubated with LPS, the positive control antibodies and the negative control antibodies, and compared their cytokine releasing capacities with freshly isolated PBMCs. A nine-cytokine panel (IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα, IL-12) was screened to select four cytokines (IFNγ, IL-2, IL-6, TNFα) in the following experimental setup. Freshly isolated PBMCs appeared to have higher sensitivity in response to the treatments as shown by the higher level of cytokine release. However, similar trends of cytokine release were observed between freshly isolated and frozen PBMCs in both aqueous and solid assay formats. LPS and anti-CD3 strongly induced cytokine release in all donors. Conversely, anti-CD28 induced cytokine release in some, but not all donors, possibly due to donor specificity. In summary, we have successfully developed and optimized a cytokine release assay, and it can be used to test the potential risk of immune-modulating drug candidate in the preclinical safety studies.
  • Nissinen, Tuomas (2015)
    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is an ion beam analysis technique. In PIXE, atoms in the sample are excited when the sample is bombarded with protons, alpha particles, or heavy ions. X-rays are emitted when atoms in the sample de-excite. Each element has unique characteristic x-rays. In the spectrum, area of each peak is proportional to the elemental concentration in the sample. The existing PIXE set-up in the accelerator laboratory was upgraded to external beam PIXE to do in air measurements, because of need to analyse large amounts of archaeological samples. Different exit window set-ups were constructed and tested. The goal was to get maximum beam spot area with minimum beam energy loss in the exit window. The set-up enables the use of 100 nm thick Si3N4 exit window membranes and 4-mm-diameter beam spot area. For the measurements in the current work, a 500 nm thick Si3N4 membrane was used due to its higher durability. Current measurement can be difficult when doing PIXE in air because of ionization of air molecules in the beam's path and charge collection differences at sample surface. The set-up utilizes a beam profile monitor (BPM), which measures the current in vacuum prior to the exit window, and therefore is not affected by the current measurement difficulties in air. Along with the BPM, a current integrator was also used in the current measurements. Current integrator was used to collect the charge from the sample holder. These two methods together provided reliable way of current measurement. With the developed set-up, 166 pottery pieces from the neolithic stone age from different parts of Finland, Sweden and Estonia, were measured to determine their elemental concentrations for provenance research. AXIL software was used to analyse the spectra.
  • Yanyan, Yan (2011)
    During 1990 to 2009, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI henceforth) in Finland has fluctuated greatly. This paper focused on analyzing the overall development and basic characteristics of Foreign Direct Investment in Finland, covering the period from 1990 to present. By comparing FDI in Finland with FDI in other countries, the picture of Finland’s FDI position in the world market is clearer. A lot of statistical data, tables and figures are used to describe the trend of Foreign Direct Investment in Finland. All the data used in this study were obtained from Statistics Finland, UNCTAD, OECD, World Bank and International Labor Office, Investment map website and etc. It is also found that there is a big, long-lasting and increasing imbalance of the inward FDI and outward FDI in Finland, the performance of outward FDI is stronger than the inward FDI in Finland. Finland’s position of FDI in the world is rather modest. And based on existing theories, I tried to analyze the factors that might determine the size of the inflows of FDI in Finland. The econometric model of my thesis is based on time series data ranging from 1990 to 2007. A Log linear regression model is adopted to analyze the impact of each variable. The regression results showed that Labor Cost and Investment in Education have a negative influence on the FDI inflows into Finland. Too high labor cost is the main impediment of FDI in Finland, explaining the relative small size of FDI inflows into Finland. GDP and Economy openness have a significant positive impact on the inflows of FDI into Finland; other variables do not emerge as significant factor in affecting the size of FDI inflows in Finland as expected. Meanwhile, the impacts of the most recent financial and economic crisis on FDI in the world and in Finland are discussed as well. FDI inflows worldwide and in Finland have suffered from a big setback from the 2008 global crisis. The economic crisis has undoubtedly significant negative influence on the FDI flows in the world and in Finland. Nevertheless, apart from the negative impact, the crisis itself also brings in chances for policymakers to implement more efficient policies in order to create a pro-business and pro-investment climate for the recovery of FDI inflows. . The correspondent policies and measures aiming to accelerate the recovery of the falling FDI were discussed correspondently.
  • Korhonen, Panu (2014)
    Finland is the northernmost cultivation area in the world and the selection of forage grass species is mostly limited by long winters and short growing seasons. Forage grasses are usually grown as mixtures of species and produced intensively for silage. The grass species most commonly used in mixtures are timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.) which are both winter hardy species. As the climate changes in the future, more southern and more productive species like perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and festulolium (Festuca sp. x Lolium sp.) may become more usable. The duration of snow cover has been predicted to shorten to 46 days in southern Finland by year 2050 (compared with 98 days at present). The autumns, when plants develop their tolerance against winter stresses, are also predicted to become warmer in the future. Changes in winter weather may also increase the frequency of problems such as plant exposure to freezing temperatures, associated with decreased snow cover and ice encasement due to fluctuating winter temperatures. This study presents the results of experiments carried out in Helsinki (Finland) between years 2009–2013. The experiments were done to assess the freezing tolerances and vernalisation of forage grasses and cereals hardened under field conditions. The vernalisation of plants was detected in all species as a decrease in days to heading during the vernalisation period. Perennial ryegrass and meadow fescue started flowering after the vernalisation was fulfilled during December-January. Winter cereals had already vernalised already in November. Hardening periods started at their earliest in the beginning of October. However, a deeper freezing tolerance developed during December in 2009–2010 and 2011–2012. During the winters of 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 hardening periods were long and hardening-induced temperature sums were the highest. During these winters the freezing tolerances were better in all species than during the other two winters.
  • Kettunen, Ilkka Henrikki (2022)
    Aim of this study is to develop biogeochemical exploration methods for cobalt. Several different samples were collected from study area, analyzed, and compared to each other. This study took place at Rautio village at North Ostrobothnia and more accurately over the Jouhineva mineralization. Jouhineva is well-known high-grade cobalt-copper-gold mineralization. Elements examined in this study are cobalt, copper, arsenic, zinc, selenium, and cadmium. Samples were collected from three different study profiles from the area. From these three profiles samples collected are: soil, pine, lingonberry, birch, rowan, and juniper. Water samples were collected around the study area from every location possible. Soil samples were analyzed with four different methods: Ionic leaching, aqua regia, weak leaching and pXRF. Ionic leaching and aqua regia had both elevated concentrations of cobalt, but in different locations depending on study profile. Ionic leaching detects rising ions from the ore and therefore elevated concentrations are found at different locations compared to aqua regia. Aqua regia results proved how different orientation of study profile, direction of the ore and glacial flow can affect to the anomalies of elemental concentration. Profile-2 was oriented differently to ore and glacial flow than Profile-1, and therefore elevated concentrations of cobalt and copper were not drifted away from the ore on Profile-2 like they were on Profile-1. Aqua regia and pXRF have very similar copper, arsenic and zinc results. Pine and lingonberry turn out to be the most promising plant species applied for cobalt exploration, and rowan appears to be most suitable for copper exploration. Lower detection limit could significantly improve pine analyses as exploration method and more extensive sampling could remove some of the uncertainties about the method. Lingonberry samples have elevated concentration of copper and arsenic. Birch and juniper produced somewhat unclear results. Despite this, cobalt and copper concentrations in birch leaves were elevated when compared to concentrations found in other studies. In addition to this birch is suitable for arsenic exploration. Juniper had elevated copper concentration in the study area compared to other studies. Water samples collected from the Jouhineva area yielded concentrations of cobalt, copper and arsenic that were above the average concentration in the Kalajoki area waters. Copper and arsenic were above the average concentration of the Kalajoki area in every sample collected from the study area. Cobalt was above the average concentration in all samples that were not collected directly from the pond formed in the old test mine. Zinc concentration was below the average limit in all samples collected from the area. Zinc concentration in the water samples collected from the pond is significantly lower compared to the other samples collected from the area.
  • Palsola, Mira (2022)
    African crops are sustainable and healthy alternative ingredients for potential use in various gluten-free products among traditional African foods. In this thesis maise-based, gluten-free crackers with 50% cereal (amaranth, sorghum and teff) and 50% and 75% legume (Bambara groundnut and cowpea) replacements were produced, and their baking performance and technological properties were examined. The effect of sorghum and cowpea flour's bioprocessing and mechanical raw material modifications on cracker technological and sensory properties was studied. The thesis aimed to solve whether maise and African crop flours could be used in gluten-free crackers and how would they affect nutritional values, baking performance and technological and sensory properties in gluten-free crackers. The nutritional calculations indicated that African crop replacement increased fibre content at least by 2.4% and protein by 1.9 E% compared to 100% maise cracker. Crop replacements improved the dough elasticity and bakability and darkened the cracker surface. African crops and higher protein content increased cracker hardness and improved the rising ability. The highest hardness rate was measured with protein fractionated cowpea (31.55 ± 3.17 N, maise 4.02 ± 1.79%) and puffiness with Bambara groundnut 75% (43.57 ± 3.29%, maise 21.93 ± 0.002%). Raw material modifications changed the sensory profile of sorghum and cowpea crackers significantly by decreasing graininess in sorghum and beaniness in cowpea.